PkProto

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Kachi Plain - Proto-Historic Period ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Pirak II; Pirak III ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1300-500 BCE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ unknown ♥ Unclear. It is seems very likely that Pirak was once part of a larger assemblage of culturally similar settlements, but, perhaps due to the erosive effects of nearby rivers, only Pirak remains[1]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Post-Urban Period ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Achaemenid Empire ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥ Unclear. It is seems very likely that Pirak was once part of a larger assemblage of culturally similar settlements, but, perhaps due to the erosive effects of nearby rivers, only Pirak remains[2]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared. Unclear. It is seems very likely that Pirak was once part of a larger assemblage of culturally similar settlements, but, perhaps due to the erosive effects of nearby rivers, only Pirak remains[3] However, it is worth noting that this phase of Pakistan's prehistory is characterised by greater regionalisation[4], so the scale of supra-cultural interaction is likely to be smaller compared to both preceding and succeeding polities.

♠ Capital ♣ unknown ♥

♠ Language ♣ unknown ♥

General Description

The Kachi Plain, in modern-day Pakistan, is hemmed in on two of its three sides by the mountains of Baluchistan, while its southeastern side opens up to the Indus Valley.[5] Here, the settlement of Pirak was established not long after the beginning of the second millennium BCE, and it was continuously occupied from that time up until the sixth or seventh century BCE. Here we consider Pirak II and III, that is, the phases of Pirak's occupation that go from the end of the second millennium to the middle of the first millennium BCE.[6] It seems very likely that Pirak was part of a larger assemblage of culturally similar settlements, but, perhaps due to the erosive effects of nearby rivers, only Pirak remains.[7] Notable archaeological finds from the site at this time include terracotta seals, horse and camel figurines, and zoomorphic game pieces, and the site's architecture and agricultural infrastructure is somewhat reminiscent of the Indus Valley Civilization.[8]

Population and political organization

Not much appears to be known about Pirak's political organization, although the retrieval of terracotta seals[9] suggests perhaps the existence of some form of bureaucracy.

The scholarly literature does not provide population estimates.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ squared kilometers. It is seems very likely that Pirak was once part of a larger assemblage of culturally similar settlements, but, perhaps due to the erosive effects of nearby rivers, only Pirak remains[10] Of course it's difficult to say whether these hypothetical settlements were part of the same polity as Pirak.

♠ Polity Population ♣ [450-1800] ♥ Assuming 50-200 people per ha and 9 ha, we have an estimate of 450-1800. “The extent of the built up areas [of Pirak] remains practically constant, almost 9 hectares, and the apparent conservatism of the material culture are factors that bear witness to an undeniable stability of the settlement.” [11] but "...it has proved impossible for the moment to define in a less summary fashion its probable area of geographical distribution. As far as the region is concerned, the mound of Pirak is the only one of its kind."[12]. Although, the material culture found at Pirak has also been uncovered in a much wider area in the north of the Kachi Plain [13], and as far as southern Central Asia and the Ganges valley.[14] The population of Pirak has not been estimated.[15]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [1-2] ♥ Inferred. Pirak is the best-preserved site in the Kachi Plain from this time. Although other sites such as Pathani Damb have also been found, it is difficult to estimate their extent due to the poor preservation of the site. “Although no systematic surveys have been carried out in the Kachi plain, it appears that this region lying between highland Baluchistan and the Indus valley was occupied without break by sizable settlements throughout the second and into the first millennium BC.” [16][17]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels. Archaeological evidence, mostly in the form of seals, suggests the existence of some kind of bureaucratic system through Pirak II and III, of one or two levels at least[18].

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels. No archaeological evidence for this.


♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Archaeological evidence, mostly in the form of seals, suggests the existence of some kind of bureaucratic system through Pirak II and III, of one or two levels at least[19].

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Archaeological evidence, mostly in the form of seals, suggests the existence of some kind of bureaucratic system through Pirak II and III, of one or two levels at least[20]. Neither archaeology nor written documents shed light on this particular variable.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Archaeological evidence, mostly in the form of seals, suggests the existence of some kind of bureaucratic system through Pirak II and III, of one or two levels at least[21]. Neither archaeology nor written documents shed light on this particular variable.

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred absent ♥ According to Coningham, there is no evidence of centralized systems of government during this period. Attempts by scholars such as Maurizio Tosi to find evidence of differentiation and increasing complexity were not born out by the evidence. While recording systems are present, stamp seals and sealing, these appeared to be quite localized in terms of their production.[22] There is one building that might have fulfilled some sort of administrative role during Pirak II. PK.C building complex surrounded by monumental wall, with, inside seals and seal impressions[23].

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There is no archaeological evidence for this either[24].

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥[25]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred absent ♥[26]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥[27]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Based on plant remains, including rice suggests a certain degree of control over water to produce food. Also reported discovery of large channel running along western side of Pirak during Pirak IA[28].
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred present ♥ Based on plant remains, including rice suggests a certain degree of control over water to produce food. Also reported discovery of large channel running along western side of Pirak during Pirak IA[29].
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ Suggested by evidence for long-distance trade[30].
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ Pirak; circular silos on the bottom of which remains of cereals found[31].

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ Evidence for town planning during Pirak II at least[32].
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥ Clay for ceramics would have been extracted from quarries.

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ Terracotta seals.[33][34]
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥
♠ History ♣ absent ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No archaeological evidence.
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ On same level as Pirak III iron weapons, bronze and copper arrowheads.
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ On same level as Pirak III iron weapons, bronze and copper arrowheads. First century BCE historian Diodorus Siculus narrates a 9th CE battle between a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) and an Indian polity in which the Indians used chariots.[35]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ From beginning of Pirak III, iron weapons but not agricultural implements. First century BCE historian Diodorus Siculus narrates a 9th CE battle between a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) and an Indian polity in which the Indians used chariots.[36]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Ed: Steel may have been produced in the region of modern India at earliest toward the end of this period.

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ {absent; present} ♥ Not included in list of metal artefacts (including weapons) found at Pirak, the best studied site: “[At Pirak] Several metal artifacts (flat axes and daggers) have shapes known from Harappan sites, but others (moulded daggers and arrowheads) represent technological innovations.”[37] First century BCE historian Diodorus Siculus narrates a battle between a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) and an Indian polity in which the Indians used javelins.[38] Javelins presumably thrown from war elephants. If king Stabrobates's polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km[39] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown: 1300-801 BCE; inferred present: 800 BCE; suspected unknown: 799-500 BCE ♥ If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C."[40] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE?[41] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from 'India'. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India).[42] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?).[43] If king Stabrobates's polity controlled the Kachi Plain, then we code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km[44] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ “At Pirak, (Jarrige and Santoni 1989:400) a handful of bone points in the early, Chalcolithic, stratum contrasts with mass-produced square-sectioned and tanged bone points/arrows in iron-using Period III - debitage pieces occur here in the thousands.”[45] Arrowheads found in archaeological contexts.[46] If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C."[47] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE?[48] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from 'India'. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India).[49] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?).[50] If king Stabrobates's polity controlled the Kachi Plain, then we code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km[51] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ Developed later.
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ '

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown: 1300-801 BCE; inferred present: 800 BCE; suspected unknown: 799-500 BCE ♥ If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C."[52] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE?[53] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from 'India'. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India).[54] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?).[55] If king Stabrobates's polity controlled the Kachi Plain, then we code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km[56] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Bronze axes found in archaeological contexts[57]. If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C."[58] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE?[59] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from 'India'. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India).[60] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?).[61] If king Stabrobates's polity controlled the Kachi Plain, then we code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km[62] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Blades found in archaeological contexts[63]. If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C."[64] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE?[65] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from 'India'. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India).[66] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?).[67] If king Stabrobates's polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km[68] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Bronze swords [is this a typo - swords?] found in archaeological contexts.[69] If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C."[70] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE?[71] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from 'India'. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India).[72] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?).[73] If king Stabrobates's polity controlled the Kachi Plain, then we code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km[74] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.
♠ Spears ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not included in list of metal artefacts (including weapons) found at Pirak, the best studied site: “[At Pirak] Several metal artifacts (flat axes and daggers) have shapes known from Harappan sites, but others (moulded daggers and arrowheads) represent technological innovations.”[75] If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C."[76] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE?[77] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from 'India'. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India).[78] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?).[79] If king Stabrobates's polity controlled the Kachi Plain, then we code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km[80] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥ Not included in list of metal artefacts (including weapons) found at Pirak, the best studied site: “[At Pirak] Several metal artifacts (flat axes and daggers) have shapes known from Harappan sites, but others (moulded daggers and arrowheads) represent technological innovations.”[81]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Skeletal remains of dogs found, but it is not clear that they were used in warfare[82].
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ (From the 'Historical Dictionary of Ancient India') Amri, mid-4th millennium BCE onward: "There is evidence for the domestication of cattle, sheep, goat, and donkey."[83]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Figurines found in archaeological contexts depict horsemen.[84] First century BCE historian Diodorus Siculus narrates a battle between a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) and an Indian polity in which the Indians used horses.[85] If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C."[86] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE?[87] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from 'India'. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India).[88] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?).[89] If king Stabrobates's polity controlled the Kachi Plain, then we code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included weapons of war. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km[90] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown: 1300-801 BCE; inferred present: 800 BCE; suspected unknown: 799-500 BCE ♥ Skeletal remains of camels found, but it is not clear that they were used in warfare[91] - but at least from the time of war elephants had been developed camels could have been used to carry baggage? "Bactrian camels began to be used for cavalry between 500 and 100 BC."[92] If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C."[93] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE?[94] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from 'India'. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India).[95] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?).[96] If king Stabrobates's polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km.[97] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown: 1300-801 BCE; inferred present: 800 BCE; suspected unknown: 799-500 BCE ♥ First century BCE historian Diodorus Siculus narrates a battle between a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) and an Indian polity in which the Indians used elephants.[98] In the 9th century BCE king Stabrobates of India used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?).[99] Elephants used in warfare in India since at least 1000 BCE.[100] If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C."[101] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE?[102] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from 'India'. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India).[103] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?).[104] If king Stabrobates's polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km[105] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C."[106] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE?[107] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from 'India'. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India).[108] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?).[109] If king Stabrobates's polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included armour. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km[110] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥ If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C."[111] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE?[112] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from 'India'. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India).[113] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?).[114] If king Stabrobates's polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included armour. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km[115] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces. According to one military historian (this data needs to be confirmed by a polity specific expert) "In India, protective body armor was in use around 1600 B.C.E. The Vedic Epics use the word varman to describe what was probably a coat of mail, probably a leather garment or coat reinforced with brass plates at critical points."[116]
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥ If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C."[117] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE?[118] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from 'India'. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India).[119] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?).[120] If king Stabrobates's polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included armour. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km[121] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.
♠ Helmets ♣ suspected unknown ♥ If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C."[122] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE?[123] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from 'India'. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India).[124] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?).[125] If king Stabrobates's polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included armour. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km[126] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C."[127] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE?[128] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from 'India'. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India).[129] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?).[130] If king Stabrobates's polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included armour. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km[131] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C."[132] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE?[133] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from 'India'. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India).[134] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?).[135] If king Stabrobates's polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included armour. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km[136] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent: 1300-801 BCE; inferred absent: 800 BCE; absent: 799-500 BCE ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent: 1300-801 BCE; inferred absent: 800 BCE; absent: 799-500 BCE ♥ If "the first archaeologically recognizable, large post-Indus urban settlements are not earlier than the fifth century BC ... solidly visible states ... appear in a sudden profusion in the late first millennium B.C."[137] - who was king Stabrobates of India who used war elephants against a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) in the 9th century BCE?[138] One could infer king Stabrobates, if not based there himself, must have subdued and controlled the Kachi Plain region in order to invade Mesopotamia from 'India'. (Another source says Assyria invaded India and were driven out of Pakistan and India).[139] Diodorus Siculus says this too, queen Semiramis was based in Bactra (Bactria?).[140] If king Stabrobates's polity controlled the Kachi Plain then we must code the according to the military technology he possessed. This would have included armour. Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km[141] which places the Indus region in reach of their forces.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown: 1300-801 BCE; inferred present: 800 BCE; suspected unknown: 799-500 BCE ♥ First century BCE historian Diodorus Siculus narrates a presumed 9th CE battle between a queen of Assyria (considered Shammuramat?) and an Indian polity in which the Indians used riverboats: 4000 river boats made out of reeds "for along its rivers and marshy places India produces a great abundance of reeds, so large in diameter that a man cannot easily put his arms about them; and it is said, furthermore, that ships built of these are exceedingly serviceable, since this wood does not rot."[142] Actually Diodorus Siculus in this passage suggests Kachi Plain/Indus river may have been possessed by the Assyrians or contested: "For the Indus river, by reason of its being the largest in that region and the boundary of her kingdom, required many boats, some for the passage across and others from which to defend the former from the Indians; and since there was no timber near the river the boats had to be brought from Bactriana by land."[143] Note: one military historian estimates that the Assyrian army had a strategic range of 2000 km[144] which places the Indus region in reach of Assyrian forces.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km. Long wall building: "The tradition seems more prevalent in Central Asia, although the oldest dated example is only Achaemenid. This is the wall of Kam Pirak, a rammed mud defensive wall that has been traced for about 60 kilometres across northern Afghanistan."[145]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ unknown ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ ♥ .

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [146] [147] [148]

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