SdKusht

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014

♠ Original name ♣ Egypt - Kushite Period ♥ Kingdom of Kush.[1]

♠ Alternative names ♣ 25th Dynasty; Ethiopian Dynasty; Kingdom of Napata; Kush; Cush; Kushite Kingdom; Kush Empire; Kushite Empire ♥ Ethiopian Dynasty is a term from French historiographical tradition. Not to be confused with modern Ethiopia. [2]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 663 BCE ♥ Taharqa (690-664 BCE). [3] Also date of peak territory prior to the capture of Thebes by the Neo-Assyrian Empire.


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 747-656 BCE ♥

"Table 1. The chronology of the cultures on the Middle Nile, ninth century BC to sixteenth century AD." [4]

Kushite, Napatan phase, 9th-4th BCE
Kushite, Meroitic phase, 4th BCE - 4th CE
Post-Meroitic, Post-pyramidal Meroitic phase, 4th - 6th CE (below 3rd cataract)
X-Group, Ballana culture phase, 4th - 6th CE (between 1st and 3rd cataract)
Christian, Transitional phase, 550-600 CE

"Kushite rule in Thebes lasted from around 750 BC until the transfer of power to Psamtik I marked by the arrival of the Saite princess Nitocris to be adopted by Amenirdis II in 656 BC."[5]

Kingdom of Meroe begins 591 BCE.

Kushite rule 747-664 BCE [6]

"Kushites still acknowledged in Upper Egypt until 656 BCE." [7]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ confederated state ♥ [8]

"The Double Kingdom may therefore be credited with some form of 'nominal unity' across a considerable territory."[9]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Egypt - Thebes-Libyan Period ♥ This could in future be changed for the short Hermopolis period in Upper Egypt.
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Neo-Assyrian Empire ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Nubia ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [150,000-250,000] ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Napata; Memphis; Napata; Meroe ♥ Napata: 800-716 BCE; Memphis: 716-664 BCE; Napata: 664-591 BCE; Meroe: 591-300 BCE

Capital began at Napata at the foot of the sacred Gebel Barkal mountain. [10] The Kushite ruler of Egypt was crowned in Napata.[11]

In c716 BCE Shabaka moved the capital and royal residence from Napata to Memphis [12] (or Thebes?[13]).

Memphis was the capital of the immediate successors of Peye [14] possibly until Taharqa (690-664 BCE).

The capital was at Napata when the city was raided in 591 BCE. Capital moved to Meroe under Shandi. [15][16]

Butana was an administrative city.[17]

"a stele from Kawa records that Taharqo was crowned at Memphis, and Shabaqo, Shabitqo, and Taharqo are all known to have carried out building works there. This made excellent political sense (Tanis being too remote geographically to serve as the focus for a united Egypt), but there were also sound ideological reasons for boosting the importance of the Memphite area, for in this way the Kushite pharaohs could associate themselves directly with the great rulers of the Old Kingdom." [18]

Memphis became the chief royal residence. [19]

♠ Language ♣ Merotic; Egyptian ♥ Egyptianized professional class [20][21] Kushite language. Expressed first in Egyptian hieroglyphs, then Kushite hieroglyphs, then Kushite cursive writing. [22]

General Description

Towards the end of the preceding Thebes-Libyan period, the northern reaches of the Nile River were invaded by Amun-worshipping Kushites from the south who had built up a strong state based in Napata, in the Sudan, at the foot of Gebel Barkal mountain.[23] The first Kushite ruler of Egypt, Piye, was crowned in Napata;[24] this remained the capital of the Kushite Empire until c. 716 BCE, when the entire Nile Valley up to the delta was acquired under Shabaka,[25] who then moved the capital and royal residence from Napata to Memphis in order to emphasize the foreign dynasty's respect for traditional Egyptian customs.[26][27] Kushite rule of Egypt (the Twenty-fifth Dynasty) occurred within an extremely complex political climate that has been the cause of much debate among historians. The Twenty-third Dynasty of the preceding Thebes-Libyan Period survived throughout this period, only to be toppled by the first ruler of the Saite Kingdom, Psamtek I (r. 664-610; Twenty-sixth Dynasty). The Egyptologist Jeremy Pope concludes that the 'Double Kingdom' (Kushite and Libyo-Egyptian) had some form of 'nominal unity' across a large territory.[28]

Population and political organization

Scholars debate the extent to which there was a centralized bureaucracy in Egypt under Kushite rule. In Lower Nubia, the Kushite king may have exercised power through 'invisible elites' such as merchants, pastoralists, and local potentates - 'a striking contrast with the bureaucratic formalization of Upper Egypt'.[29] Archaeologist Robert Morkot has argued that the Twenty-fifth Dynasty kept the Egyptian administrative system largely unchanged, making only relatively minor alterations such as appointing new individuals or families to official positions.[30] However, Jeremy Pope believes that we cannot use New Kingdom analogies to draw conclusions about Kushite governing principles, and that 'central authority and administration had disappeared' in this period.[31] The Egyptian position of vizier probably continued but was 'deprived of effective power'.[32]
What is not in doubt is that the Kushite king was a powerful military ruler and, in the Libyan tradition, likely made marriage alliances with the elite throughout Egypt.[33] In general, Kushite rule drew its power from military capacity and the day-to-day workings of local government were left in the hands of the Egyptian dynasts.[34] Nubians and Egyptians also shared a common set of religious practices. King Piye, who successfully invaded Egypt, boasted of his divine legitimacy on a stele: 'Amon of Napata has made me sovereign over every people',[35] and established an official cult of Amun around 780-760 BCE; his sister became priestess.[36] The existing powerful religious offices in Upper Egypt were also important for Kushite rule: the position of God's Wife (or Divine Adoratrice) at Thebes was maintained due to its political utility, and Kushite royals were installed as high priests.[37] In earlier times, the high priest at Thebes had exercised both civil and military authority, but the Kushites maintained their own Kushite military commanders, while civil authority was given initially to Kushite governors and later to 'Theban bureaucrats'.[38] The end of Kushite rule in Egypt and the beginning of the Saite Dynasty furnishes a rare example of a peaceful transition, involving the adoption of the Saite princess Nitocris by the last Kushite Divine Adoratrice of Amun, Amenirdis II, in 656 BC.[39]
Kushite-period Memphis, where the chief royal residence was based,[40] is thought to have had a population of perhaps 65,000; the first capital, Napata, about 43,000. The Kushite Empire spanned roughly 600,000-700,000 square kilometres, but it is difficult to find reliable estimates for its population.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [600,000-700,000]: 700 BCE ♥

Campaigns of Peye c720 BCE. By 750 occupied part of Upper Egypt. [41] By 713 BCE, entire Nile Valley to Delta under Empire of Kush. Still there under Taharqa (690-664 BCE). [42] 663 BCE Assyrians capture Thebes. Soon thereafter end of Empire in Egypt.

[600,000-700,000]: 700 BCE

♠ Polity Population ♣ [2,500,000-3,000,000] ♥ 2.5 million for Egypt, 0.5 million for region of Sudan under control of Kingdom of Meroe (successor polity, dated sixth century BCE to fourth century CE). [43]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 65,000: 700 BCE ♥ 65,000: 660 BCE; 47,000: 430 BCE In 650 BCE Memphis had a population of 65,000 and Napata had a population of 43,000. [44] Meroë 47,000: 430 BCE. [45]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [4-5] ♥ At most: (1) Capital; (2) Regional centres; (3) Minor centres; (4) Villages; (5) Hamlets. Inferred from previous periods.

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 5 ♥

Argument in favour of the existence of a central administration: "As far as we can see Kushite rule did not alter the way in which Egypt was administered: the alterations were more straightforwardly related to the holders of office, whether individuals or families."[46] - however, others (E.g. Exell and Naunton) argued that central authority and administration had disappeared by 25th Dynasty.

Argument against the existence of a central administration: "Exell and Naunton have concluded that New Kingdom analogies are of little help for ascertaining the governing principles of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty."[47] Exell and Naunton argue: "Maat having been achieved, the pharoah was perhaps content to leave the mundane business of running the country to those individuals and systems already in place: which, if true, confirms that, by this point, central authority and administration had disappeared."[48]


1. King

autocratic ruler. Royal residence (likely Meroe) centre of political rule. [49]
Period saw the decline of centralized state, emergence of "direct regency of god". [50]
"The Kushites followed Libyan practice by making marriage alliances with the elite, probably throughout Egypt."[51]

_ Central government line_ [52] NOTE: Central government may not have existed

2. The position of vizier continued but was "deprived of effective power." [53]
King did not delegate power to an office of vizier or high priest.
Government had "federate character."
However: Morkot refers to a Vizierate [54]
2. Known titles of officials: Chiefs of treasury; army commanders; seal bearers; heads of archives; chiefs of granaries; the chief scribe of Kush.
Officials played a role in the election of a king
high priests were in the key offices of government [55]
3. ... ? ...

Note: the granaries administration could involve than 5 levels

_Provincial line_ [56]

2. Regional viceroy
Regional viceroy ("pesto") directly responsible to king. [57]
Key offices in Upper Egypt: Southern Vizierate, High Steward of the Divine Adoratrice, Mayor of Thebes; Lower Egypt: (local dynasties and ancestral territories of unknown dependence). [58]
3. Provincial governors
Provinces: traces of royal palaces in localities. [59]
Provincial centres. [60]
"In the north ... the local dynasts were left in control of their provinces " until the Kushite reconquest of Egypt in 716 BCE when Shabaqo "forcibly imposed his authority over the provincial governors." [61]
4. Mayor
E.g. Mayor of Thebes [62][63]
5. Village chief

Jeremy Pope, The Double Kingdom Under Taharqo.

"Naunton has argued that Kushite diplomacy in Thebes was then extended to all Egypt"[64]
"Nevertheless, the absence of evidence for either centralized administration or state investment should not be taken to signify a political vacuum. A more defensible scenario would instead posit Taharqo's immediate subordinates within the region as 'invisible elites' - merchants, pastoralists, and local potentates essential to the functioning of the state who neither held office within centralized institution nor manifested their wealth and influence through biographical inscriptions and private statuary. In this regard, Lower Nubia under the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty present a striking contrast with the bureaucratic formalization of Upper Egypt."[65]
"Semna West, Buhen, Qasr Ibrim, and Philae can be viewed primarily as loci for the 'formulation, demonstration, and explanation of royal authority' - i.e., as sites for the promotion of ritual suzerainty in lieu of centralized administration. ... However, the intra-site and inter-site sustainability networks of Egyptian-style temple-towns are not well-reflected in the surviving evidence from the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty."[66]
"Across the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty, neither a Vizier, a God's Wife of Amun, her Chief Steward, nor any other state official below the pharaoh is attested iconographically or textually between the First and Third Cataracts. The marked contrast between this circumstance and the elaborate hierarchy of officialdom in Upper Egypt and Upper Nubia on either side would suggest that Lower Nubia was rather treated as a separate unit."[67]
"the Kushite kings of the Napatan era were evidently not averse to delegating responsibility from afar - much as Taharqo appears to have done during the temple constructions at Kawa and Sanam."[68]
"Immediately below the king were the royal kinsmen (sn.w. nsw), from among whom the heir apparent was chosen by means of the Amun oracle."[69]
Royal kinsmen "did not hold a monpoloy on upon the highest offices of government for as in Aspelta's Enthronement Stela the royal kinsmen were sent before the oracle by a separate group of commanders ..., palace officials ..., and 'friends'..."[70] Aspelta is post-25th Dynasty
"a variety of more specific offices are attested, all clearly named after Egyptian precedents": these include Mayor, Palace Treasurer, Royal Sealer, Superior of the Tribunal, Chief Scribe, Royal Scribe, Overseer of the Gold of the Hill-Countries, Overseer of the Granary, Royal Scribe of the Granary, Scribe of the Temple-Compound, Sistrum-Player, Prohet, Great Priest, Chief Official of the God.[71]
Inscriptional record suggests there was not a royal monopoly on these positions.[72]
One analysis is "Upper Egypt was the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty state - the only Egyptian region in which Kushite hegemony approached the time-honored pharaonic ideal of centralized governance ... An alternative view ... articulated by Naunton ... Upper Egypt was not exceptional but rather microcosmic - even formative - for Kushitenherrschaft and its development over the course of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty."[73]
"The Amun cult belonged in large part to the Kushite house, but the civil administration of Upper Egypt evidently did not."[74]
Civil administration in Delta region, titles: "Grandee in the Towns of the East", "Grandee of the East", "Prophet of Bastet, mistress of Bubastis". Montuhotep was also a Northern Vizier.[75]
In the Dongola-Napata Reach "the details of local administration found in the royal corpus of the Napatan period speak quite forcefully against the assumptions that Upper Nubian officialdom was peopled by Egyptian emigres or controlled by a small oligarchy. Authority appears instead to have been dispersed across a number of kin groups; there is odddly little pyramidal hierachy of governmental positions; and offices which might otherwise be equated with the king's unique deputy are found divided among several individuals."[76] this provides possible inferrence for 25th Dynasty
"the most recent attempt at a comprehensive analysis of Theban officials and their duties during the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty has concluded that even in Upper Egypt 'it is not possible to speak of a "court" for the centuries following the New Kingdom,' as 'central authority and administration had disappeared' [quoting Naunton]"[77]

O'Conner (1983)[78]

"Kushite rule was based on military strength, and local civil government was left largely to the Egyptian dynasts."[79]
"At Thebes, the Kushites continued the politically useful office of 'god's wife'; the High Priesthood, held by a Kushite prince and his son, was revived but stripped of military and civil authority. The former was surely exercised by Kushite commanders, the latter first by Kushite governors, and later by Theban bureaucrats."[80]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 6 ♥

Official cult of Amun established c780-760 BCE under Alara, whose sister was made a priestess. [81] High priests.[82]

Temples were centres of territorial administration. [83]

Peye claimed divine legitimacy, as written on one Stele: “Amon of Napata has made me sovereign over every people.” [84]

Priests of temple of Amum had “enormous influence.” [85]

"The highest ranks in the priestly offices of Thebes were those of Gods' Wife of Amun and the High Priest (First Prophet) of Amun." "Of the other major priesthoods of Amun at Thebes some, such as that of Second Prophet," seem to have 'gaps' in the recorded holders." There was also a rank of Third Prophet and Fourth Prophet. [86]

1. King?
2. Gods' Wife of Amun
3. High Priest or First Prophet of Amun
4. Second Prophet
5. Third Prophet
6. Fourth Prophet
... ? ...
... ? ...


"A cult that may be specifically Twenty-fifth Dynasty in date is that of the Wadjty, the Two Serpent Goddesses: this may be connected with the two cobras worn by the Kushite kings. The priests of this cult also carry the title "Royal Friend," suggesting a close connection with the kingship."[87]

♠ Military levels ♣ [4-6] ♥ levels. Estimated. Competent and organized enough to take conquer.

At the least something like:

1. Ruler

2. Army commanders
(3. Captains)
4. Individual soldiers

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ [88]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ [89]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Priesthood of Amun. [90] Egyptian cult temples established with professional personnel. [91]

Taharqa (690-664 BCE) endowed one of his numerous temples with ??? kilogrammes of gold in nine years. [92]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ Including an Egyptianized professional class [93] and an official treasurer [94].

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ No reference to examination system found.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown♥ Foreign Kushite rulers may have been willing to choose Egyptian officials based on their abilities since there wouldn't be the problem of nepotism.

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from existence in previous periods.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown♥ unknown.

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥ No professional judges or lawyers. [95]

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown♥ unknown.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥ No professional judges or lawyers. [96] First professional lawyers in Ptolemaic era.

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Ancient irrigation works on Kerma plateau date from c1500 BCE. First shaduf human-powered system, then the saqiya animal-powered water-wheel. However, latter probably appeared in Lower Nubia only in Meroitic times, after 300 BCE. [97]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ There were market places in Ancient Egypt e.g. Ramesside Egypt.
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ Granaries. [98]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ "Today a road known as the “Forty Days Road” (so named because of the time it takes to traverse), takes the same route to Egypt as the ancient Meroitic road, and passes right by the cemetery." [99]
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥ Small bridges existed in Ramesside Egypt.[100]
♠ Canals ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Ports ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from existence of "Shipping Masters" or "Masters of the Quay." [101]


Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ During antiquity Kush produced estimated 1.6 million kg (1600 metric tonnes) of gold. [102]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Stele texts. [103]Sanam Historical Inscription of Taharqo.[104]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ Hieroglyphs.
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language. The repertoire of glyphs is based on the Greek alphabet augmented by letters borrowed from the Egyptian Demotic and is the first alphabetic script used for the Egyptian language.[105]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Libraries and archives existed.
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Egyptian likely in use, transmitted via temples.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Temple libraries.
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred present ♥ "... Egypt's court culture, religion, script, literature, art, architecture ... " [106]
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred present ♥ "... Egypt's court culture, religion, script, literature, art, architecture ... " [107]
♠ History ♣ inferred present ♥ "... Egypt's court culture, religion, script, literature, art, architecture ... " [108]
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ Temples and libraries were maintained that had books on philosophy consulted/written by priests.
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Medical texts were known in Ramesside Egypt and temples and libraries were maintained in the Kushite period.
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Ramesside Egypt. There was a literate culture in Egypt: "... Egypt's court culture, religion, script, literature, art, architecture ... " [109]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ "the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty"[110]
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ "the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty"[111]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Little evidence of iron working during this period. [112] In Egypt! presumably. This is a Sudanese based polity: "It is thought that the seventh century Kushite king Taharqa 'deliberately initiated a large iron industry at Meroe after learning that the Assyrians had begun using iron weapons." Excavations suggest 10 tons of metal were produced per annum at Meroe."[113] The Butana Plain was deforested to produce the charcoal needed for the iron smelters at Meroe.[114]
♠ Steel ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ Javelins common in this period.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ "The sling is shown being used in assault on towns in the early Middle Kingdom tombs at Beni Hasan. Examples found in the tomb of Tutankhamun were made of linen. Despite its rare appearance in battle scenes, it was probably widely used. [...] A sling shot from the Ptolemaic and Roman periods could be made of lead, and carried inscribed messages for the unfortunate recipient."[115]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ "In western Asia, [the self bow] was replaced by the composite bow. In Egypt, the self-bow continued to be widely used, especially by Nubian troops."[116] According to this source, for which we require expert confirmation: "Kushite soldiers were expert archers. Nubian bows were about six feet in length. Arrows were short with poisonous tips." [117] Arrow-heads. [118]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Introduced in the New Kingdom.[119]
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ not yet developed
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ not yet developed
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ not yet developed
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ not yet developed

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred absent ♥ Academic histories of warfare and weaponry in Egypt stop mentioning axes and maces once they reach the New Kingdom, suggesting they fell out of use. This source, for which we require expert confirmation, say the Kushites "fought with clubs, swords, pikes, and hatchets." [120]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred absent ♥ Academic histories of warfare and weaponry in Egypt stop mentioning axes and maces once they reach the New Kingdom, suggesting they fell out of use. This source, for which we require expert confirmation, say the Kushites "fought with clubs, swords, pikes, and hatchets." [121]
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ This source, for which we require expert confirmation, say the Kushites "fought with clubs, swords, pikes, and hatchets." [122]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ This source, for which we require expert confirmation, say the Kushites "fought with clubs, swords, pikes, and hatchets." [123]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ Widely used in previous periods. This source, for which we require expert confirmation, say the Kushites "fought with clubs, swords, pikes, and hatchets." [124]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "During the Bronze Age the standard mechanism of transport was the donkey (Egypt) or the solid-wheeled cart drawn by the onager (Sumer). Ramses II revolutionized Egyptian logistics by introducing the ox-drawn cart, which quickly became the standard mode of military logistical transport for almost a thousand years."[125] Donkey may still have, on occasion, been used.
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Horse breeding, chariots, cavalry. [126] According to this source, for which we require expert confirmation: “Horses may have been considered sacred since Napatan pharaohs were often found buried together with their horses. However, unlike the Egyptians, the Kushites preferred to ride directly on top of horses rather than use chariots or oxen." [127] Horse remains from Buhen, Upper Nubia, show characteristics of domestication (1700-1600 BC) [128]
♠ Camels ♣ inferred absent ♥ camels not considered native to Egypt, likely introduced by Persians in 525 BCE
♠ Elephants ♣ present ♥ According to this source, for which we require expert confirmation: "Kushite military also fought with elephants. They were probably the first to use elephants in warfare in the ancient world. They trained war elephants for export to Egypt."[129]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ needs expert verification
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ needs expert verification
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ during the 18th Dynasty Kushite tribute to Egypt included shields. [130]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Certainly present in Egypt probably worn by charioteers by the 18th Dynasty c1500 BCE.[131]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ In the New Kingdom: "Body armour, in the formof small bronze plates riveted to linen or leather jerkins, with a tapered lower half, began to be used." Jerkins do not have sleeves.[132]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ In the New Kingdom: "Body armour, in the formof small bronze plates riveted to linen or leather jerkins, with a tapered lower half, began to be used." Jerkins do not have sleeves.[133]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred absent ♥ In the New Kingdom mail coats were made out of bronze developed for charioteers. Evidence from a scene from the tomb of Kenamun. Colour of painting suggests bronze used for scales. [134] Is Hoffmeier referring to chainmail or coats with scales? Code assumes the latter. "the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base."[135]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred present ♥ "the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base."[136]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ "the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base."[137]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ "the Egyptians had been using bronze armor since the Eighteenth dynasty, "but it consisted of nothing more elaborate than metal scales sewn onto a leather base."[138]


Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ needs expert verification
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ inferred absent ♥ needs expert verification
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred absent ♥ needs expert verification

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ needs expert verification
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ needs expert verification
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ needs expert verification
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ needs expert verification
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred present ♥ needs expert verification
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Despite textual descriptions and iconographic depictions of sieged warfare in the first millennium BCE, there is little evidence for walls surrounding entire settlements; indeed, the norm seems to have been for walls to surround temple complexes, and for the rest of the settlement to remain exposed, though it is possible that the settlement's inhabitants could expect to find reguge within the temple enclosure in the event of an attack.[139]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Jill Levine ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ inferred absent ♥ "traditionally powerful offices, such as that of vizier continued but were deprived of effective power."[140] "Despite superficial similarities to the New Kingdom, the nature of the government and administration of Egypt in later periods was quite different. The titles held by the highest state officials, such as vizier, remained in use, but as the nature of the kingship itself had changed fundamentally, so did the meaning of these titles and the role of those that held them. It is not possible to speak of a 'court' for the centuries following New Kingdom. ..."[141] inferred absent on the basis there did not exist a central government or court government
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ inferred present ♥ On the basis of prolific monument building: "we infer that during the 25th Dynasty there was a concentration of wealth in the hands of certain important officials. It seems probable that these officials also wielded considerable political and civil authority".[142] inferred present on the basis that powerful individuals were able to constrain the Pharoah by virtue of the wealth they controlled For example, "Under Piy, son of Kashta, some form of agreement was perhaps reached with the 23rd Dynasty rulers recognized in the Theban area. Piy's authority was acknowledged and his sister Amenirdis I was adopted by the 'god's wife of Amun' Shepenwepet I as her successor."[143] if the Pharoah was not constrained then he could have appointed Amenirdis I directly as God's Wife of Amun regardless of the wishes of the 23rd Dynasty. Kushites placed own nominees in key offices to break the "hereditary hold of the major Theban families".[144] Here is the suggestion that the Pharoah was constrained by powerful Theban families and that the Pharoah was powerful enough to over-come this constraint. However, given the lack of court or central government[145] and that the Kushite House was married into the Theben mayoralty[146] it is likely the wealthy Theban elites still were a constraint on the actions of the Pharoah. Evidence post-25th Dynasty in Nubia also may suggest the Kushites had a governance style that was constrained by other non-governmental power-holders: "In the Enthronement Stela of Aspelta, the procedures of royal succession were discussed by a congress of officials"[147] "Instead of replacing local aristocracies with centralized institutions, the [post-25th Dynasty] Kushites appear to have used links between the former as a substitute for the latter."[148]
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥ The Kushite Dynasty was a monarchy[149] and "the Kushite house was allied principally by marriage to the Theban mayoralty."[150] There is "no firm evidence that the Kushite royal family ever splintered into collateral and competing dynasties, and their appointment of Kushite scions to the positions of High Priest and Second Prophet of Amun does not suggest the dread of intradynastic conflict that had once characterized their Libyan predecessors..."[151] Furthermore: "Inscribed on a belt on [on a statue in Egyptian hieroglyphs]: "The perfect god Taharqo, beloved of Amun-Re." Indeed, Kushite kings during this period were considered sons of Amun, and it was believed the god would select new kings through his priests."[152] inferred absent that powerful Theban elite could impeach a Pharoah on the basis that the Pharoah was considered to be a god; and because the executive did not control a central government, being little occasion to need to impeach someone who is not making any key decisions other than choosing top appointments - whom in any case are members of the royal family, which itself is married into the same Theban elite.

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Kushites were a monarchy.[153] Mentuemhat "inherited the office of mayor from his father around 700."[154] Montuemhat "inherited the title mayor of the City [of Thebes] from his father Nesptah, it having also been held by his grandfather Khaemhor. The passing of titles from one generation to the next was well established by this point".[155] "Montuemhat's grandfather, another mayor of the City, also held the title of vizier, which after his death was passed to his son Pahor/Harsiese, and then to another son, Nesmin, before apparently being transferred to another family, that of Nespakashuty. This has been interpreted as the deliberate removal of the office from the Montuemhat family in order to prevent them from becoming too powerful (Bierbrier 1975: 105)."[156] "a new title held by wealthy individuals emerged during the 25th Dynasty. ... The divine adoratrices [of Amun] feature very prominently in religious iconography ... and it was their chief stewards whose tombs dominate the Late Period cemetery at el-Asasif. Interesting, this position does not seem to have been hereditary. As a new position so closely associated with the Kushite royal family and royal/religious ideology, it is tempting to see this as another attempt by the Kushite kings to counter the power of the established Theban families."[157] Mayor of Thebes, Divine Adoratrices of Amun, High Priest of Amun, God's Wife of Amun all hereditary in broad sense although Divine Adoratrices of Amun not hereditary[158] but was hereditary in the sense top position always held by a Kushite royal.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Edward Turner; Enrico Cioni ♥ these codes were reviewed at at the Seshat Workshop on Egyptian History, Oxford 2014


Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ "The Dream Stela of Tanutamun begins with the mention of a dream in his first regnal year, wherein he received the message from god that he will be king"[159] "The god Amun granted kingship, and just as Tanis was the parallel of Thebes in the north, Napata was its parallel in the Nubian south."[160] "Piy resided in Napata as a king fully aware of Egyptian customs who credited his appointment to the god Amun."[161] "Coronation took place at the temple at Jebel Barkal, after which the new king would visit other temples to Amun and then build new ones and renovate old ones - all steps taken to establish the king's connection to the god and affirm his right to rule."[162] "Psychologically important was the subtle Kushite exploitation of traditional religious ideas concerning the kingship. Stressing symbolic unity and recalling the form if not actuality of the great periods of centralization, the Kushites were genuinely devoted to ma'at. Their devotion, they argued, generated supernatural aid and demonstrated the legitimacy of the Kushite accession."[163]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ "Inscribed on a belt on one of the statues's recovered fragments are Egyptian hieroglyphs that read: "The perfect god Taharqo, beloved of Amun-Re." Indeed, Kushite kings during this period were considered sons of Amun, and it was believed the god would select new kings through his priests."[164] In Torok's work "The cemeteries at el-Kurru and Nuri land royal stelae and reliefs from Gebel Barkal and Kawa are analyzed for the 'symbolic forms' which communicated the Kushite 'myth of the state' - e.g., divine sonship, 'ambulatory kingship,' and principles of legitimate succession. Across the discipline of Nubian Studies, such emphasis upon political theology remains dominant in analyses of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty, and it has added considerably to modern knowledge of ancient Kush."[165] "Radwan, A. "Concerning the Deification of the Monarch in the Empire of Kush." In Studien zum antiken Sudan: Akten der 7. internationalen Tagung fur meroitische Forschungen vom 14. bis 19. September 1992 in Gosen/bei Berlin. Edited by S. Wenig. 255-272. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 1999.[166]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ inferred present ♥ Ideology/cosmology holds all humans as equal, though in practice acknowledged and accepted that there were stark social/political/economic differences [167]. "the Kushites were genuinely devoted to ma'at. Their devotion, they argued, generated supernatural aid and demonstrated the legitimacy of the Kushite accession."[168] "Maat having been achieved, the pharoah was perhaps content to leave the mundane business of running the country to those individuals and systems already in place".[169] this quote illustrates that Maat was still an important religious belief at the time of the 25th Dynasty. The concept of Maat reinforced the status quo, and encouraged the acceptance of inequality, not equality.

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ [170] "the Kushites were genuinely devoted to ma'at. Their devotion, they argued, generated supernatural aid and demonstrated the legitimacy of the Kushite accession."[171] "Maat having been achieved, the pharoah was perhaps content to leave the mundane business of running the country to those individuals and systems already in place".[172] this quote illustrates that Maat was still an important religious belief at the time of the 25th Dynasty. The concept of Maat reinforced the status quo, and encouraged the acceptance of inequality, not equality.
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred present ♥ inferred continuity with traditional ideology; no strict inherited elite status, but elites / commoners idealogical equivalent [173] "the Kushites were genuinely devoted to ma'at. Their devotion, they argued, generated supernatural aid and demonstrated the legitimacy of the Kushite accession."[174] "Maat having been achieved, the pharoah was perhaps content to leave the mundane business of running the country to those individuals and systems already in place".[175] this quote illustrates that Maat was still an important religious belief at the time of the 25th Dynasty. The concept of Maat reinforced the status quo, and encouraged the acceptance of inequality, not equality.

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “Festivals were community affairs, a time for the residents of a village or town to abandon their daily tasks and come together in celebration.” [176] "instructions of Amenemope give positive images of attitudes toward human limits. It also teaches that care for the old, sick, and malformed is a moral duty, because 'Man is clay and straw, the God is his builder. The Wise Man should respect people affected by reversal of fortune' [Simpson, 1973]."[177] perhaps in marriage: "In literary texts, extramarital liaisons were punishable by death (Eyre 1984: 97; Johnson 2003: 150 - 151). In non-literary texts from Deir el-Medina dating to the New Kingdom, erring individuals of both sexes face less dramatic repercussions (Toivari-Viitala 2001: 153 - 157; see also Galpaz-Feller 2004; Lorton 1977: 14 - 15, 38 - 39)."[178] "Ancient Egyptian ethical thought and action revolved around the notion of maat. Although there are no traces of a standard moral code surviving from ancient Egypt, moral principles are often reflected in the literature - especially works of wisdom literature, funerary books and songs, tomb biographies, and literary narratives. ... Through the study of these sources one can observe the occurrence of a major change in ancient Egyptian ethical thought during the New Kingdom, when piety and religiosity became significant criteria for the judgment of the individual."[179] "The gods explicitly sanctioned attention to the problems of the less fortunate, and government was aware of the importance of both the appearance and reality of correct behaviour. ... Periodic reforms of abuses are well documented, and officials' biographies frequently refer to their aid to the disadvantaged."[180] "The existence of institutional doctors and of a certain paternalism, shown by employers, resulting from their fear of offending the Gods and their beliefs in an after-life, played a role in softening the bleak scene of the Egyptian world of work."[181]

♠ production of public goods ♣ inferred present ♥ Texts from later periods make clear elites and ruler provided public goods (famine relief water works); inferred ideology existed from early on [182] Declaration of virtues for Intef "herald and governor under Thutmose III (Urk IV, 964-975)" that might suggest "both a reaffirmation of moral values held in the Middle Kingdom and a clear expansion of moral ideals in the 18th Dynasty" (includes): free of evil; without falsehood; hearer of his petition; not (neglectful) concerning Maat; turning his back to the liar; free from partiality; vindicating the just; punishing the guilty for his guilt; servant of the needy; father of the poor; guide of the orphan; mother of the timid; shelter for the battered; guardian of the sick; husband of the widow; refuge for the orphan. [183]:♠ communal dining ♣ present ♥ Large amounts of food were consumed at festivals, most notably at the Beautiful Feast of the Valley [184]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [185] [186] [187]

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