PkPreUr

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Alice Williams; Robert Harding; Will Farrell; Enrico Cioni ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Kachi Plain - Pre-Urban Period ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Early Harappan ♥

The Early Harappan phase can be divided geographically into four regions with roughly equivalent chronologies

Amri-Nal
Kot Diji
Damb Sadaat
Sothi-Siswal[1] The Early Harappan sites of the Amri-Nal tradition are found in southern Baluchistan; but despite the presence of Nal pottery at Merhgarh (doubtless because it is associated with seasonal herdsmen) the Kachi Plain is not included in the distribution or in any other Early Harappan culture.[2]

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥ The lack of chronology and very general patterns drawn from the archeological record mean giving a peak date is not appropriate.


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 3200-2500 BCE ♥ Including a transitional phase between the Early and the Mature Harappan[3]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥ The settlements and artefacts from this period suggest increasing complexity, although it is not clear what sort of polity (or polities) were present. It is likely that there was a form of centralised authority, based on the complexity of urban planning, but whether this was a chiefdom or incipient state is debated.[4]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ unknown ♥ The settlements and artefacts from this period suggest increasing complexity, although it is not clear what sort of polity (or polities) were present. It is likely that there was a form of centralised authority, based on the complexity of urban planning, but whether this was a chiefdom or incipient state is debated.[5]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Kachi Plain - Chalcolithic ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Kachi Plain - Urban Period I ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Indus Civilisation ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ unknown ♥ Of the very large Mature Harappan (urban) sites, only Harappa has a documented pre-urban population.[6] However, there is no evidence for the existence or whereabouts of a capital.

♠ Language ♣ unknown ♥ Language is unknown, and there would certainly have been regional/chronological variations.[7]

General Description

The Pre-Urban period in the Indus Valley, also known as the Early Harappan or Early Indus, started around 3200 and ended around 2600 BCE. Here we extend it to include the transitional century or so between the Early and the Mature Harappan. This period was characterized by the spread of farming communities across the Indus Basin, reaching as far as the Upper Ganga-Yamuna Doab in modern-day North India. Overall, this was not a period of great innovation, but precursors of writing appear to have emerged at this time, and, together with the appearance of seals and weights, these point to a shift in organizational complexity.[8]

Population and political organization

No population estimates could be found in the literature. There is also no clear picture of political organization at this time - seals have been found in relevant archaeological contexts, but the existence of a bureaucratic apparatus remains unlikely.[9]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Alice Williams; Robert Harding; Will Farrell; Enrico Cioni ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers.

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [1,100-4,600] ♥ Assuming 50-200 inhabitants per hectare. Quetta Miri was about 23 ha[10].

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels. [11]

1. Large settlement
For example, Quetta Miri (23 ha) and Mundigak (9 ha).
2. Possible medium-sized 'producer' settlements
3. Small settlements

Worth noting: "Some settlements show signs of specialization in particular crafts or other industrial activities, such as the procurement of raw materials. For example, huge quantities of figurines were produced at Mehrgarh in this period, suggesting mass production. Lewan, a village in the Bannu Basin in northern Baluchistan, specialized in the production of stone tools, including querns, axes, and hammers, which were traded over a wide area. A degree of specialization had begun earlier, for example at Mehrgarh, but it was becoming more pronounced in this period."[12]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels.

♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥

1. Ritual specialist

In the broader Early Harappan tradition there is evidence that there were priests, and Kenoyer refers to "ritual specialist". However, Possehl says there is no evidence for a state religion. [13]


♠ Military levels ♣ [0-1] ♥ levels. Kenoyer writes that there is no evidence of the existence of an army even during the period 2600 BCE - 1900 BCE[14]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from Jonathan Kenoyer's claim that there is no evidence of the existence of an army even during the period 2600 BCE - 1900 BCE[15]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from Jonathan Kenoyer's claim that there is no evidence of the existence of an army even during the period 2600 BCE - 1900 BCE[16]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ In the broader Harappan tradition there is evidence for priests, and Kenoyer refers to "ritual specialist". [17]


Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ absent ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ absent ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred absent ♥ In the context of the broader Harappan tradition there are no deciphered textual records suggesting the presence of a legal code.[18]

♠ Judges ♣ absent ♥ In the context of the broader Harappan tradition there are no deciphered textual records suggesting the presence of a legal code.[19]

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥ In the context of the broader Harappan tradition there are no deciphered textual records suggesting the presence of a legal code.[20]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥ In the context of the broader Harappan tradition there are no deciphered textual records suggesting the presence of a legal code.[21]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ Period II: variety of barley used "could be grown only in the irrigated fields, it implies and improved method of farming in the Kachi plains."[22] In the broader Harappan context, water control technology began during the Amri-Nal period. This included the use of small shallow ditches to guide water onto a flat area, and investment in some kind of bunding - a low earthen wall or a gabarband.[23]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ "There is plentiful evidence of internal trade within and between the regions of the Early Indus period"[24].
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ “By Periods VI and VII, Mehrgarh had clearly entered a new phase in its development. In Periods VI and VII, Mehgarh took on the configuration of a large village or town with streets and lanes and clustered residential areas. The communal storage in compartmented buildings of former periods was replaced by storage rooms, now securely located within individual houses."[25]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ absent ♥ Inland site would not have had a port.

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [26]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [27]
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [28]
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [29]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [30]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [31]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [32]
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [33]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [34]
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [35]
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [36]
♠ History ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [37]
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [38]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [39]
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [40]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ inferred present ♥ Presumed present for the trade of foreign materials (including lapis lazuli, calcite and steatite for bead production).[41]
♠ Precious metals ♣ unknown ♥ Copper was present from Mehrgarh III[42], but may not have been used as 'money'.
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Will Farrell; Alice Williams ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ .
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [43].
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [44].

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented" before the Indus period.[45]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New world weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented" before the Indus period.[46]
♠ Self bow ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented" before the Indus period.[47]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [48]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [49]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [50]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [51]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [52]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [53]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented" before the Indus period.[54]
♠ Battle axes ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented" before the Indus period.[55] ground stone axe found in burial (Ahmed 2014, p. 316). - was this a battle axe? In one exceptional burial, a polished stone axe and three flint cores were placed in a basket and lay near the skull of the deceased. Sixteen blades from the same core were set in parallel rows along the spinal column [56]
♠ Daggers ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented" before the Indus period.[57]
♠ Swords ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented" before the Indus period.[58]
♠ Spears ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented" before the Indus period.[59]
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented" before the Indus period.[60]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [61]
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥ Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [62] (From the 'Historical Dictionary of Ancient India') Amri, mid-4th millennium BCE onward: "There is evidence for the domestication of cattle, sheep, goat, and donkey."[63]
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [64]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [65]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [66]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Evidence of armor made from organic materials has not been recovered from Mehrgarh.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Evidence of armor made from organic materials has not been recovered from Mehrgarh.
♠ Shields ♣ absent ♥
♠ Helmets ♣ absent ♥
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ absent ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ absent ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred absent from lack of evidence of significant warfare.
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ absent ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [67] The data for fortifications is inferred. Possehl states that before the Urban phase (i.e. 2600 BCE) for only 3 sites out of 463 Pre-Urban sites the archaeological evidence could potentially be interpreted as having some sort of substantial circumvallation. [68]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ absent ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [69]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [70]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [71]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [72]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [73]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [74]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [75]


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

These codes refer to an explicit or defined right for some group to constrain the activity of the executive in some way, typically through a legal code, but other ways are imaginable (explain in paragraph if other mechanisms found). When coding ‘present’ for each of the below codes, provide explanation and give examples of the constraints being used, or note that the constraints were formalized but are no known instances of its use in practice.

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ unknown ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

We are interested here in any systems of thought and behavior that can influence people's actions, which we term a Normative Ideology. Normative ideologies are thought-systems concerned with the correct behavior of people, governments/leaders, and other groups (and particularly the relationships between these groups).

Mainly, this will be a religious or ritual system. As usual, when we mention Religious or Ritual System our focus is on the 'official cult', defined the same way as in the Rituals section:

With the official cult we refer to the set of collective religious practices that are most closely associated with legitimation of the power structure (including elites, if any).

However, Normative Ideologies are not restricted to religious/ritual systems. They include other thought systems, such as philosophy or anything that prescribes a particular pattern of behaviour. An example is classical Greek philosophy, such as the works of Plato and Aristotle, who were concerned with correct or moral behaviour and whose thoughts influenced the actual practice of several societies (the empire of Alexander the Great, notably).

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ ♥ .

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [76] [77] [78]

References

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  2. Possehl 2002, p. 41
  3. McIntosh, J. The Ancient Indus Valley pp. 392-393. Santa-Barbara: ABC-Clio.
  4. Rita Wright: The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy and Society; Cambridge: CUP, 2010, pp. 79-105
  5. Rita Wright: The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy and Society; Cambridge: CUP, 2010, pp. 79-105
  6. Gregory L. Possehl. Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol. 19, (1990), p.270
  7. Gregory L. Possehl. Indus Age: The Beginnings. New Delhi, 1999, p.721
  8. (McIntosh 2008, 67-72) McIntosh, Jane. 2008. The Ancient Indus Valley. Santa Barbara; Denver; Oxford: ABC-CLIO. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/5P92SHE8.
  9. A. Ceccarelli, personal communication to E. Cioni, February 2017.
  10. (Possehl 2002, 44) Gregory Possehl. 2002. The Indus Civilization. Delhi: Published on behalf of Indian Archaeological Society [by] B.R. Pub. Corp.; New Delhi: distributed by D.K. Publishers' Distributors, 1980.
  11. (Possehl 2002, 44) Gregory Possehl. 2002. The Indus Civilization. Delhi: Published on behalf of Indian Archaeological Society [by] B.R. Pub. Corp.; New Delhi: distributed by D.K. Publishers' Distributors, 1980.
  12. (McIntosh 2008, 69)
  13. Burjor Avari, India: The Ancient Past: A History of the Indian Sub-Continent from C. 7000 BC to AD 1200 (London: Routledge, 2007), p.48;Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark, ‘The Indus Valley Tradition of Pakistan and Western India’, Journal of World Prehistory, 5 (1991), 370; Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 6.
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  72. (Gregory L. Possehl. 'Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization', Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)
  73. (Gregory L. Possehl. 'Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization', Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)
  74. (Gregory L. Possehl. 'Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization', Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)
  75. (Gregory L. Possehl. 'Revolution in the Urban Revolution: The Emergence of Indus Urbanization', Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 19. (1990), p. 271)
  76. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  77. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  78. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html