MxFormM

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ RC; Giulia Nazzaro ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Middle Formative Basin of Mexico ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Zacateco; La Pastora; Guatepec ♥ Names of ceramic types used in the region during this period.[1]


♠ Peak Date ♣ 650 BCE ♥ Archaeological record suggests essentially continuous political, economic, and demographic development from start date to end date.[2][3][4][5][6][7]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 800-401 BCE ♥ [8] The following refers to a previous periodization. The dates assigned to this quasi-polity match the approx. ceramic chronologies of the Early and Middle Formative Periods. The earliest tribe/chiefdom scale ranked societies emerge in the NGA around c.1500 BCE, and these general patterns persist until more stratified and centralized polities (complex chiefdoms/ city states) emerge c.650 BCE.[9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥ Numerous, well-spaced, relatively small scale, 1-3 tier settlement hierarchies seem to indicate numerous autonomous tribe and/or chiefdom-level political economies.[17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ [unknown; alliance] ♥ This is generally unknown from the archaeological record, although the abundance of exchange among polities seems to indicate marital alliances among settlement clusters.[25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ MxFormE ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ [cultural assimilation; population migration] ♥ A moderate, local, culturally complex, farming-fishing population integrates with a large, intrusive farming population from the south. Evidence includes settlement patterns, demography, subsistence patterns, material culture, and external trade contacts.[33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ MxCuicu ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥ Central Highland Mesoamerican Early-Middle Formative .
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 40000 ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥


Language

♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

The Basin or Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly corresponding to modern-day Mexico City. Here, we are interested in the phase of its prehistory known as the Middle Formative period (c. 800-401 BCE). This period was characterised by increasingly widespread and elaborate public architecture, more distinctive regional pottery styles, more extensive greenstone trade, and an increased use of stone for symbolic expression. Together, these trends suggest that elites across Mesoamerica were broadening the ways they expressed their power, and shaping the emergence of new forms of regional and community interactions in the process.[41]

Sanders et al. (1979) tentatively estimated that there were approximately 25,000 people in the Basin of Mexico around 650 BC.[42] However, no estimates could be found for the population of the average autonomous political unit. The largest known settlement, Chalcatzingo, may have had a population of between 3,000 and 5,000.[43]

Settlement hierarchies either maintained or increased the number of levels.[44]


Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ RC; Giulia Nazzaro ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ suspected unknown ♥ in squared kilometers. 3500 km in 1150 BCE and 5500 km in 650 BCE measured from the approx. extent of surveyed and excavated settlements in the NGA.[45][46][47] However, the entire NGA did not correspond to a single unitary polity.

♠ Polity Population ♣ suspected unknown ♥ people. Sanders et al. (1979) tentatively estimated that there were approx. 5,000 people in the Basin of Mexico at the end of the Early Formative Period c.1150 BC, and approx. 25,000 people in the Basin of Mexico at the end of the Middle Formative Period c.650 BC.[48] In a recent personal communication, David Carballo suggests Chalcatzingo as the largest settlement in this period, with a rough population estimate of "3-5k" These estimates are "tentative" because they involve numerous arbitrary estimations. Not only were non-surveyed areas' populations guessed at, but Early and Middle Formative cermaics were mis-diagnosed in the BOM archaeological surveys, and subsequent re-evaluations of the survey ceramic collections by Tolstoy indicated that numerous Early Formative sites were embedded within Middle Formative sites (but their physical extent was no longer calculable).[49][50] Revisions of the Formative survey data based on Tolstoy's findings have not been published. Additionally, Tolstoy, Fish, and Niederberger have found a poor correspondence between subsurface remains and surface scatters' density and extent, leading to systematic underestimation of Formative sites' areas and populations.[51][52][53]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [3,000-5,000] ♥ people. "Sanders et al (1979: 97-105) see Cuicuilco as growing from 5,000-10,000 early in this period to at least 20,000".[54] David Carballo suggests Chalcatzingo as the largest settlement in this period, with a rough population estimate of "3-5k".[55] From 1500-1150 BCE, the sites of Coapexco, Tlatilco, and Tlapacoya/Ayotla were inhabited by approx. 1000-2000 people.[56][57][58] During the Middle Formative, the site of Temamatla had as many as 2160 people.[59] While Sanders et al. (1979) estimated the population of Cuicuilco to have been 2500 in the Early Formative and 5000 in the Middle Formative,[60] more recent research has indicated that Cuicuilco wasn't even inhabited until c.700 BC at the earliest.[61]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels. Archaeological survey and excavation data indicates that settlement hierarchy ranged from 2 to 3, depending on the settlement cluster in question. The number of settlement clusters with a 3-level hierarchy increases over time.[62][63][64][65][66]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels. Based on excavation data and survey data, Sanders et al. (1979), Earle (1976), Santley (1977), Parsons (1989), and Steponaitis (1981) argue for village political autonomy (1 admin level).[67][68][69][70] However, Nichols and Charlton (1994) and Niederberger (1996; 2000) use the same data to argue for hierarchical sociopolitically-integrated settlement clusters (i.e. 2 admin levels).[71][72]

♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels. All excavated sites have yielded evidence of local ritual practice, which has been interpreted as decentralized religious practices at the household, lineage, or village levels (and there have been no arguments for a religious hierarchy).[73][74][75][76]

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Archaeological evidence suggests a ranked society with only part-time specialization in burgeoning sociopolitical, religious, and/or military institutional roles.[77][78][79][80][81]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Archaeological evidence suggests a ranked society with only part-time specialization in burgeoning sociopolitical, religious, and/or military institutional roles.[82][83][84][85][86]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred absent ♥ Archaeological evidence suggests a ranked society with only part-time specialization in burgeoning sociopolitical, religious, and/or military institutional roles.[87][88][89][90][91]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred absent ♥ Archaeological evidence suggests a ranked society with only part-time specialization in burgeoning sociopolitical, religious, and/or military institutional roles.[92][93][94][95][96]

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Possible in the Aztec period, unknown before.[97]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Likely present in Teotihuacan, unknown before.[98]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ A large, terraced platform was excavated at Middle Formative Aguacatlita,[99] clay-surfaced earthen platforms were excavated at Early Formative Tlatilco,[100][101][102] and exposed Late Formative architecture (including a ballcourt) was found in the Middle and Late Formative site of Temamatla (Chalco region) may indicate prior construction phases during the Middle Formative (as is common).[103][104] Although much of the public architecture at Tlatilco and Ayotla/Tlapacoya have been destroyed, figurines representing ball players, musicians, dancers suggest that ball courts and plazas existed from Early Formative times to house these elaborate public ceremonies.[105] A large-scale earthen platform was also exposed at Tlapacoya/Ayotla, which has a Middle Formative occupation.[106] All these threads of evidence seem to point towards Early and Middle formative antecedents to Late Formative public buildings, but the lack of excavation makes inferences about their dimensions and functions impossible.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred absent ♥ Unlikely in this period.[107]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥ Archaeological evidence suggests a ranked society with only part-time specialization in burgeoning sociopolitical, religious, and/or military institutional roles.[108][109][110][111][112]

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥ [113]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Archaeological evidence suggests a ranked society with only part-time specialization in burgeoning sociopolitical, religious, and/or military institutional roles.[114][115][116][117][118]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ The irrigation canals excavated at Santa Clara Coatitlan, dating to approx. 900 BC is the earliest documented floodwater irrigation system in the Basin of Mexico NGA,[119][120][121][122] although admittedly there were likely earlier systems that have not yet been discovered. They were discovered during a salvage excavation just north of Mexico City, with only several cuts of them being exposed, so their full extent is poorly understood. These channels run from a former incised seasonal torrent (barranca, which may itself have been modified) at approx 90 degrees, fanning out into to individual fields. It is unclear whether these are smaller channels that emanate from a larger canal, or whether each of them directly directly siphoned the barranca. Prior to construction, the area may have been exposed to erosive sheet flow from the barranca during heavy rain, which may suggest that the system was primarily aimed at mitigating the damaging effects of natural inundation. Since the ancient barranca was not excavated, it is unclear whether dams were used to control/manage flow, or whether they only funneled excess runoff.[123][124]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ None have been found, and given the abundance of streams, springs, and freshwater lakes in the region during the Formative, and it seems unlikely that household water supplies would have been necessary.[125][126][127][128]
♠ markets ♣ inferred absent ♥ The first possible evidence for markets does not occur until the Late/Terminal Formative[129] or Classic Period.[130][131][132]
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred absent ♥ None exist in the rather scanty archaeological record, and individual households and residential clusters stored their own food in storage pits.[133][134][135][136][137]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ suspected unknown ♥ regional and long-distance trade was common,[138][139] and a system of foot paths existed during the Postclassic,[140] but no evidence of roads exist in the limited archaeological record of the Early Formative.
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥ regional and long-distance trade (crossing rivers) was common,[141][142] but no evidence of bridges exists in the limited archaeological record of the Early Formative
♠ Canals ♣ inferred absent ♥ canals for transportation purposes would not be developed until the later Postclassic around Tenochtitlan, when they were needed to logistically transport goods through chinampas, dyke systems, and the city itself.[143]
♠ Ports ♣ inferred absent ♥ lacustrine ports would not be developed until the later Postclassic at Tenochtitlan when they were needed to logistically unload goods onto the urban island; otherwise beaches were used to land canoes.[144]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥ Abundant stone and obsidian craft production indicates that raw materials were mined away from settlements.[145][146][147][148][149][150]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ present ♥ Present since the Archaic Period c. 10 ka.[151]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ First evidence in the Early Formative period (1500-1000 BCE).[152]
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ "Absent in the Basin, present in lowland Mesoamerica c. 100 BCE-900CE."[153]
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥ First evidence in Teotihuacan c. 200 CE.[154]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ [155]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥ [156]
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥ First evidence in Mesoamerica c. 500 BCE. Present at Teotihuacan c. 200 CE onwards.[157]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥ Present in Classic Maya 200-900 CE. Possibly present in Teotihuacan. Present in the Basin by c. 1300 CE.[158]
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥ [159]
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥ [160]
♠ History ♣ absent ♥ Present in Classic Maya 200-900 CE. Only records in the Basin are conquest records by the Aztec (1450-1519 CE).[161]
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥ "Known for the colonial period, maybe oral philosophy earlier."[162]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥ "Astronomical almanacs inferred for Classic period, c. 200-900, preserved from c. 1300 onwards."[163]
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥ [164]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥ Mortuary grave goods from c.1500 BC forward indicate that Early Formative BOM polities were ranked societies where raw or manufatured prestige goods -- ceramics, precious stone, feathers, textiles, jewelry, ornaments, etc. (both "articles" like jade and feathers, and "tokens" like shells) -- appear to have functioned as "primitive money" or "social currency."[165][166][167] these have also been recovered from Middle Formative graves in the BOM,[168][169][170][171][172]
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ absent ♥ The first evidence for the introduction of indigenously produced copper-based metallurgy in Mesoamerica is c.600 CE.[173]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥ The system closest to coinage ever practiced in Mesoamerica was the widespread use of cacao beans and copper axes as media of exchange during the Postclassic.[174]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ The system closest to coinage ever practiced in Mesoamerica was the widespread use of cacao beans and copper axes as media of exchange during the Postclassic.[175]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ The system closest to coinage ever practiced in Mesoamerica was the widespread use of cacao beans and copper axes as media of exchange during the Postclassic.[176]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Present during the Late Posclassic,[177] but not evident in archaeological record.
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥ Not present even in the Late Postclassic[178]
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥ Not present even in the Late Postclassic[179]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ RC; Giulia Nazzaro ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent ♥ "Metals were another story. Throughout all these times [before 500 BCE], and even much later, they were essentially unused in Mesoamerica. Teotihuacan's predecessors [...] and Teotihuacan itself used only stone tools".[180]
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ "Metals were another story. Throughout all these times [before 500 BCE], and even much later, they were essentially unused in Mesoamerica. Teotihuacan's predecessors [...] and Teotihuacan itself used only stone tools".[181]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ "Metals were another story. Throughout all these times [before 500 BCE], and even much later, they were essentially unused in Mesoamerica. Teotihuacan's predecessors [...] and Teotihuacan itself used only stone tools".[182]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ "Metals were another story. Throughout all these times [before 500 BCE], and even much later, they were essentially unused in Mesoamerica. Teotihuacan's predecessors [...] and Teotihuacan itself used only stone tools".[183]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Little is known about warfare in Mesoamerica before the Middle Formative [...] warfare was relatively unorganized, conducted by small groups armed with unspecialized tool-weapons".[184] The following probably refers to atlatls, not actual javelins: technology present in the wider region from c.4000 BCE, and there is evidence for their use in Formative Mesoamerican art.[185][186]
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred present ♥ "In Mesoamerica [...] tools that could double as weapons, including handheld spears and spearthrowers (atlatls) [...] have been found as early as 4000 BC".[187][188]
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ Ross Hassig (1992) interprets the small, round stone balls excavated from Middle Formative sites in the BOM and across Mesoamerica as sling stones.[189]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ First introduced into Central Mexico during the Middle Postclassic by Chichimec invaders from Northern Mesoamerica.[190]
♠ Composite bow ♣ ♥
♠ Crossbow ♣ ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Little is known about warfare in Mesoamerica before the Middle Formative [...] warfare was relatively unorganized, conducted by small groups armed with unspecialized tool-weapons".[191]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Little is known about warfare in Mesoamerica before the Middle Formative [...] warfare was relatively unorganized, conducted by small groups armed with unspecialized tool-weapons".[192]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Obsidian knives[193] "Their [Tlatilco] tools were simple ones consisting of stone axes, obsidian knives and bone and antler instruments".[194]
♠ Swords ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Little is known about warfare in Mesoamerica before the Middle Formative [...] warfare was relatively unorganized, conducted by small groups armed with unspecialized tool-weapons".[195]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ technology present in the wider region from c.4000 BCE, and there is evidence for their use in Formative Mesoamerican art.[196][197]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Little is known about warfare in Mesoamerica before the Middle Formative [...] warfare was relatively unorganized, conducted by small groups armed with unspecialized tool-weapons".[198]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Although domesticated dogs were present during this period,[199][200] their function is unclear (food and/or hunting),[201][202] and war dogs were unknown in Mesoamerica at the time of the Spanish Conquest; indeed, Hassig lists war dogs among the new military "technologies" the Spanish introduced to the region in the sixteenth century[203].[204][205]
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥ Not native to region.
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Not native to region.
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Not native to region.
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Not native to region.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not depicted in period art, and generally unknown before the Classic Period in Central Mexico.[206]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Little is known about warfare in Mesoamerica before the Middle Formative [...] warfare was relatively unorganized, conducted by small groups armed with unspecialized tool-weapons".[207]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Little is known about warfare in Mesoamerica before the Middle Formative [...] warfare was relatively unorganized, conducted by small groups armed with unspecialized tool-weapons".[208] known form artwork, but they may have been purely decorative (i.e. for status) and related to shamanistic rituals or the Mesoamerican ball game.[209][210]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Little is known about warfare in Mesoamerica before the Middle Formative [...] warfare was relatively unorganized, conducted by small groups armed with unspecialized tool-weapons".[211] iron-ore hematite breast plates have been found archaeologically and are known form artwork, but they may have been purely decorative (i.e. for status) and related to shamanistic rituals or the Mesoamerican ball game.[212][213]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Little is known about warfare in Mesoamerica before the Middle Formative [...] warfare was relatively unorganized, conducted by small groups armed with unspecialized tool-weapons".[214] known form artwork, but they may have been purely decorative (i.e. for status) and related to shamanistic rituals or the Mesoamerican ball game.[215][216]
♠ Chainmail ♣ ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Lakeshore residency, woodcarving expertise, and extensive exploitation of lacustrine resources dates to c.5000-2000 BCE in the region,[217] and the prehisoric use of canoes has often been suggested,[218][219][220] but there is no direct evidence of canoes (made of wood) in the archaeological record.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Tlapacoya/Ayotla located on Xico island[221][222]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ ♥
♠ Moat ♣ ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Religion and Normative Ideology

Deification of Rulers

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [223] [224] [225]

References

  1. (Stoner, Nichols, Alex and Crider 2015) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/JQAPZCU7.
  2. Charlton, Thomas H., & Deborah L. Nichols. (1997). "Diachronic studies of city-states: Permutations on a theme—Central Mexico from 1700 BC to AD 1600." In Charlton and Nichols, eds. The Archaeology of City-States: Cross-Cultural Approaches. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp.169-207.
  3. Plunket, P., & Uruñuela, G. (2012). Where east meets west: the Formative in Mexico’s central highlands. Journal of Archaeological Research, 20(1), 1-51.
  4. Niederberger, Christine. (1996). "The Basin of Mexico: Multimillenial Development toward Cultural Complexity." In Olmec Art of Ancient Mexico, edited by Emily P. Benson and Beatriz de la Fuente. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, pp. 83-93.
  5. Niederberger, Christine. (2000) "Ranked Societies, Iconographic Complexity, and Economic Wealth in the Basin of Mexico Toward 1200 BC." In Olmec Art and Archaeology in Mesoamerica, edited by John E. Clark and Mary E. Pye. New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 169-192.
  6. Sanders, William T., Jeffrey R. Parsons, and Robert S. Santley. (1979) The Basin of Mexico: Ecological Processes in the Evolution of a Civilization. Academic Press, New York, pg. 94-7, 305-334.
  7. Santley, Robert S. (1977). "Intra-site settlement patterns at Loma Torremote, and their relationship to formative prehistory in the Cuautitlan Region, State of Mexico." Ph.D. Dissertation, Depatartment of Anthropology, The Pennsylvania State University, pp. 365-425.
  8. (David Carballo, pers. comm. to G. Nazzaro and E. Cioni, 2019)
  9. Charlton, Thomas H., & Deborah L. Nichols. (1997). "Diachronic studies of city-states: Permutations on a theme—Central Mexico from 1700 BC to AD 1600." In Charlton and Nichols, eds. The Archaeology of City-States: Cross-Cultural Approaches. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp.169-207.
  10. Plunket, P., & Uruñuela, G. (2012). Where east meets west: the Formative in Mexico’s central highlands. Journal of Archaeological Research, 20(1), 1-51.
  11. Niederberger, Christine. (1996). "The Basin of Mexico: Multimillenial Development toward Cultural Complexity." In Olmec Art of Ancient Mexico, edited by Emily P. Benson and Beatriz de la Fuente. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, pp. 83-93.
  12. Niederberger, Christine. (2000) "Ranked Societies, Iconographic Complexity, and Economic Wealth in the Basin of Mexico Toward 1200 BC." In Olmec Art and Archaeology in Mesoamerica, edited by John E. Clark and Mary E. Pye. New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 169-192.
  13. Sanders, William T., Jeffrey R. Parsons, and Robert S. Santley. (1979) The Basin of Mexico: Ecological Processes in the Evolution of a Civilization. Academic Press, New York, pg. 94-7, 305-334.
  14. Santley, Robert S. (1977). "Intra-site settlement patterns at Loma Torremote, and their relationship to formative prehistory in the Cuautitlan Region, State of Mexico." Ph.D. Dissertation, Depatartment of Anthropology, The Pennsylvania State University, pp. 365-425.
  15. Steponaitis, Vincas P. (1981). "Settlement hierarchies and political complexity in nonmarket societies: the Formative Period of the Valley of Mexico." American Anthropologist, 83(2): 320-363.
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  17. Charlton, Thomas H., & Deborah L. Nichols. (1997). "Diachronic studies of city-states: Permutations on a theme—Central Mexico from 1700 BC to AD 1600." In Charlton and Nichols, eds. The Archaeology of City-States: Cross-Cultural Approaches. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp.169-207.
  18. Plunket, P., & Uruñuela, G. (2012). Where east meets west: the Formative in Mexico’s central highlands. Journal of Archaeological Research, 20(1), 1-51.
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  20. Niederberger, Christine. (2000) "Ranked Societies, Iconographic Complexity, and Economic Wealth in the Basin of Mexico Toward 1200 BC." In Olmec Art and Archaeology in Mesoamerica, edited by John E. Clark and Mary E. Pye. New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 169-192.
  21. Sanders, William T., Jeffrey R. Parsons, and Robert S. Santley. (1979) The Basin of Mexico: Ecological Processes in the Evolution of a Civilization. Academic Press, New York, pg. 94-7, 305-334.
  22. Santley, Robert S. (1977). "Intra-site settlement patterns at Loma Torremote, and their relationship to formative prehistory in the Cuautitlan Region, State of Mexico." Ph.D. Dissertation, Depatartment of Anthropology, The Pennsylvania State University, pp. 365-425.
  23. Steponaitis, Vincas P. (1981). "Settlement hierarchies and political complexity in nonmarket societies: the Formative Period of the Valley of Mexico." American Anthropologist, 83(2): 320-363.
  24. Earle, Timothy K., (1976). "A nearest-neighbor analysis of two formative settlement systems." In Flannery, Kent V. (Ed.), The Early Mesoamerican Village. San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 196-223.
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  27. Charlton, Thomas H. (1984). "Production and Exchange: Variables in the Evolution of a Civilization." In Kenneth G. Hirth (Ed.) Trade and Exchange in Early Mesoamerica. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, pp.17-42.
  28. Niederberger, Christine. (1996). "The Basin of Mexico: Multimillenial Development toward Cultural Complexity." In Olmec Art of Ancient Mexico, edited by Emily P. Benson and Beatriz de la Fuente. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, pp. 83-93.
  29. Niederberger, Christine. (2000) "Ranked Societies, Iconographic Complexity, and Economic Wealth in the Basin of Mexico Toward 1200 BC." In Olmec Art and Archaeology in Mesoamerica, edited by John E. Clark and Mary E. Pye. New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 169-192.
  30. Hirth, Kenneth G. (1984). "Early Exchange in Mesoamerica: An Introduction." In Kenneth G. Hirth (Ed.) Trade and Exchange in Early Mesoamerica. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, pp.1-16.
  31. Hirth, K.G., Cyphers, A., Cobean, R., De León, J., Glascock, M.D., (2013). "Early Olmec obsidian trade and economic organization at San Lorenzo." Journal of Archaeological Science 40: 2784-2798.
  32. Santley, Robert S. (1977). "Intra-site settlement patterns at Loma Torremote, and their relationship to formative prehistory in the Cuautitlan Region, State of Mexico." Ph.D. Dissertation, Depatartment of Anthropology, The Pennsylvania State University, pp. 365-425.
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