PkChalc

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Alice Williams; Robert Harding; Will Farrell ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Kachi Plain - Chalcolithic ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Mehrgarh III; Kili Gul Mohammad Period III; Kili Gul Mohammad Period IV; Quetta Valley Period H; Anjira I ♥ Mehrgarh III and Kili Gul Mohammad period III and IV ; also known as Period H of the Quetta Valley; Anjira I

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 4000-3200 BCE ♥ 4000-3500 BCE: Mehrgar III (Kili Gul Muhammad periods II and III; Togau phase?) Fragments of metal (copper) artefacts; Local copper production, as well as crucible fragments? Beginning of a Chalcolithic period at the site? [1] Earliest occupation at Mehrgarh was identified in the so-called area MR 3 (7 m of stratified deposits). These levels seem to not yield ceramic materials; however, fired ceramic figurines and asphalt-covered baskets are found. [2] Mehrgarh I seems to be contemporaneous with the earliest pre-pottery levels at the site of Kili Gul Muhammad (KGM), Quetta valley, Bolan Pass, Balochistan. The latter site, along with the excavation at Damb Sadaat, currently defines the archaeological sequence of the Quetta Valley. [3] Kili Gul Mohammad III (Site Q24): (1) KGM III was contemporaneous with Anjira II and Mehrgarh Period III (Fairservis 1956: 330-332). [4]. Early village life in the north-western borderlands, in Sheri Khan Tarakai. page 19); (2) Kili Ghul Mohammad IV includes the irregular clay and charcoal layers of Phase 3, pottery of Kechi Beg type, exclusive of the polychrome and red-paint wares. Kili Ghul Mohammad III includes Phases 5-13, Section I, and pottery is Kili Ghul Mohammad Black-on-Red slip, with wheelmade wares predominating. (Fairservis, 1956. Quetta Valley); (3) Kili Ghul Mohammad IV and Damb Sadaat I correlate “on the basis of the presence of the Kechi Beg Wares: Kechi Beg White-on-Dark Slip, Kechi Beg Black-on-Buff slip, SPezand Black-and-Red Rim, Sultan Purple, Khojak Parallel Striated and the plainwares such as Nazim Hard-Clay Temper, Adam Sandy and others. Nevertheless, the absence of Kechi Beg Polychrome and Kechi Beg Red Pain, plus the general configuration of all the wates present in both assemblages, indicates that KIli Ghul Mohammad IV is probabily somewhat earlier than Damb Sadaat I.” (Fairservis, 1956. Quetta Valley). Other relevant Sites (De Cardi 1983, Archaeological Surveys in Baluchistan): Baleli, Pishin. The site known as Tor-Ghundai (Stein A. 1929. An archaeological tour in Waziristan, p.89) had been damaged by army lorries but a small sample of sherds confirmed Stein’s ascription of occupation in both chalcolithic and historical times. A number of chert flakes were noted and other finds included part of a shell bangle and a fragment of copper. In addition to KGM and basket-marked wares the sample included Togau A animal frizzes and one unusual sherd with an almost white surface decorated with reversed hook/horn frieze in brown. A comparable oddity was noted at Saiyed Maurez and Togau hooks occurred on a cream slip at Zari in the Surab valley.

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥ With limited archaeological (and no literary) evidence, it is not clear what sort of polity (or polities) were present at this time. [5]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥ With limited archaeological (and no literary) evidence, it is not clear what sort of polity (or polities) were present at this time. [6]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ not applicable ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ not applicable ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ not applicable ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ not applicable ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ not applicable ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ not applicable ♥ As Mehrgarh I is not a polity, but a quasi-polity, Mehrgarh is not a capital. It is however both the best studied and archaeologically richest site.

♠ Language ♣ unknown ♥

General Description

The Kachi Plain, in modern-day Pakistan, is hemmed in on two of its three sides by the mountains of Baluchistan, while its southeastern side opens up to the Indus Valley.[7] The earliest evidence for agriculture here was found in Mehrgarh and dates to 7000 BCE. The occupation of the settlement continued throughout the period under consideration here, between the 4th and the 2nd millennia BCE. In the region generally, the number of sites increased, the sites themselves became larger, and they expanded into the Indus Basin; notable sites include Periano Ghundai, Mundigak, Faiz Mohammad, Togau, and Sheri Khan Tarakai. Mehrgarh itself became an important centre for craft production, and excavations suggest increased diversity in burial rites. Agriculture remained the main economic activity in the region and oats, a new variety of barley and two new varieties of bread wheat became new staple cultivars.[8]

Population and political organization

It is not possible to give an accurate estimate of the region's population at this time,[9] and the size of occupied Mehrgarh is uncertain, as the population shifted over time and part of the site has been cut away by the Bolan River.[10] Similarly, the literature does not provide many clues as to the political organization of Mehrgarh or any other site in the region during this period.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Alice Williams; Robert Harding; Will Farrell; Enrico Cioni; Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers.

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [1,200-3,700] ♥ "The mapping of the site that was conducted by J.-F. Enault and the study of the surface remains show that the typical pottery of Period III extends well beyond the limits of MR.2 to the north and to the south. In fact, this pottery covers about 75 hectares (about 180 acres). Even if we admit the existence of several phases and possible shifts of the settlement, such an area continuously covered by a characterisfic ware decorated with caprids, birds, and geometric motifs indicates that a large number of people occupied the site in the fourth millennium B.C."[11] Assuming 50 inhabitants per hectare, and that between 25 and 75 hectares were occupied at any given time, this site might have been inhabited by about 1,200-3,700 people. A previous, much larger estimate, of 3,000-12,000, and based on 50-200 inhabitants per hectare, and about 60 hectares, was deemed excessive[12].

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 2 ♥ levels.

1. Mehgarh
2. Villages (unexcavated, but probably in the region of 12 hectares)[13]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels.

An urban community of thousands suggests Mehrgarh likely had some degree of hierarchy for dispute resolution, perhaps a chief or collective decision making body. Evidence of dispute exists in the changing use of communal storage. In the previous periods Mehrgarh residents had organized communal food storage facilities. In this period food storage was located in individual houses.[14] Why was this change necessary? The growth in size and population of Mehrgarh does not imply that communal organization decreased - which is what is immediately suggested by loss of communal granaries. Possibly a greater degree of communal organization now existed, that replaced communal granaries, in form of cooperation with a chief or collective decision making body. However we have no evidence of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [15][16] At this stage such a formal organization, if it existed, might best be classed as emergent.

♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥

1. Ritual specialist
Clay figurines have been found but there is no evidence for a professional priesthood at Mehrgarh. [17] In the broader Early Harappan tradition there is evidence that there were priests, and Kenoyer refers to "ritual specialist". Howeverm Possehl says there is no evidence for a state religion. [18]


♠ Military levels ♣ [0-1] ♥ levels. Kenoyer writes that there is no evidence of the existence of an army even during the period 2600 BCE - 1900 BCE[19]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from Jonathan Kenoyer's claim that there is no evidence of the existence of an army even during the period 2600 BCE - 1900 BCE[20]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from Jonathan Kenoyer's claim that there is no evidence of the existence of an army even during the period 2600 BCE - 1900 BCE[21]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ Clay figurines have been found at Mehrgarh but there is no evidence for a professional priesthood. [22] However, in the broader Harappan tradition there is evidence for priests, and Kenoyer refers to "ritual specialist". [23]


Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ absent ♥ No evidence has been found of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [24][25]

An urban community of thousands suggests Mehrgarh likely had some degree of hierarchy for dispute resolution, perhaps a chief or collective decision making body. Evidence of dispute exists in the changing use of communal storage. In the previous periods Mehrgarh residents had organized communal food storage facilities. In this period food storage was located in individual houses.[26] Why was this change necessary? The growth in size and population of Mehrgarh does not imply that communal organization decreased - which is what is immediately suggested by loss of communal granaries. Possibly a greater degree of communal organization now existed, that replaced communal granaries, in form of cooperation with a chief or collective decision making body. However we have no evidence of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [27][28] At this stage such a formal organization, if it existed, might best be classed as emergent and without institutional architecture.

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ No evidence has been found of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [29][30] An urban community of thousands suggests Mehrgarh likely had some degree of hierarchy for dispute resolution, perhaps a chief or collective decision making body but there is no evidence for any institutions of government.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥ No evidence has been found of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [31][32] An urban community of thousands suggests Mehrgarh likely had some degree of hierarchy for dispute resolution, perhaps a chief or collective decision making body but there is no evidence for any institutions of government.

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ absent ♥ No evidence has been found of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [33][34]

An urban community of thousands suggests Mehrgarh likely had some degree of hierarchy for dispute resolution, perhaps a chief or collective decision making body. Evidence of dispute exists in the changing use of communal storage. In the previous periods Mehrgarh residents had organized communal food storage facilities. In this period food storage was located in individual houses.[35] Why was this change necessary? The growth in size and population of Mehrgarh does not imply that communal organization decreased - which is what is immediately suggested by loss of communal granaries. Possibly a greater degree of communal organization now existed, that replaced communal granaries, in form of cooperation with a chief or collective decision making body. However we have no evidence of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [36][37] At this stage such a formal organization, if it existed, might best be classed as emergent and without institutional architecture.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ absent ♥ No evidence has been found of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [38][39] Likewise in the context of the broader Harappan tradition there are no deciphered textual records from this period, or the Mature Harappan period, which suggest the presence of a legal code.[40]

♠ Judges ♣ absent ♥ No evidence has been found of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [41][42] An urban community of thousands suggests Mehrgarh likely had some degree of hierarchy for dispute resolution, perhaps a chief or collective decision making body but there is no evidence for any formal institutions or significant occupational specialization.

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥ No evidence has been found of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [43][44] An urban community of thousands suggests Mehrgarh likely had some degree of hierarchy for dispute resolution, perhaps a chief or collective decision making body but there is no evidence for any formal institutions or significant occupational specialization.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥ No evidence has been found of state organisation at Mehrgarh. [45][46] An urban community of thousands suggests Mehrgarh likely had some degree of hierarchy for dispute resolution, perhaps a chief or collective decision making body but there is no evidence for any formal institutions or significant occupational specialization.

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ Period II: variety of barley used "could be grown only in the irrigated fields, it implies and improved method of farming in the Kachi plains."[47] In the broader Harappan context, water control technology began during the Amri-Nal period. This included the use of small shallow ditches to guide water onto a flat area, and investment in some kind of bunding - a low earthen wall or a gabarband.[48]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ Mehrgarh settlement has been hypothesised as a marketplace or craft center "where people from the uplands gathered on a seasonal basis" [49]
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ absent ♥ Inland site would not have had a port.

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥ Stone quarries in the hills near the site of Nal (Naal). Period I and II at Damb Sadaat. Period IV at Anjira and Siah Damb. [50] Nal is just outside this NGA region but we can infer that the inhabitants of Mehrgarh also quarried stone e.g. for tools.

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [51] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing.[52]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [53] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing.[54]
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [55] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing.[56]
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [57] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing.[58]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [59] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing.[60]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [61] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing.[62]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [63] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing.[64]
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [65] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing.[66]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [67] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing.[68]
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [69] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing.[70]
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [71] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing.[72]
♠ History ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [73] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing.[74]
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [75] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing.[76]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [77] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing.[78]
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [79] While seals have been found in Mehrgarh III layers, these show no evidence of script or writing.[80]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ inferred present ♥ Presumed present for the trade of foreign materials (including lapis lazuli, calcite and steatite for bead production).[81]
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Copper was present from Mehrgarh III[82], but may not have been used as 'money'.
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥ No coins have been found in the archaeological record at Mehrgarh.[83]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ No coins have been found in the archaeological record at Mehrgarh.[84]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ No evidence of paper currency has been found in the archaeological record at Mehrgarh.[85]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Worth noting that materials were transported over long distances to Mehrgarh(including lapis lazuli[86]), but it is unknown who transported them.
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥ There are no archaeological remains which can be interpreted as postal stations at Mehrgarh, and are therefore presumed absent.[87] No evidence for social structure that could have organized a postal system nor one what would have required one.
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥ There are no archaeological remains which can be interpreted as postal stations at Mehrgarh, and are therefore presumed absent.[88] No evidence for social structure that could have organized a postal system nor one what would have required one.

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Will Farrell; Alice Williams ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [89].
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [90].
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [91].

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented".[92] Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [93]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon. Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [94]
♠ Slings ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented".[95] Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [96]
♠ Self bow ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented".[97] Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [98]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [99]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [100]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [101]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [102]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [103]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [104]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [105]
♠ Battle axes ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented".[106] Ground stone axe found in burial [107] - was this a battle axe? In one exceptional burial, a polished stone axe and three flint cores were placed in a basket and lay near the skull of the deceased. Sixteen blades from the same core were set in parallel rows along the spinal column [108]
♠ Daggers ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [109]
♠ Swords ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [110]
♠ Spears ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [111]
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [112]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [113]
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥ Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [114]
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [115]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [116]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [117]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Evidence of armor made from organic materials has not been recovered from Mehrgarh.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Evidence of armor made from organic materials has not been recovered from Mehrgarh.
♠ Shields ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [118]
♠ Helmets ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [119]
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [120]
♠ Limb protection ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [121]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [122]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [123]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [124]
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [125]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as Mehrgarh is landlocked.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as Mehrgarh is landlocked.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as Mehrgarh is landlocked.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred absent from lack of evidence of significant warfare.
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ absent ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [126] The data for fortifications is inferred. Possehl states that before the Urban phase (i.e. 2600 BCE) for only 3 sites out of 463 Pre-Urban sites the archaeological evidence could potentially be interpreted as having some sort of substantial circumvallation. [127]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ absent ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [128]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [129]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [130]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [131]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [132]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [133]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [134]


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

These codes refer to an explicit or defined right for some group to constrain the activity of the executive in some way, typically through a legal code, but other ways are imaginable (explain in paragraph if other mechanisms found). When coding ‘present’ for each of the below codes, provide explanation and give examples of the constraints being used, or note that the constraints were formalized but are no known instances of its use in practice.

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ unknown ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

We are interested here in any systems of thought and behavior that can influence people's actions, which we term a Normative Ideology. Normative ideologies are thought-systems concerned with the correct behavior of people, governments/leaders, and other groups (and particularly the relationships between these groups).

Mainly, this will be a religious or ritual system. As usual, when we mention Religious or Ritual System our focus is on the 'official cult', defined the same way as in the Rituals section:

With the official cult we refer to the set of collective religious practices that are most closely associated with legitimation of the power structure (including elites, if any).

However, Normative Ideologies are not restricted to religious/ritual systems. They include other thought systems, such as philosophy or anything that prescribes a particular pattern of behaviour. An example is classical Greek philosophy, such as the works of Plato and Aristotle, who were concerned with correct or moral behaviour and whose thoughts influenced the actual practice of several societies (the empire of Alexander the Great, notably).

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ ♥ .

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [135] [136] [137]

References

  1. Jarrige, J.-F. (1991) Mehrgarh: its place in the development of ancient cultures in Pakisan. In, Jansen, M., et al (eds.) Forgotten cities on the Indus: early civilization in Pakistan from the 8th-2nd millennium BC.p. 142
  2. Jarrige et al. (eds.), Mehrgarh: Field Reports, 57; Jarrige et al., ‘Mehrgarh Neolithic: the updated sequence’, 131, fig. 2; Jarrige et al., Mehrgarh: Neolithic Period; Jarrige, ‘Mehrgarh Neolithic: new excavations’; Jarrige, ‘Human figurines’; also Shaffer, ‘Indus valley’, vol. I, 454; G.L. Possehl, Indus Age: The Beginnings (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999), 464.
  3. Shaffer, ‘Indus valley’, vol. I, 453; Jarrige et al., ‘Mehrgarh Neolithic: the updated sequence’, 64
  4. Petrie C., Khan F., Knox R, Thomas K. & Morris J., 2010
  5. Rita Wright: The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy and Society; Cambridge: CUP, 2010, pp. 79-105
  6. Rita Wright: The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy and Society; Cambridge: CUP, 2010, pp. 79-105
  7. (Jarrige & Enault 1976, 29) Jarrige, Jean-François, and Jean-François Enault. 1976. “Fouilles de Pirak - Baluchistan.” Arts Asiatiques 32 (1): 29-70. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Q32UJUPX.
  8. (McIntosh 2008, 57-61) McIntosh, Jane. 2008. The Ancient Indus Valley. Santa Barbara; Denver; Oxford: ABC-CLIO. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/5P92SHE8.
  9. (Possehl 1999, 472) Possehl, Gregory L. 1999. Indus Age: The Beginnings. New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/IWNUD7IH.
  10. (Jarrige 2013, 135-154) Jarrige, J.-F. 2013. Mehrgarh Neolithic. Paris: Éditions de Boccard. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/4MKZA34B.
  11. (Jarrige 1995: 366) Catherine Jarrige, Jean-Francois Jarrige, Richard H. Meadow, and Gonzague Quivron. 1995. Mehrgarh. Karachi: Dept. of Culture and Tourism, Govt. of Sindh ; in collaboration with the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  12. A. Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Mar 2017
  13. A. Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Mar 2017
  14. Wright, R. P. (2010) The Ancient Indus: urbanism, economy and society. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. p53
  15. Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 6
  16. Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge
  17. Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge
  18. Burjor Avari, India: The Ancient Past: A History of the Indian Sub-Continent from C. 7000 BC to AD 1200 (London: Routledge, 2007), p.48;Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark, ‘The Indus Valley Tradition of Pakistan and Western India’, Journal of World Prehistory, 5 (1991), 370; Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 6.
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