PkPostU

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Will Farrell; Robert Harding; Alice Williams; Dan Mullins ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Kachi Plain - Post-Urban Period ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Late Harappan; Pirak I ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1800-1300 BCE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose ♥ According to Coningham, there is no evidence of centralized systems of government during this period. Attempts by scholars such as Maurizio Tosi to find evidence of differentiation and increasing complexity were not born out by the evidence. While recording systems are present, stamp seals and sealing, these appeared to be quite localized in terms of their production.[1]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ unknown ♥ It is impossible to say what sort of polity or what size might be connected with Pirak, however it seems to have been part of a larger network of exchange from I onwards, and the buildings discovered are larger than one would expect in a small village. [2] "...it has proved impossible for the moment to define in a less summary fashion its probable area of geographical distribution. As far as the region is concerned, the mound of Pirak is the only one of its kind."[3]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Kachi Plain - Urban Period II ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Kachi Plain - Proto-Historic Period ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ unknown ♥

Given that the degree of integration with the wider Indus Valley is not clear, a capital cannot be named.

♠ Language ♣ ♥ Nothing is known about the spoken language(s) in use. [4]

General Description

The Kachi Plain, in modern-day Pakistan, is hemmed in on two of its three sides by the mountains of Baluchistan, while its southeastern side opens up to the Indus Valley.[5] Here, the settlement of Pirak was established not long after the beginning of the second millennium BCE, and it was continuously occupied from that time up until the sixth or seventh century BCE. Here we consider Pirak I, that is, the phase of Pirak's occupation that corresponds to the best part of the second millennium BCE. [6] It seems very likely that Pirak was part of a larger assemblage of culturally similar settlements, but, perhaps due to the erosive effects of nearby rivers, only Pirak remains.[7] Notable archaeological finds from the site at this time include terracotta seals, horse and camel figurines, and zoomorphic game pieces, and the site's architecture and agricultural infrastructure is somewhat reminiscent of the Indus Valley Civilization.[8]

Population and political organization

Not much appears to be known about Pirak's political organization, although the retrieval of terracotta seals[9] suggests perhaps the existence of some form of bureaucracy.

The scholarly literature does not provide population estimates.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Alice Williams; Dan Mullins; Enrico Cioni ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ squared kilometers.


♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ Cannot be estimated as it is not known how far the cultural group extended, nor how cohesive the group was.[10]


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [450-1800] ♥ Assuming 50-200 people per ha and 9 ha, we have an estimate of 450-1800. “The extent of the built up areas [of Pirak] remains practically constant, almost 9 hectares, and the apparent conservatism of the material culture are factors that bear witness to an undeniable stability of the settlement.” [11] but "...it has proved impossible for the moment to define in a less summary fashion its probable area of geographical distribution. As far as the region is concerned, the mound of Pirak is the only one of its kind."[12]. Although, the material culture found at Pirak has also been uncovered in a much wider area in the north of the Kachi Plain [13], and as far as southern Central Asia and the Ganges valley.[14] The population of Pirak has not been estimated.[15]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [1-2] ♥ Inferred. Pirak is the best-preserved site in the Kachi Plain from this time. Although other sites such as Pathani Damb have also been found, it is difficult to estimate their extent due to the poor preservation of the site. “Although no systematic surveys have been carried out in the Kachi plain, it appears that this region lying between highland Baluchistan and the Indus valley was occupied without break by sizable settlements throughout the second and into the first millennium BC.” [16][17]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ [0-2] ♥ The remains of terracotta and bronze/copper seals, and numerous impressions of them, "...lead us to suppose that some form of commercial business was carried on in this part of the site [PK.C]"[18]; and processing remains suggest that there were craft specialists at Pirak.[19] There may therefore have been some form of administrative levels, but this is not certain.

♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥ There is no evidence of a systematic religion at Pirak at this time.[20] There is little evidence for an integrated religious system, as regional cultures split from the previous Mature Harappan system.[21] In the broader context of the Mature Harappan there is evidence for priests, and Kenoyer refers to "ritual specialist".[22]

♠ Military levels ♣ [0-1] ♥ There is no evidence of organized warfare at Pirak at this time.[23]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent ♥ There is no evidence of organized warfare at Pirak at this time.[24]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred absent ♥ There is no evidence of organized warfare at Pirak at this time. [25] In the concurrent

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ There is no evidence of a systematic religion at Pirak at this time. Only animal and human figurines have been found.[26] There is little evidence for an integrated religious system, as regional cultures split from the previous Mature Harappan system.[27] In the broader context of the preceding Mature Harappan there is evidence for priests, and Kenoyer refers to "ritual specialist".[28]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred absent ♥ According to Coningham, there is no evidence of centralized systems of government during this period. Attempts by scholars such as Maurizio Tosi to find evidence of differentiation and increasing complexity were not born out by the evidence. While recording systems are present, stamp seals and sealing, these appeared to be quite localized in terms of their production.[29] The remains of terracotta and bronze/copper seals, and numerous impressions of them, "...lead us to suppose that some form of commercial business was carried on in this part of the site [PK.C]"[30]; and processing remains suggest that there were craft specialists at Pirak.[31] There may therefore have been some form of bureaucracy, but this is not certain. Coded 'inferred absent' because this evidence does not seem strong enough to demonstrate that there were full-time bureaucrats.

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred absent ♥ According to Coningham, there is no evidence of centralized systems of government during this period. Attempts by scholars such as Maurizio Tosi to find evidence of differentiation and increasing complexity were not born out by the evidence. While recording systems are present, stamp seals and sealing, these appeared to be quite localized in terms of their production.[32] The remains of terracotta and bronze/copper seals, and numerous impressions of them, "...lead us to suppose that some form of commercial business was carried on in this part of the site [PK.C]"[33]; and processing remains suggest that there were craft specialists at Pirak.[34] However, this evidence does not seem strong enough to code for specialized government buildings: as Coningham stated, even the existence of a government is in doubt.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred absent ♥ There is no written or other evidence for a system of law at Pirak.[35]

♠ Judges ♣ absent ♥ According to Coningham, while archaeologists such as Maurizio Tosi attempted to find evidence of courts and the rule of law, they have only found stamp seals that did not change over time or, by their concentration in a given place, indicate an authoritarian locus.[36]

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥ According to Coningham, while archaeologists such as Maurizio Tosi attempted to find evidence of courts and the rule of law, they have only found stamp seals that did not change over time or, by their concentration in a given place, indicate an authoritarian locus.[37]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥ According to Coningham, while archaeologists such as Maurizio Tosi attempted to find evidence of courts and the rule of law, they have only found stamp seals that did not change over time or, by their concentration in a given place, indicate an authoritarian locus.[38]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ Irrigation systems were present, but were not state owned. “…the main economic activity of the site was the cultivation of rice, Oryza sativa. There is evidence of rice-growing right from the beginning of the occupation and impressions of rice have been found in all the excavated areas… Only by the use of a system of dams… could it have been possible to fill the channels that were necessary to water the paddy-fields. We cannot doubt the ability of the inhabitants of Pirak to build such structures; since we have reported the discovery of a large channel running along the western side of the site, at the beginning of period IA.”[39] [40]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ Drinking water supply systems are present, but were not state owned. “At Pirak, however, it is in post-900 BC levels, Iron Age, that a brick-lined well was found, the bricks being trapezoid in shape”.[41]
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts." [42]
♠ food storage sites ♣ absent ♥ Food storage sites are present, but were not state owned. Pirak IA: “In locus LXXII four circular structures of unbaked clay, with a diameter varying from 0.80 to 1.25 m, are double the bases of silos that had been levelled off. Installations of this type are common all over the site and in all periods…” [43]

“As for storage facilities, those at Pirak are circular clay silos of a type still used in the region today but unknown even in the third millennium BC.”[44]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts." [45]
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Canals ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Ports ♣ absent ♥ "The early second millennium saw new developments in the Indus region. By 1900 BCE many of the cities were in decline. The cultural (and probably political) unity of the Indus region was breaking down and with it the ability to organize large-scale trade and distribution networks. [...] Lothal, a major trade center in Harappan times, was reduced to a village of mud huts and the “dock” abandoned." [46]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The following may or may not be relevant: “The terracotta seals form a collection of little more than fifty examples, to which we can add a whole series of seal-impressions from a period II locus in PK.C… In the Indus valley and in the Kachi Plain, notably at Pirak (Pl. XXXV, A), they [seals found at Mehrgahr and Pirak] are replaced after 2500 BCE by inscribed seals of the Harappan civilisation, which perhaps represent a phase of state control that is exceptional in these regions. But the disappearance of the seals with geometric designs is only temporary and we see them re-appear once more as part of regional cultures, such as that of Pirak or of Jhukar, which followed upon the Harappan civilization.”[47]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ inferred present ♥ In the wider context of the concurrent Early Vedic, the Rig Veda had not yet been written down[48] and was composed and transmitted orally.[49]
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ "The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [50]
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥ "The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [51]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ "The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [52]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ "The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [53]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥ "The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [54]
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥ "The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [55]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥ "The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [56]
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥ "The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [57]
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥ "The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [58]
♠ History ♣ absent ♥ "The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [59]
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥ "The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [60]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥ "The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [61]
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥ "The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts. [...] Writing was no longer used, though occasionally signs were scratched as graffiti on pottery." [62]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ inferred present ♥ Assumed present for the trade of stone beads, shell objects and ivory materials [63].
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥ Two pieces of gold have been found at Pirak, but it is not known whether they were used for a monetary function.[64] In the context of the concurrent Early Vedic, Gold pieces are mentioned in the Vedic texts, and so may have been used as items for exchange.[65]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred absent ♥ No coins have been found at Pirak.[66]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ inferred absent ♥ No coins have been found at Pirak.[67]
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥ No evidence of paper currency has survived from Pirak. Only seal impressions on clay give any evidence of administrative records.[68]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ absent ♥ The following suggests that, even if a postal system had existed in previous centuries (something for which there is no evidence), it most likely would have disappeared by this time. "The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts." [69]
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥ The following suggests that, even if a postal system had existed in previous centuries (something for which there is no evidence), it most likely would have disappeared by this time. "The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts." [70]
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥ The following suggests that, even if a postal system had existed in previous centuries (something for which there is no evidence), it most likely would have disappeared by this time. "The Indus civilization flourished for around five hundred to seven hundred years, and in the early second millennium it disintegrated. This collapse was marked by the disappearance of the features that had distinguished the Indus civilization from its predecessors: writing, city dwelling, some kind of central control, international trade, occupational specialization, and widely distributed standardized artifacts." [71]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Alice Williams; Will Farrell; Enrico Cioni; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [72]
♠ Iron ♣ inferred present ♥ No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [73] Frequent production and usage of iron in Baluchistan and Pakistan coincided with the Yaz I culture around 1500 BCE “as the smelting of iron daggers and arrowheads spread from the steppes”. [74] However, whilst agreeing iron was present at this time, Singh calls this popular view of an imported technology "a widely prevalent but misplaced belief that iron technology was introduced into the subcontinent by the Indo-Aryans.”[75] Kte’pi says the Iron Age arrived at the end of the Late Harappan culture, but iron smelting may have been present since 1600 BCE, [76] that is, before the Yaz I culture.
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Steel is not present at Pirak. [77] However, Harappan weapons are "characterised by the absence of shields, helmets and armour". [78]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. [79]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. [80]
♠ Slings ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. [81]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Barbed arrowheads and tangled blades were found at Pirak in the Iron Age which implies that foot soldiers/horse-mounted warriors used bows and arrows.[82] And: “At Pirak, (Jarrige and Santoni 1989:400) a handful of bone points in the early, Chalcolithic, stratum contrasts with mass-produced square-sectioned and tanged bone points/arrows in iron-using Period III - debitage pieces occur here in the thousands.”[83]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. [84]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. [85]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ There is no evidence for tension siege engines at Pirak. [86]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ There is no evidence for sling siege engines at Pirak. [87]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ There is no evidence for gunpowder at Pirak. [88]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ There is no evidence for gunpowder at Pirak. [89]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [90]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ “[At Pirak] Several metal artifacts (flat axes and daggers) have shaped known from Harappan sites, but others (moulded daggers and arrowheads) represent technological innovations.”[91]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ “[At Pirak] Several metal artifacts (flat axes and daggers) have shaped known from Harappan sites, but others (moulded daggers and arrowheads) represent technological innovations.”[92]
♠ Swords ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [93]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ "In the midst of pieces that are hard to identify fragments of points, the only object that is more or less complete in these levels is a spear-head whose point is quite blunt." It is unknown whether the object is copper or bronze, but most other objects in later periods were tested as bronze. [94] Spearheads have been found in other Late Harappan contexts.[95]
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [96]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ There is no evidence for organized warfare at Pirak.[97]
♠ Donkeys ♣ [absent; present] ♥ There is no evidence for organized warfare at Pirak.[98] (From the 'Historical Dictionary of Ancient India') Amri, mid-4th millennium BCE onward: "There is evidence for the domestication of cattle, sheep, goat, and donkey."[99]
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Although horses were present later in the Pirak occupation sequence, there is no evidence for organized warfare at Pirak.[100]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Although camels were present at Pirak, there is no evidence for organized warfare at Pirak.[101]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Although ivory is present at Pirak, it is assumed to be imported and that there were no elephants at Pirak.[102]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [103]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ absent: 1800-1700 BCE; suspected unknown: 1600-1301 BCE ♥ "In India, protective body armor was in use around 1600 B.C.E. The Vedic Epics use the word varman to describe what was probably a coat of mail, probably a leather garment or coat reinforced with brass plates at critical points."[104]
♠ Shields ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [105]
♠ Helmets ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [106] However, Harappan weapons are "characterised by the absence of shields, helmets and armour". [107]
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [108] However, Harappan weapons are "characterised by the absence of shields, helmets and armour". [109]
♠ Limb protection ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site.[110] However, Harappan weapons are "characterised by the absence of shields, helmets and armour". [111]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [112] However, Harappan weapons are "characterised by the absence of shields, helmets and armour". [113]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent: 1800-1700 BCE; suspected unknown: 1600-1301 BCE ♥ "In India, protective body armor was in use around 1600 B.C.E. The Vedic Epics use the word varman to describe what was probably a coat of mail, probably a leather garment or coat reinforced with brass plates at critical points."[114] No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [115] However, Harappan weapons are "characterised by the absence of shields, helmets and armour". [116]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [117] However, Harappan weapons are "characterised by the absence of shields, helmets and armour". [118]
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for weapons or armor, apart from arrowheads, spearheads, daggers and axes, have been found at Pirak. This may in part be due to preservation conditions at the site. [119] However, Harappan weapons are "characterised by the absence of shields, helmets and armour". [120]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ absent ♥ Pirak is landlocked.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ Pirak is landlocked.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ Pirak is landlocked, and there is no evidence for organized military activity.[121]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred absent ♥ inferred absent due to lack of evidence for warfare
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ absent ♥ No evidence of fortifications have been found at Pirak.[122]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ absent ♥ No evidence of fortifications have been found at Pirak.[123]
♠ Ditch ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moat ♣ absent ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥ No evidence of fortifications have been found at Pirak.[124]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ No evidence of fortifications have been found at Pirak.[125]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ No evidence of fortifications have been found at Pirak.[126]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ No evidence of fortifications have been found at Pirak.[127]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ Long wall building: "The tradition seems more prevalent in Central Asia, although the oldest dated example is only Achaemenid. This is the wall of Kam Pirak, a rammed mud defensive wall that has been traced for about 60 kilometres across northern Afghanistan."[128]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Pirak is pre-modern warfare.

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ unknown ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ ♥ .

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [129] [130] [131]

References

  1. Coningham pers. comm. interview with Harvey Whitehouse and Christina Collins, Jan 2017
  2. Jarrige, J-F. (1997) From Nausharo to Pirak: Continuity and Change in the Kachi/Bolan Region from the 3rd to the 2nd Millennium BC. In, Allchin, R. and Allchin, B. (eds) South Asian Archaeology, 1995, volume I. The Ancient India and Iran Trust, Cambridge., pp 11-32.; Jarrige, J-F. (2000) Continuity and Change in the North Kachi Plain (Baluchistan, Pakistan) at the beginning of the Second Millennium BC. In, Lahiri, N. The Decline and Fall of the Indus Civilization. Permanent Black, Delhi., pp345-362.
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