PeCuzLF

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Cuzco - Late Formative ♥

"Like other recent authors working in the Cuzco region (e.g. Zapata 1998), I have elected to call the period of time between the advent of ceramic production and the appearance of Qotakalli pottery in the Cuzco region the Formative Period." [1]

♠ Alternative names ♣ Wimpillay; Chanapata ♥

During a survey the author was involved with "Wimpillay not only proved to be the largest Late Formative Phase site in the Cuzco and Oropesa Basins, but it also provided the finest Late Formative Phase pottery. The association of finer craft production with the largest village of a basin to serve the demands of a developing elite class is frequently observed in the archaeological record. It lends support to the unique importance that Wimpillay may have held among the Late Formative Phase sites of the basin." [2]

"On the basis of these findings, it can be suggested that the production of Chanapata and related ceramics started around 500-300 BC and continued until after the turn of the first millennium AD." [3]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 200 CE ♥

Since the level of complexity is thought to be low and gradual development occurred throughout the period, a date late in the period may coincide with the greatest level of social complexity.


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 500 BCE-200 CE ♥


"I currently interpret the site of Wimpillay to be the center of a valley-wide chiefdom during the Late Formative phase." [4]

Early Formative

Starts c2200 BCE with beginnings of ceramic production; Ends 1500 BCE with the establishment of large permanent villages[5]

Middle Formative

Starts 1500 BCE with the development of Marcavalle ceramics and the first villages; Ends 500 BCE [6]
represented by small independent villages.[7]

Late Formative

500 BCE - 200 CE
Chanapata ceramic style, the first pre-Inca ceramic style of the Cuzco region
"during this period a clear settlement hierarchy developed."[8]


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ none ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

"It may also be noted that there is a distinct clustering of sites in the Cachimayu area, in the northwest extreme of our survey area (Map 5.1). This cluster is made all the more notable by the fact that there are no Formative Period sites in the high watershed area between the Cachimayu area and the Cuzco Basin. These sites most likely represent a small village cluster that paid allegiance to the elites of Cuzco or a similar chiefly society developing in or near the Plain of Anta, further to the west." [9] Bauer also refers to the existence of "important villages near the modern towns of Yaurisque and Paruro", in the Cusichaca area, in Chit'apampa and the Cuyo Basin, and a chiefdom in the Lucre Basin. [10] "Since periods of chiefdom developmment are frequently marked by conflict as many roughly equal polities compete for dominance, it is possible that additional research in the Cuzco region will not only help us to better define the political divisions of the area, but will also bring forth evidence of conflict and alliance formations between the many different chiefly centers." [11]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Cuzco - Formative ♥ Also referred to as 'Marcavalle' [12]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ "Agricultural intensification continued during the Late Formative Phase." [13] "The Late Formative Period is a time of special interest in the prehistory of the Cuzco Valley, since it is during this period that a clear settlement hierarchy developed." [14] There does not seem to be many changes from the Marcavalle period, apart from a complexification of social and settlement hierarchy.
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ PeCuzE1 ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Lake Titicaca cultural sphere ♥ "These kinds of communities, and the social process that they were experiencing, seem quite similar to what was taking place on the Altiplano." [15]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Wimpillay ♥ Implication that Wimpillay dominated the settlement pattern in Late Formative times [16]

Language

♠ Language ♣ suspected unknown ♥

General Description

The Formative period in the Cuzco valley (2200-500 BCE) marks the transition from small-scale semi-nomadic groups of hunter-gatherers to sedentary villages associated with ceramic production and agriculture. Traditionally, it has been subdivided into three periods. The Early Formative (2200-1500 BCE) corresponds to the beginning of ceramic production and quinoa cultivation and the establishment of large, permanent villages.[17] During the Middle Formative (1500-500 BCE), Marcavalle ceramics appeared and villages grew, possibly leading to the beginnings of ranked village societies.[18] The domestication of camelids was also under way.[19] The Late Formative (500 BCE-200 CE) saw the emergence of a three-tiered settlement pattern in the Cuzco and Oropesa basins, dominated by the settlement of Wimpillay.[20] This period is also known as Chanapata, in reference to a dominant ceramic style discovered in the 1940s.[21] It is possible that other small chiefdoms existed in the region: a few early villages have been found near Raqchi in the Chit'apampa Basin,[22] and there may have been some small independent polities near Paruro and Cusichaca.[23] In the Lucre Basin to the east of modern Cuzco, a small chiefdom may have centred around the site of Choquepukio.[24]

Population and political organization

The population of these early polities remains unknown, but over 80 archaeological sites dating to this period have been surveyed in the valley by archaeologist Brian Bauer.[25] Some of these were identified as hamlets and small villages, with between a few dozen and a few hundred inhabitants.[26] More research is needed in order to understand sociopolitical relations at the time, but Bauer has interpreted the Late Formative as the period in which chiefdoms begin to emerge.[27] This process continued and solidified in the Early Intermediate Period.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ suspected unknown ♥ 100-200 squared kilometers. The area near Cuzco within which Late Formative sites have been found [28] However, it is not very clear how many quasi-polities occupied this area.

"In a recent overview of the Cuzco Formative Period, Zapata (1998) plots the location of some forty Late Formative sites spread along the Vilcanota River drainage between the site of Machu Picchu and the city of Sicunai. To this sum, we can add thiry additional Late Formative sites in the Province of Paruro and those that have recently been found in the Cuzco Valley. The number of Formative Period sites in the Cuzco Valley is well over eighty (Map 5.1.). Most of these sites date to the Late Formative Phase." [29]

♠ Polity Population ♣ unknown ♥ [30]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ unknown ♥ [31]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥ levels. [32]

1.. Center
2. Villages
3. Hamlets

"For the Formative Period, Bauer has identified another three-tiered settlement system in the Cusco Basin, as well as thirty-one small sites in the Paruro region that may or may not have been organized hierarchically." [33]

"Our regional survey data document a multitiered settlement pattern for the Late Formative Phase, with numerous small sites, a variety of bigger settlements, and a single center (Map 5.2)." [34]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred absent ♥ There probably was no formal legal code as writing was not developed until the arrival of the Spanish. "There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish., notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [35]

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ "The maize fields near Marcavalle and elsewhere across the lower elevations of the Cuzco Valley would have been supported by seasonal rains and perhaps by small irrigation ditches that were constructed to bring water from adjacent springs or streams." [36]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ inferred absent ♥ According to Alan Covey: "No evidence of money. I don’t know how one would document “markets”—in the exchange sense or the spatial sense? There is not enough evidence to evaluate exchange systems in the Cuzco region before Inca times, and the study of Inca exchange is steeped in substantivist/Marxian ideology that downplays exchange." [37]
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥ According to Alan Covey: " Karen Chávez and John Rowe had small excavations with contexts of that date, but no clear architecture. It’s not clear what Zapata dug at Muyu Urqu, or what Gordon McEwan and Arminda Gibaja found at Chokepukio, but there doesn’t seem to be a discussion of public storage." [38]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred absent ♥ "For more than a thousand years, the peoples of the Cuzco region had obtained their obsidian from sources located in the Alca region. During the Wari Period, when Wari occupied parts of the Cuzco region, the obsidian flow from this source stopped." [39] This suggests that the Cuzco people did not have their own obsidian quarries.

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ Writing was not developed until the arrival of the Spanish. "There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish., notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [40]
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥ Writing was not developed until the arrival of the Spanish. "There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish., notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [41]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Writing was not developed until the arrival of the Spanish. "There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish., notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [42]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ Writing was not developed until the arrival of the Spanish. "There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish., notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [43]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥ "There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish., notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [44]
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥ "There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish., notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [45]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥ "There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish., notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [46]
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥ "There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish., notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [47]
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥ "There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish., notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [48]
♠ History ♣ absent ♥ "There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish., notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [49]
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥ "There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish., notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [50]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥ "There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish., notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [51]
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥ "There was no true writing system in the Andes prior to the arrival of the Spanish., notwithstanding recent interpretations of the quipu (see Quilter and Urton 2002) and the tocapu pictograms." [52]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥ According to Alan Covey: "No evidence of money. I don’t know how one would document “markets”—in the exchange sense or the spatial sense? There is not enough evidence to evaluate exchange systems in the Cuzco region before Inca times, and the study of Inca exchange is steeped in substantivist/Marxian ideology that downplays exchange." [53]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ According to Alan Covey: "No evidence of money. I don’t know how one would document “markets”—in the exchange sense or the spatial sense? There is not enough evidence to evaluate exchange systems in the Cuzco region before Inca times, and the study of Inca exchange is steeped in substantivist/Marxian ideology that downplays exchange." [54]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ According to Alan Covey: "No evidence of money. I don’t know how one would document “markets”—in the exchange sense or the spatial sense? There is not enough evidence to evaluate exchange systems in the Cuzco region before Inca times, and the study of Inca exchange is steeped in substantivist/Marxian ideology that downplays exchange." [55]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ there was no steel/iron before the arrival of the Spanish.
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ there was no steel/iron before the arrival of the Spanish.

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Projectile points associated with deer hunting. [56]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ this technology has not been found in the Americas
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ There was no gunpowder before the arrival of the Spanish.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ There was no gunpowder before the arrival of the Spanish.

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Swords ♣ absent ♥ Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.
♠ Spears ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Dogs existed in Peru but no evidence to say whether they were used for warfare
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥ Not native to this region.
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Not native to this region.
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Not native to this region.
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Not native to this region.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Helmets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ inferred absent ♥ Small size of polity implies that there was no significant naval military activity.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred absent ♥ Small size of polity implies that there was no significant naval military activity.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ "Many of these sites are located on hilltops, knolls, promontories, and the ends of ridges. This pattern is found elsewhere in the surrounding area, including the province of Paruro (Bauer 1999, 2002), the Cusichaca area (Hey 1984) and the Huaro Basin (Zapata 1998)." [57]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km. Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Although there is no information on the warfare of this period, it is highly unlikely the resources were available for this technology.

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

These codes refer to an explicit or defined right for some group to constrain the activity of the executive in some way, typically through a legal code, but other ways are imaginable (explain in paragraph if other mechanisms found). When coding ‘present’ for each of the below codes, provide explanation and give examples of the constraints being used, or note that the constraints were formalized but are no known instances of its use in practice.

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Governmental officials (i.e. judiciary/legislature) can veto or overturn executive decision (including removing a political appointment), or withhold cooperation (e.g., refuse to provide funds or allow raising troops), regardless of whether or not these limits were actually practiced. Explain in paragraph
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Non-governmental organization (elite, social group, community organization, economic group, etc.) can veto or overturn executive decision (including removing a political appointment), or withhold cooperation (e.g., refuse to provide funds or allow raising troops), regardless of whether or not these limits were actually practiced. Explain in paragraph. Note: this does not include religious groups (Church leaders, Buddhist monks, etc.), since that is coded elsewhere)
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. There is a legal mechanism for removing and replacing the head of state

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Members of the ‘elite’ inherit their status and positions. If the ruler position is inherited most of the time, then these are sufficient grounds to code this variable as present

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [58] [59] [60]

References

  1. (Bauer 2004, 39)
  2. (Bauer 2004, 43-44)
  3. (Bauer 2004, 42)
  4. (Bauer 2004, 44)
  5. (Bauer 2004, 39)
  6. (Bauer 2004, 39)
  7. (Bauer 2004, 44)
  8. (Bauer 2004, 44)
  9. (Bauer 2004, 45)
  10. (Bauer 2004, 46)
  11. (Bauer 2004, 46)
  12. (Bauer 2004, 40)
  13. (Bauer 2004, 44)
  14. (Bauer 2004, 45)
  15. (Quilter 2013, 160)
  16. (Bauer 2004, 52)
  17. (Bauer 2004, 39) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
  18. (Bauer 2004, 40) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
  19. (Bauer 2004, 41) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
  20. (Bauer 2004, 44-45) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
  21. (Bauer 2004, 42) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
  22. (Covey 2006, 61) Alan R. Covey. 2006. How the Incas Built Their Heartland: State Formation and the Innovation of Imperial Strategies in the Sacred Valley, Peru. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
  23. (Bauer 2004, 46) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
  24. (Bauer 2004, 46) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
  25. (Bauer 2004, 42) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
  26. (Bauer 2004, 43) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
  27. (Bauer 2004, 45) Brian S. Bauer. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
  28. (Bauer 2004, 45)
  29. (Bauer 2004, 42)
  30. (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)
  31. (Brian Bauer 2015, personal communication)
  32. (Bauer 2004, 39)
  33. (Covey 2006, 61)
  34. (Bauer 2004, 45)
  35. (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)
  36. (Bauer 2004, 44)
  37. (Alan Covey 2015, personal communication)
  38. (Alan Covey 2015, personal communication)
  39. (Bauer 2004, 68)
  40. (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)
  41. (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)
  42. (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)
  43. (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)
  44. (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)
  45. (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)
  46. (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)
  47. (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)
  48. (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)
  49. (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)
  50. (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)
  51. (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)
  52. (Hiltunen and McEwan 2004, 236)
  53. (Alan Covey 2015, personal communication)
  54. (Alan Covey 2015, personal communication)
  55. (Alan Covey 2015, personal communication)
  56. (Bauer 2004, 44)
  57. (Bauer 2004, 43)
  58. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  59. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  60. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html

Bauer, B S. 1999. The Early Ceramics of the Inca Heartland. Fieldiana. Anthropology. New Series No. 34. Field Museum of Natural History. [1]

Bauer, B S. 2004. Ancient Cuzco: Heartland of the Inca. University of Texas Press, Austin.

Covey, R A. 2006. How The Incas Built Their Heartland. State Formation and the Innovation of Imperial Strategies in the Sacred Valley, Peru. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Hiltunen, J. and GF McEwan. 2004. Knowing the Inca past. In H. Silverman (ed) Andean archaeology. Blackwell, London.

McEwan, G. F. 2006. Inca State Origins: Collapse and Regeneration in the Southern Peruvian Andes, en: G. M. Schwartz y J. J. Nichols (eds.), After Collapse: The Regeneration of Complex Societies, 85-98, University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Modelski, G. 2003. World Cities -3000 to 2000. FAROS 2000. Washington D.C

Moseley, M. 2001. The Incas and their Ancestors: the Archaeology of Peru. Revised edition. London: Thames and Hudson.

Quilter, J. 2013. The Ancient Central Andes. Routledge.

Zapata Rodríguez, J. 1998. Los Cerros Sagrados: Panorama del Periodo Formativo en la Cuenca del Vilcanota, Cuzco. Boletín de Arqueología PUCP, N°2, 307-336.