PkAcerN

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Will Farrell; Robert Harding; Alice Williams ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Kachi Plain - Aceramic Neolithic ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Mehrgarh I ♥ Mehrgarh I.

♠ Peak Date ♣ unknown ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 7500-5500 BCE ♥ 7500-5500 BCE: Mehrgarh I. The beginning of Mehrgarh I is based on newer dates which suggest that settlement and food production began well before 7000 BCE as originally thought. [1] Earliest occupation at Mehrgarh was identified in the so-called area MR 3 (7 m of stratified deposits). These levels seem to not yield ceramic materials; however, fired ceramic figurines and asphalt-covered baskets are found. [2]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥

With limited archaeological (and no literary) evidence, it is not clear what sort of polity (or polities) were present at this time. [3]

The earliest sedentary populations in South Asia thus appear to have been relatively small, and to have favoured specific ecological zones for the establishment of their settlements. In this earliest stage, it is likely that sedentary populations co-existed with hunter gatherers, and at least at Mehrgarh, it appears that the initial farming populations also engaged in hunting. [4]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

With limited archaeological (and no literary) evidence, it is not clear what sort of polity (or polities) were present at this time. [5]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ not applicable ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ not applicable ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Kachi Plain - Ceramic Neolithic ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ not applicable ♥ As Mehrgarh I is not a polity, but a quasi-polity, Mehrgarh is not a capital. It is however both the best studied and archaeologically richest site.

♠ Language ♣ unknown ♥

General Description

The Kachi Plain, in modern-day Pakistan, is hemmed in on two of its three sides by the mountains of Baluchistan, while its southeastern side opens up to the Indus Valley.[6] The earliest evidence for agriculture here was found in Mehrgarh and dates to 7000 BCE. It is impossible to say whether Mehrgarh was part of a wider network of agricultural communities in the region, or whether it was unique and/or isolated. Besides agriculture, the inhabitants of Mehrgarh also relied, at this time, on hunting and gathering, but not yet on pastoralism.[7]

Population and political organization

It is not possible to give an accurate estimate of the region's population at this time,[8] and the size of occupied Mehrgarh is uncertain, as the population shifted over time and part of the site has been cut away by the Bolan River.[9] Similarly, the literature does not provide many clues as to the political organization of Mehrgarh or any other site in the region at this time.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Will Farrell; Robert Harding; Alice Williams ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers. Coded as not applicable: the living area is less than 1 km2 and the database in its current configuration does not accept decimal figures.

Mehrgarh overall is made up of 6 mounds, spread over an area of 500 acres. They were, however, not all occupied at the same time. [10]. The total number of sites known is 33.[11] Mehrgarh I - II inter-regional styles of wheel-made pottery [12]: the living area grew from 2ha to 12 ha.

♠ Polity Population ♣ suspected unknown ♥ It is not possible to make an accurate estimate.[13]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [400-600] ♥ The size of occupied Mehrgarh is uncertain, as the population shifted over time and part of the site has been cut away by the Bolan River.[14]. A. Ceccarelli [15] confirms that it is not easy to estimate the population of Mehrgarh at this time because it is not clear how much of the site was inhabited at any given moment. As for burial data, "We do not yet know to what degree the excavated area may represent the whole graveyard and to what extent the burials reflect the actualliving population." [16] However, "The total area is likely to be at least twelve hectares, however, including that which has been washed away by the Balan River. Such an expanse of cultural remains is difficult ta interpret until it is made clear that these deposits, in fact, do not represent the remains a permanent senlement. Only in the central part the senlement are superimposed architectural remains visible in the section cut by the Balan River and in the sections exposed in the soundings."[17] If we assume that between 4 and 12 hectares were occupied at any one time, and that there were about 50 inhabitants per hectare, then perhaps the site was inhabited by between 400 and 600 inhabitants.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels. Territorial polities cannot be assumed to have existed at this point. It is also worth noting that it is not clear how much of the site Mehgarh was inhabited at any one time[18].

1. ?Mehrgarh
2. ?Villages
Village farming community begins at least by 7th millennium BCE. [19]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels. “Agriculture and herding were well established by the beginning of Stage Two and some subsistence surpluses were possible. The excavators think that this does not imply that we can reconstruct the social stratigraphy that would be associated with an archaic state, but some internal differentiation of the Stage Two society is possible, in view of the sophistication of craft production documented at Mehrgarh.”[20]

♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels. Clay figurines have been found but there is no evidence for a religious hierarchy at Mehrgarh.[21]

“At Mehrgarh human figurines are miniature works of art in clay. The earliest human figurines in Periods I are seated or standing and schematically represented. They were formed from a single piece of clay, with minimal representation of arms and legs; a few were adorned with necklaces and belts applied to the basic figure. Some were decorated with red ochre. In general, they range in size from 1.5 to 10 centimeters. Many of the figurines have feminine characteristics - realistic breasts; one standing figure bears the hint of genitalia and is obviously male (Jarrige 2005: 30-31). Catherine Jarrige (1991, 2005) conducted extensive study of the Mehrgarh figurines. As she points out, their frequent presence in trash deposits gives the impression they were discarded haphazardly. However, there are several clues that may lead to an understanding of their significance to the people at Mehrgarh. One is reflected in the locations of trash deposits. Since many of the deposits are found in household areas, they may represent a domestic cult, perhaps associated with “representations of tutelary deities for the family, the clan or a relevant profession” (Jarrige 1991: 92). Another possibility is their use for magical practices, as is frequently the case in agrarian societies (Jarrige 1991: 92). The recent discovery of one of the pierced human figurines in a grave from Period I, in which the figurine was held to the dead woman’s face in clasped hands, may indicate something about the role she played in society (Jarrige 2005: 34).

♠ Military levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels. Kenoyer writes that there is no evidence of the existence of an army even during the period 2600 BCE - 1900 BCE.[22]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from Jonathan Kenoyer's claim that there is no evidence of the existence of an army even during the period 2600 BCE - 1900 BCE.[23].

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from Jonathan Kenoyer's claim that there is no evidence of the existence of an army even during the period 2600 BCE - 1900 BCE.[24].

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred absent ♥ Clay figurines have been found but there is no evidence for a professional priesthood at Mehrgarh. [25].

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for employment specialization characteristic of a developed urban society. Agricultural and herding would be typical occupations with "some internal differentiation ... in view of the sophistication of craft production documented at Mehrgarh.”[26]

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for employment specialization characteristic of a developed urban society. Agricultural and herding would be typical occupations with "some internal differentiation ... in view of the sophistication of craft production documented at Mehrgarh.”[27]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for employment specialization characteristic of a developed urban society. Agricultural and herding would be typical occupations with "some internal differentiation ... in view of the sophistication of craft production documented at Mehrgarh.”[28]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ absent ♥

♠ Judges ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for employment specialization characteristic of a developed urban society. Agricultural and herding would be typical occupations with "some internal differentiation ... in view of the sophistication of craft production documented at Mehrgarh.”[29]

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for employment specialization characteristic of a developed urban society. Agricultural and herding would be typical occupations with "some internal differentiation ... in view of the sophistication of craft production documented at Mehrgarh.”[30]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥ No evidence for employment specialization characteristic of a developed urban society. Agricultural and herding would be typical occupations with "some internal differentiation ... in view of the sophistication of craft production documented at Mehrgarh.”[31]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ Evidence for irrigation technology does not appear to predate the Chalcolithic [32]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ Evidence for trade bringing exotic raw materials such as lapis lazuli to Mehrgarh indicates that long-range contacts were maintained over several millennia, so there should be no doubt that this earliest phase of village occupation in South Asia was one where people and ideas could be spread widely. While several of the domesticated plant and animal species seen at Mehrgarh in period I were not domesticated locally, it is not yet possible to establish whether we are looking at cultural diffusion, where farming was adopted by local foragers, demic diffusion, where farmers moved onto the Kacchi plain from elsewhere, or some combination of the two processes taking place in tandem. [33] There is also evidence for long-distance trade of shell artefacts [34]
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ Period I: Early Mehrgarh residents stored their grain in granaries. [35]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ absent ♥ Inland site would not have had a port.

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥ Stone quarries in the hills near the site of Nal (Naal). Period I and II at Damb Sadaat. [36] Nal is just outside this NGA region but we can infer that the inhabitants of Mehrgarh also quarried stone e.g. for tools.

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley [37], and it is unclear whether mnemonic devices were in use instead.
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley [38], and it is unclear whether nonwritten records were in use instead.
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [39]
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [40]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [41]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [42]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [43]
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [44]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [45]
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [46]
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [47]
♠ History ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [48]
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [49]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [50]
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥ Possehl states that there was no writing before the urban phase in the Indus valley. [51]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ inferred present ♥ Presumed present for the trade of foreign materials (including lapis lazuli, calcite and steatite for bead production).[52]
♠ Precious metals ♣ unknown ♥ Copper was present from Mehrgarh III[53], but may not have been used as 'money'.
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥ No coins have been found in the archaeological record at Mehrgarh.[54]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ No coins have been found in the archaeological record at Mehrgarh.[55]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ No evidence of paper currency has been found in the archaeological record at Mehrgarh.[56]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Worth noting that materials were transported over long distances to Mehrgarh(including lapis lazuli[57]), but it is unknown who transported them.
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥ There are no archaeological remains which can be interpreted as postal stations at Mehrgarh, and are therefore presumed absent.[58] No evidence for social structure that could have organized a postal system nor one what would have required one.
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥ There are no archaeological remains which can be interpreted as postal stations at Mehrgarh, and are therefore presumed absent.[59] No evidence for social structure that could have organized a postal system nor one what would have required one.

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Will Farrell; Alice Williams ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [60].
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [61].
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [62].

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented".[63] Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [64]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon. Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [65]
♠ Slings ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented".[66]Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [67]
♠ Self bow ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented".[68] Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [69]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [70]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [71]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [72]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [73]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [74]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as occurred later [75]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [76]
♠ Battle axes ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions/lists of finds from Mehrgarh. "War technology is not well represented".[77] ground stone axe found in burial (Ahmed 2014, p. 316). - was this a battle axe? In one exceptional burial, a polished stone axe and three flint cores were placed in a basket and lay near the skull of the deceased. Sixteen blades from the same core were set in parallel rows along the spinal column [78]
♠ Daggers ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [79]
♠ Swords ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [80]
♠ Spears ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [81]
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [82]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [83]
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥ Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [84]
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [85]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [86]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Inferred due to lack of evidence of warfare [87]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Evidence of armor made from organic materials has not been recovered from Mehrgarh.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Evidence of armor made from organic materials has not been recovered from Mehrgarh.
♠ Shields ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [88]
♠ Helmets ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [89]
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [90]
♠ Limb protection ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [91]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [92]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [93]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [94]
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Only flint, bone and copper tools tools have been found at Mehrgarh [95]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as Mehrgarh is landlocked.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as Mehrgarh is landlocked.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ Inferred as Mehrgarh is landlocked.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred absent from lack of evidence of significant warfare.
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ absent ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [96]. The data for fortifications is inferred. Possehl states that before the Urban phase (i.e. 2600 BCE) for only 3 sites out of 463 Pre-Urban sites the archaeological evidence could potentially be interpreted as having some sort of substantial circumvallation. [97].
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ absent ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [98].
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moat ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [99].
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [100].
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [101].
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [102].
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [103].
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Inferred lack of substantial circumvallation. [104].


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

These codes refer to an explicit or defined right for some group to constrain the activity of the executive in some way, typically through a legal code, but other ways are imaginable (explain in paragraph if other mechanisms found). When coding ‘present’ for each of the below codes, provide explanation and give examples of the constraints being used, or note that the constraints were formalized but are no known instances of its use in practice.

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ suspected unknown♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ unknown ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

We are interested here in any systems of thought and behavior that can influence people's actions, which we term a Normative Ideology. Normative ideologies are thought-systems concerned with the correct behavior of people, governments/leaders, and other groups (and particularly the relationships between these groups).

Mainly, this will be a religious or ritual system. As usual, when we mention Religious or Ritual System our focus is on the 'official cult', defined the same way as in the Rituals section:

With the official cult we refer to the set of collective religious practices that are most closely associated with legitimation of the power structure (including elites, if any).

However, Normative Ideologies are not restricted to religious/ritual systems. They include other thought systems, such as philosophy or anything that prescribes a particular pattern of behaviour. An example is classical Greek philosophy, such as the works of Plato and Aristotle, who were concerned with correct or moral behaviour and whose thoughts influenced the actual practice of several societies (the empire of Alexander the Great, notably).

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ .

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [105] [106] [107]

References

  1. Jarrige, J.-F. (1991) Mehrgarh: its place in the development of ancient cultures in Pakisan. In, Jansen, M., et al (eds.) Forgotten cities on the Indus: early civilization in Pakistan from the 8th-2nd millennium BC.p. 142
  2. Jarrige et al. (eds.), Mehrgarh: Field Reports, 57; Jarrige et al., ‘Mehrgarh Neolithic: the updated sequence’, 131, fig. 2; Jarrige et al., Mehrgarh: Neolithic Period; Jarrige, ‘Mehrgarh Neolithic: new excavations’; Jarrige, ‘Human figurines’; also Shaffer, ‘Indus valley’, vol. I, 454; G.L. Possehl, Indus Age: The Beginnings (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999), 464.
  3. Rita Wright: The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy and Society; Cambridge: CUP, 2010, pp. 79-105
  4. Petrie, C. A. (in press) Chapter 11, Case Study: Mehrgarh. In, Barker, G and Goucher, C (eds.) Cambridge World History, Volume 2: A World with Agriculture, 12,000 BCE - 500 CE. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge
  5. Rita Wright: The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy and Society; Cambridge: CUP, 2010, pp. 79-105
  6. (Jarrige & Enault 1976, 29) Jarrige, Jean-François, and Jean-François Enault. 1976. “Fouilles de Pirak - Baluchistan.” Arts Asiatiques 32 (1): 29-70. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/Q32UJUPX.
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  12. (Ahmed 2014, 322)
  13. Gregory L. Possehl. Indus Age: The Beginnings. New Delhi, 1999, p.472
  14. Jarrige, J. F. (2008). Mehrgarh neolithic. Pragdhara, 18, 135-154.
  15. Alessandro Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017
  16. (Sellier 1995: 430) Pascal Sellier. 1995. 'Physical Anthropology' in Mehrgarh, edited by Catherine Jarrige, Jean-Francois Jarrige, Richard H. Meadow, and Gonzague Quivron. Karachi: Dept. of Culture and Tourism, Govt. of Sindh ; in collaboration with the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  17. (Jarrige 1995: 366) Catherine Jarrige, Jean-Francois Jarrige, Richard H. Meadow, and Gonzague Quivron. 1995. Mehrgarh. Karachi: Dept. of Culture and Tourism, Govt. of Sindh ; in collaboration with the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  18. Alessandro Ceccarelli, pers. comm. to E. Cioni, Feb 2017
  19. (Ahmed 2014, 312)
  20. Agrawal, D. P. (2007) The Indus Civilization: An interdisciplinary perspective. Aryan Books International: New Delhi.
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  22. Jonathan Mark Kenoyer. 'Uncovering the keys to the Lost Indus Cities', Scientific American, vol. 15, no. 1, 2005, p. 29.
  23. Jonathan Mark Kenoyer. 'Uncovering the keys to the Lost Indus Cities', Scientific American, vol. 15, no. 1, 2005, p. 29.
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  34. (Kenoyer 1995: 566-582) Jonathan Mark Kenoyer. 1995. 'Shell trade and shell working during the Neolithic and Chalcolithic at Mehrgarh, Pakistan' in Mehrgarh, edited by Catherine Jarrige, Jean-Francois Jarrige, Richard H. Meadow, and Gonzague Quivron. Karachi: Dept. of Culture and Tourism, Govt. of Sindh ; in collaboration with the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  35. (Ahmed 2014, 313)
  36. (Singh 2008, 107-108)
  37. Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.
  38. Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.
  39. Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.
  40. Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.
  41. Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.
  42. Gregory L. Possehl. The Indus Civilization. A Contemporary Perspective. Walnut Creek, Altamira, 2002, p. 51.
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