MxToltc

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Giulia Nazzaro ♥

♠ Original name ♣ ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 900-1199 CE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥

Language

♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

The Basin or Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly corresponding to modern-day Mexico City. Here, we are interested in the period when the Basin was under the control of a city known as Tula (c. 900-1199 CE). Some scholars have argued that Tula corresponded to Tollan, the capital of the Toltecs; according to the Aztecs as well as other Mesoamerican sources, the Toltecs were the Aztec's hegemonic predecessors in the region.[1] Tula itself had up to 60,000 inhabitants.[2] The Basin of Mexico experienced an increase in the number of settlements, and archaeological data suggest that the rural population had access to the same material goods and trading networks as Tula.[3]

There is no evidence that Tula was the capital of an empire, but it is clear that its influence extended beyond the confines of the Basin of Mexico, and that it extracted food and other revenue from its surrounding region. The city's many buildings with large halls and evidence for feasts and other types of large gatherings, as well as depictions of processions, suggest that, perhaps like Teotihuacan, it may have relied on an administrative system wherein power was distributed among different sectors of society.[4]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Giulia Nazzaro ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [20,000-25,000] ♥ km2. [5]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [150,000-200,000] ♥ "By about CE 1200, there were fewer than 200,000 people in the Basin".[6]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [30,000-60,000] ♥ "The Tollan phase (950AD-1150 or 1200) marks the major occupation of the capital, with the city [Tula][...] reaching an estimated population of 30,000-40,000".[7] David Carballo suggested a rough estimate of "50-60k" inhabitants for Tula at this time.[8]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ levels. The polity included Hamlets, Small Villages, Large villages and small provincial or regional centres. Information retrieved from table 5.13 of Sanders et al. 1979[9]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 4 ♥ levels. "We could infer about 4 [tiers] earlier (Teo and Toltec) through art and architecture, but they are not textually documented."[10]

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Military levels ♣ 2 ♥ levels. At least two tiers can be inferred for the Toltecs.[11]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥ Professional military officers are known by Teotihuacan (ca. 250-550 CE). The information for this code is based primarily on art and are less secure than what we know from the Aztec Period (1450-1521). [12]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present ♥ Professional soldiers are known by Teotihuacan (ca. 250-550 CE). The information for this code is based primarily on art and are less secure than what we know from the Aztec Period (1450-1521). [13]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ Professional priests are known by Teotihuacan (ca. 250-550 CE). The information for this code is based primarily on art and are less secure than what we know from the Aztec Period (1450-1521). [14]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred present ♥ Full time bureaucrats are known by Teotihuacan (ca. 250-550 CE). The information for this code is based primarily on art and are less secure than what we know from the Aztec Period (1450-1521). [15]

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Possible in the Aztec period, unknown before.[16]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Unknown until the Aztec period.[17]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Government buildings are known by Teotihuacan (ca. 250-550 CE).[18]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Unknown for the Toltecs.[19]

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Likely unknown before the Aztec period.[20]

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥ [21]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥ [22]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ "Other kinds of civic buildings [at Tula] one might expect to find with more excavation includes palaces, marketplaces, government storehouses, and calmecacs (priestly schools)".
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ "Other kinds of civic buildings [at Tula] one might expect to find with more excavation includes palaces, marketplaces, government storehouses, and calmecacs (priestly schools)".

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥
♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ present ♥ Present since the Archaic Period c. 10 ka.[23]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ First evidence in the Early Formative period (1500-1000 BCE).[24]
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ "Absent in the Basin, present in lowland Mesoamerica c. 100 BCE-900CE."[25]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ First evidence in Teotihuacan c. 200 CE.[26]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ [27]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥ [28]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ First evidence in Mesoamerica c. 500 BCE. Present at Teotihuacan c. 200 CE onwards.[29]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Present in Classic Maya 200-900 CE. Possibly present in Teotihuacan. Present in the Basin by c. 1300 CE.[30]
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥ [31]
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥ [32]
♠ History ♣ absent ♥ Present in Classic Maya 200-900 CE. Only records in the Basin are conquest records by the Aztec (1450-1519 CE).[33]
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥ "Known for the colonial period, maybe oral philosophy earlier."[34]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Astronomical almanacs inferred for Classic period, c. 200-900, preserved from c. 1300 onwards."[35]
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥ [36]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System=

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Giulia Nazzaro ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent ♥ Tula has yielded no metal of any kind, neither copper nor gold.[37]
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ Tula has yielded no metal of any kind, neither copper nor gold.[38]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Tula has yielded no metal of any kind, neither copper nor gold.[39]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Tula has yielded no metal of any kind, neither copper nor gold.[40]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions and lists of Toltec weaponry.
♠ Atlatl ♣ present ♥ Pyramid B had two rooms which were supported by four warriors carrying an atlatl and a bag of incense.[41] "Toltec arms included atlatls and darts, knives, and a curved club that I have labelled a short sword."[42]
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ "...slings may well have been used for greater distance."[43]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions and lists of Toltec weaponry.
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions and lists of Toltec weaponry.
♠ Crossbow ♣ ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ "Toltec arms included atlatls and darts, knives, and a curved club that I have labelled a short sword."[44]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions and lists of Toltec weaponry.
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "Toltec arms included atlatls and darts, knives, and a curved club that I have labelled a short sword."[45]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ "Toltec arms included atlatls and darts, knives, and a curved club that I have labelled a short sword."[46]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions and lists of Toltec weaponry.
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in detailed descriptions and lists of Toltec weaponry.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Although domesticated dogs were present during this period,[47][48] their function is unclear (food and/or hunting),[49][50] and war dogs were unknown in Mesoamerica at the time of the Spanish Conquest; indeed, Hassig lists war dogs among the new military "technologies" the Spanish introduced to the region in the sixteenth century[51].[52][53]
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥ Not native to region.
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Not native to region.
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Not native to region.
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Not native to region.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ "There were two types of armor, full body and left arm, both made of quilted cotton."[54]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ "Toltecs [were] bearing spearthrowers and back shields".[55]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ "Headgear consisted of a pillbox-shaped hat".[56]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ "There were two types of armor, full body and left arm, both made of quilted cotton."[57]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ "Protection against enemy darts was provided by a heavy padding of quilted cotton on the left arm".[58]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ "There were two types of armor, full body and left arm, both made of quilted cotton."[59]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ "There were two types of armor, full body and left arm, both made of quilted cotton."[60]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ "There were two types of armor, full body and left arm, both made of quilted cotton."[61]
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ "There were two types of armor, full body and left arm, both made of quilted cotton."[62]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ ♥
♠ Moat ♣ ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ "Whereas no sites are documented as fortified or military observatories during the Formative and Classic periods, approximately one quarter of sites are during the Epiclassic and one-third of sites are during the Postclassic."[63]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

These codes refer to an explicit or defined right for some group to constrain the activity of the executive in some way, typically through a legal code, but other ways are imaginable (explain in paragraph if other mechanisms found). When coding ‘present’ for each of the below codes, provide explanation and give examples of the constraints being used, or note that the constraints were formalized but are no known instances of its use in practice.

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Governmental officials (i.e. judiciary/legislature) can veto or overturn executive decision (including removing a political appointment), or withhold cooperation (e.g., refuse to provide funds or allow raising troops), regardless of whether or not these limits were actually practiced. Explain in paragraph
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Non-governmental organization (elite, social group, community organization, economic group, etc.) can veto or overturn executive decision (including removing a political appointment), or withhold cooperation (e.g., refuse to provide funds or allow raising troops), regardless of whether or not these limits were actually practiced. Explain in paragraph. Note: this does not include religious groups (Church leaders, Buddhist monks, etc.), since that is coded elsewhere)
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. There is a legal mechanism for removing and replacing the head of state

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Members of the ‘elite’ inherit their status and positions. If the ruler position is inherited most of the time, then these are sufficient grounds to code this variable as present

Religion and Normative Ideology

Deification of Rulers

(‘gods’ is a shorthand for ‘supernatural agents’)

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. For example, rulers are blessed by gods; the institution of kingship is ordained by heaven

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown.

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

These codes refer to acts undertaken without direct compulsion from or out of adherence to a religious system (religious aspects of prosociality are coded below)

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Religious doctrine, philosophical statements, or practice makes claims about equality. For instance, explicit statements by religious groups or influential philosophers that all humans are equal

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Religious doctrine, philosophical statements, or practice makes claims about engaging in activity for the benefit of a wider community, for instance Christian traditions of alms-giving or Islamic sadaqah

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Public Goods refer to anything that incurs cost to an individual or group of individuals, but that can be used or enjoyed by others who did not incur any of the cost, namely the public at large. They are non-excludable and non-rivalrous goods. Examples are roads, public drinking fountains, public parks or theatres, temples open to the public, etc.

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ {absent;present} ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [64] [65] [66]

References

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  65. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  66. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html