PkSind2

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Stephen Dean; Alice Williams ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Sind - Samma Dynasty ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1486 CE ♥ [1]

The reason this was selected for as a peak date is that is coincides with a military campaigns northward. The evidence is very scarce, and seems to rely on hagiography of the king ruling at the time, but the borders of Sind seem to have advanced into Multan in the north and into parts of Baluchistan.


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1335-1521 CE ♥ [2]

1335-6 CE: The Samma rose in revolt and expanded the territory under their control. [3]

1520-1521 CE: Their rule was brought to a halt after the region was conquered by Shah Beg Arghun, and later absorbed into the Mughal empire. [4]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none; vassalage; none ♥ none: 1335-1336 CE; vassalage: 1336-1388 CE; none: 1389-1521 CE dates cannot yet be machine read

[5]

The evidence is very scanty, amounting to a few manuscripts and conflicting inscriptions.

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Delhi Sultanate ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Mughal Empire ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Thatta ♥ Thatta: 1336-1521 CE ... date cannot yet be machine read. The Jams (community chiefs) ruled as Sultans from Thatta. [6]

♠ Language ♣ Sindhi; Punjabi ♥ [Sindhi; Punjabi]: 1335-1520 CE The Saraiki dialect of punjabi may have been spoken given the geographic territory of the Samma Sind kingdom. [7]

General Description

The Kachi Plain, in modern-day Pakistan, is hemmed in on two of its three sides by the mountains of Baluchistan, while its southeastern side opens up to the Indus Valley.[8] The region it is part of, Sindh (also known as Sind), was ruled, between the mid-fourteenth century and the 1520s, by the Samma dynasty. In the fourteenth century, the latter faced a precarious geopolitical position, courting friendship with the Mongols as a counterbalance of the more immediate threat presented by the Delhi Sultanate. After that, the Samma were able to rule over Sind somewhat uneventfully, until 1520, when Shah Begh Argun, followed swiftly by Babur, founder of Mughal dynasty, conquered the region. The Arguns continued to govern Sind up until 1591, when it was fully integrated into the Mughal empire.[9][10]

Population and political organization

Panwhar believes that the population of Sind at this time is unlikely to have exceeded one million[11], though Lakho provides an estimate of 2,200,000.[12] As for political organization, the polity was ruled by a jam, who delegated power over regions and districts to specially appointed governors, who were closely related to the emir himself.[13]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Stephen Dean; Alice Williams ♥ ET: Usernames Stephen.dean and Williams contributed to the data sheet (history under old page title Samma Dynasty, Sind: 1335 CE - 1520 CE) but the name of Williams is not written anywhere on the data sheet.

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 140,914 ♥ squared kilometers. This based on the modern area of the Pakistan province of Sindh, but given that the Sind also controlled portions of Balochistan and territory to the north this is most likely an underestimate. [14]

♠ Polity Population ♣ 1,000,000: 1335 CE; 2,200,000: 1520 CE ♥ persons. 10 Lakh is a South Asian unit of measure for 100,000 and H.M Panhwar thinks that population estimates of more than this are unlikely for the period. [15] I have used this earlier population estimate to factor in population loss from climate change, the outbreak of the black death, and the after effects of the Mongol conquests. An unsupported estimate of a population of 2,200,000 can be found in an article on irrigation in The Samma Kindom of the Sindh and seems to indicate the population in the later period. [16]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Thatta

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥

1. City: Thatta [17]
2. Town: large numbers destroyed by the shifting current of the Indus river so very little archaeological evidence remains. A full list of 47 sites can be found in 'An Illustrated Historical Atlas of Soomra Kingdom of Sindh' for precursors. There seems to be evidence that the current of the Indus remained relatively stable and that waterways were maintained. [18]
3. Village [19]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 3 ♥

Governors of districts and divisions were appointed directly by the king, and were often closely related to the King, being close blood relatives such as brothers and close kin. There is no evidence to suggest this system of governance underwent any substantial change [20]

1. Jam (King)
2. Governor of region (Uch,Bakhar,Mansura)
3. Governor of district

♠ Religious levels ♣ 2 ♥

Many other faiths were practiced, and there were substantial religious communities of Buddhist, Hindu, and other faiths in the region. Sunni Islam was the politically dominant faith. In theory the Caliphate and their appointed governors were the head of the Sunni faith, but in practice local religious scholars (ulama) and aesthetics (Sufis) increasingly attracted the wider populace as definers of doctrine. Unlike the Orthodox or Catholic faith, the structure of the Islamic faiths were not clearly hierarchical and all were equal before Allah. In the Sind, a large percentage had converted by the beginning of the period. minority populations of followers of other faiths were most likely also present. [21]

Sunni/Ismailism:

1. Caliph as head of the Muslim umma.
2. Imams, successors of the prophet and leaders of the Muslim world.

The Samma were recent converts, and Hindu practitioners survived well after the initial period of conversion. [22]

♠ Military levels ♣ 3 ♥ inferred, there is very little evidence to demonstrate command structures.

1. Emir
2. Landed Elite
3. Common Soldiers

The Samma, like the Soomras did not seem to have had access to Elephants, but did have access to Calvary. [23]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ absent ♥ [24]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ [25]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ absent ♥ [26] The Buddhists and Hindu populations maintained separate religious institutions, religious leaders were not professional, but rather members of the wider faith seen as learned.

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ ♥ unknown

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as appointments to positions within the state made directly by the king, and were often people closely related to the King. [27]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥ unknown

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ The legal code was a fusion of Muslim law, and existing Hindu law codes regarding caste. The legal code was two tiered, with the non-muslim dhimmis allowed to practice there religion but also to pay a tax for the privilege. Alongside this legal system was a system known as Panchat or Bhayat. [28]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ reference of the Chief Qazi of Mansura in the writing of the contemporaneous Abdul Hassan, legal precedent from the early peoples endured. [29]

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present♥ The river Indus remained stable for the majority of the period. Irrigation was the primary responsibility of the state [30]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ e.g. Debal "an early port" [31]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ E.g. religious, practical and scientific texts. [32]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥


Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ The Koran and Buddist scriptures. [33]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Muslim, Buddhist and Hindu religious writings. [34]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Travel accounts and descriptions of the Sind and India. [35]
♠ History ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences text from Arabic sources abroad.
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Poetic genres of Doha, Geet, Guinan, Sith and Gabeto.[36]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ Seashells [37]
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥[38]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ The Samma minted copper coinage, though surviving examples are of poor quality and lack the skill of earlier examples. [39]
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Stephen Dean; Alice Williams; Edward A L Turner; K Basava ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the presence of higher metals.
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the presence of higher metals.
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ [40]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ [41]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ War elephant crews sometimes could use bow and arrow, long spear or throw javelins.[42] Did the Samma ever use war elephants? The Samma, like the Soomras did not seem to have had access to Elephants, but did have access to cavalry.[43]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Used by mounted archers?
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ Abbasid refered to the crossbow as the qaws al-rijl, first mentioned in 881 CE. [44]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred, tension engines being used in this period in the region. [45]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ present ♥ The manjaniq, a swing beam engine similiar to the Western trebuchet. [46]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ inferred absent: 1335-1399 CE; suspected unknown: 1400-1449 CE; present: 1450-1521 CE ♥ "it was only in the mid-fourteenth century that gunpowder ... was introduced into India, presumably by Mongols or Turks. This was then used in various explosive devices by the army."[47] From second half of 15th century.[48] Does the 'From the second half of 15th century' reference which I found on the Delhi Sultanate sheet refer to both artillery and handguns, or does it contradict the first use of gunpowder? What did the source say, specifically?
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ inferred absent: 1335-1399 CE; suspected unknown: 1400-1449 CE; present: 1450-1521 CE ♥ "it was only in the mid-fourteenth century that gunpowder ... was introduced into India, presumably by Mongols or Turks. This was then used in various explosive devices by the army."[49] The Portuguese built a factory on the coastline and had access to gunpowder weaponry.[50] From second half of 15th century.[51] Does the 'From the second half of 15th century' reference which I found on the Delhi Sultanate sheet refer to both artillery and handguns, or does it contradict the first use of gunpowder? What did the source say, specifically?

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ According to Hasan Nizami's Taj-ul-Maathir (13th CE) Muslim cavaliers also "used iron maces, battleaxes, daggers, and javelins" whereas the Hindu Rajputs had only spear or lance.[52]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ According to Hasan Nizami's Taj-ul-Maathir (13th CE) Muslim cavaliers also "used iron maces, battleaxes, daggers, and javelins" whereas the Hindu Rajputs had only spear or lance.[53]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ According to Hasan Nizami's Taj-ul-Maathir (13th CE) Muslim cavaliers also "used iron maces, battleaxes, daggers, and javelins" whereas the Hindu Rajputs had only spear or lance.[54]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ According to the Ibn Battuta (14th century) "in North India mounted soldiers usually carried two swords: one, called the stirrup-sword, was attached to the saddle, while the other was kept in his quiver."[55]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ According to Ibn Battuta in 1333 Delhi forces employed heavy-armoured cavalry.[56]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ Many passing references to presence of donkeys in medieval India.
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Used for cavalry. [57]
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Used as war-elephants.[58] Was this reference for the Delhi Sultanate only? The Samma, like the Soomras did not seem to have had access to Elephants, but did have access to cavalry.[59] "But there can be little doubt that war-elephants were not used in the same numbers under the Islamic dynasties of India as they were in the early medieval period and before. We have seen that the Arabic sources described the most important ninth- and tenth-century Hindu dynasties as equipped with tens of thousands or more elephants of various kinds. Although it is unlikely that these numbers indicated war-elephants in a state of readiness - they probably included the guessed number of untamed and half-tamed ones -, and although some of the figures are contradictory, they are larger than those of later times. Certainly the Arabs of Sind, the Saffarids, and the later Buyids made almost no use of them at all." [60]
♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ e.g. used for shields. [61] Reconstructing the exact military equipment of the Samma dynasty is problematic as there is very little evidence available. The Sind had reliable sources of iron and horses, but seemed to have largely avoided the major conquest affecting their neighbors. The usual equipment of a foot solider may have been as simple as a spear and cloth clothing. As such, the coding below is based on earlier access to equipment and the weapons available to there neighbors. The Gujarat armies are likely to have been the most comparable.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ e.g. used for shields. [62]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Inferred, widely available for soldiers in the region. [63]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Inferred, widely available for soldiers in the region.. [64]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred, some evidence of breastplates in the sources. [65]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred, some evidence of lamellar leggings in the sources. [66]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Inferred, coats of mail for elite soldiers in the region.[67]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ [68]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ unknown ♥ [69]
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ [70]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ There is reference to 400 vessels on the river, although it us unknown if these were ocean going vessels. [71]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The Delhi Sultanate had no navy and the Mughal Empire made sporadic attempts to construct a navy. The Mughals maintained a riverine fleet for coastal warfare but lacked a Blue Water Navy."[72]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The Delhi Sultanate had no navy and the Mughal Empire made sporadic attempts to construct a navy. The Mughals maintained a riverine fleet for coastal warfare but lacked a Blue Water Navy."[73]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The decline of the Delhi Sultanate in the 15th century led to a situation where each lord needed to fortify his province with numerous castles."[74]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ "The decline of the Delhi Sultanate in the 15th century led to a situation where each lord needed to fortify his province with numerous castles."[75] Reference for use of the mud rampart in ancient India.[76]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ "The decline of the Delhi Sultanate in the 15th century led to a situation where each lord needed to fortify his province with numerous castles."[77]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ "The decline of the Delhi Sultanate in the 15th century led to a situation where each lord needed to fortify his province with numerous castles."[78] Reference for use of the moat as a form of fortification in northern India around 3rd century BCE - 300 CE.[79]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ "The decline of the Delhi Sultanate in the 15th century led to a situation where each lord needed to fortify his province with numerous castles."[80]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred present ♥ "The decline of the Delhi Sultanate in the 15th century led to a situation where each lord needed to fortify his province with numerous castles."[81]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Samma dynasty.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawhid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [82]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [83]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[84]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[85]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[86]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [87] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [88]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [89]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [90] [91] [92]

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