MxClass

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Giulia Nazzaro ♥

♠ Original name ♣ ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 100-649 CE♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ MxCuicu ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ MxEpicl ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥

Language

♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

The Basin or Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly corresponding to modern-day Mexico City. Here, we are interested in the phase of its prehistory known as the Classic or Early Classic period (c. 100-649 CE). This period was characterised by sophisticated forms of artistic expression and high levels of craft specialisation, pronounced differences between the material culture of the wealthier classes and that of the poorer ones, and trade networks extending farther and farther across the wider region. In the Basin of Mexico, Teotihuacan was the dominant centre, and the presence of Teotihuacano artefacts outside of the Basin testifies to its far-ranging influence.[1] Indeed, Teotihuacan was the largest city in the world, with a population of about 100,000[2] or 125,000.[3]

Relatively little is known regarding Teotihuacan's political organisation. There is no consensus on the existence of a ruler's palace at the site, nor have royal burials or depictions of individual rulers been found. The site has yielded representations of elite personages, but they are usually shown in groups, partaking in processions, and wearing masks, suggesting that power was shared or distributed: perhaps, the city was governed by a committee of representatives from different interest groups, and/or spokespeople for some or each of the city's thousands of apartment compounds.[4]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Giulia Nazzaro ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No information found in relevant literature.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [100,000-125,000] ♥ "During its prosperous period (Xolalpan and Metepec phases: CE 400-650), Teotihuacan was the sixth largest city in the world, with an estimated population of 125,000".[5] David Carballo suggests about "100k" as a figure for Teotihuacan's population at this time.[6]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥ levels. Information retrieved from Fig 3.3 of Carballo 2016[7] which indicates the presence of City/Supra-regional centre; town /provincial centres; and Village/hamlet in the Classic period settlement.

♠ Administrative levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥

♠ Judges ♣ ♥

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ "Marketplace institutions also would have existed at Teotihuacan, beginning at least in the second century AD".[8]
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥
♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Script ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Giulia Nazzaro ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent ♥ "Metals were another story. Throughout all these times [before 500 BCE], and even much later, they were essentially unused in Mesoamerica. Teotihuacan's predecessors [...] and Teotihuacan itself used only stone tools".[9]
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ "Metals were another story. Throughout all these times [before 500 BCE], and even much later, they were essentially unused in Mesoamerica. Teotihuacan's predecessors [...] and Teotihuacan itself used only stone tools".[10]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ "Metals were another story. Throughout all these times [before 500 BCE], and even much later, they were essentially unused in Mesoamerica. Teotihuacan's predecessors [...] and Teotihuacan itself used only stone tools".[11]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ "Metals were another story. Throughout all these times [before 500 BCE], and even much later, they were essentially unused in Mesoamerica. Teotihuacan's predecessors [...] and Teotihuacan itself used only stone tools".[12]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the fact that sources such as Hassig do not mention this weapon in lists and descriptions of weapons known to have been used in Teotihuacan.[13]
♠ Atlatl ♣ present ♥ "Part of Teotihuacan's weaponry was inherited from earlier times, especially the thrusting spear. Spears remained dominant on the battlefield but were augmented by atlatls and darts, which became major weapons in the Early and Middle Classic."[14]
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ "Slings continued to be used but, as commoner weapons, they were not depicted in Teotihuacan art."[15]
♠ Self bow ♣ absent ♥ "Bows and arrows were still unknown."[16]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ "Bows and arrows were still unknown."[17]
♠ Crossbow ♣ ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the fact that sources such as Hassig do not mention this weapon in lists and descriptions of weapons known to have been used in Teotihuacan.[18]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ "Axes were present, but if used, they must have been of secondary importance in that they did not compare well with other weapons."[19]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "Knives are primarily depicted in mural scenes with impaled hearts, suggesting a ritual use, but they were doubtless used in combat as auxiliary weapons, as was the case with subsequent Mesoamerican groups."[20]
♠ Swords ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the fact that sources such as Hassig do not mention this weapon in lists and descriptions of weapons known to have been used in Teotihuacan.[21]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ "Part of Teotihuacan's weaponry was inherited from earlier times, especially the thrusting spear. Spears remained dominant on the battlefield but were augmented by atlatls and darts, which became major weapons in the Early and Middle Classic."[22]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the fact that sources such as Hassig do not mention this weapon in lists and descriptions of weapons known to have been used in Teotihuacan.[23]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Although domesticated dogs were present during this period,[24][25] their function is unclear (food and/or hunting),[26][27] and war dogs were unknown in Mesoamerica at the time of the Spanish Conquest; indeed, Hassig lists war dogs among the new military "technologies" the Spanish introduced to the region in the sixteenth century[28].[29][30]
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥ Not native to region.
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Not native to region.
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Not native to region.
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Not native to region.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ ♥
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ "Teotihuacan warriors therefore carried shields, but no other offensive weapons."[31]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ "There was little armor during the Early Classic, with the primary Teotihuacan innovation being the use of protective helmets of quilted cotton."[32]
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥ "There was little armor during the Early Classic, with the primary Teotihuacan innovation being the use of protective helmets of quilted cotton."[33]
♠ Limb protection ♣ absent ♥ "There was little armor during the Early Classic, with the primary Teotihuacan innovation being the use of protective helmets of quilted cotton."[34]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ "There was little armor during the Early Classic, with the primary Teotihuacan innovation being the use of protective helmets of quilted cotton."[35]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ "There was little armor during the Early Classic, with the primary Teotihuacan innovation being the use of protective helmets of quilted cotton."[36]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ "There was little armor during the Early Classic, with the primary Teotihuacan innovation being the use of protective helmets of quilted cotton."[37]
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ "There was little armor during the Early Classic, with the primary Teotihuacan innovation being the use of protective helmets of quilted cotton."[38]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Whereas no sites are documented as fortified or military observatories during the Formative and Classic periods, approximately one quarter of sites are during the Epiclassic and one-third of sites are during the Postclassic."[39]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Whereas no sites are documented as fortified or military observatories during the Formative and Classic periods, approximately one quarter of sites are during the Epiclassic and one-third of sites are during the Postclassic."[40]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Whereas no sites are documented as fortified or military observatories during the Formative and Classic periods, approximately one quarter of sites are during the Epiclassic and one-third of sites are during the Postclassic."[41]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Whereas no sites are documented as fortified or military observatories during the Formative and Classic periods, approximately one quarter of sites are during the Epiclassic and one-third of sites are during the Postclassic."[42]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Whereas no sites are documented as fortified or military observatories during the Formative and Classic periods, approximately one quarter of sites are during the Epiclassic and one-third of sites are during the Postclassic."[43]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Whereas no sites are documented as fortified or military observatories during the Formative and Classic periods, approximately one quarter of sites are during the Epiclassic and one-third of sites are during the Postclassic."[44]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Whereas no sites are documented as fortified or military observatories during the Formative and Classic periods, approximately one quarter of sites are during the Epiclassic and one-third of sites are during the Postclassic."[45]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Whereas no sites are documented as fortified or military observatories during the Formative and Classic periods, approximately one quarter of sites are during the Epiclassic and one-third of sites are during the Postclassic."[46]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km. Inferred. "Whereas no sites are documented as fortified or military observatories during the Formative and Classic periods, approximately one quarter of sites are during the Epiclassic and one-third of sites are during the Postclassic."[47]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

These codes refer to an explicit or defined right for some group to constrain the activity of the executive in some way, typically through a legal code, but other ways are imaginable (explain in paragraph if other mechanisms found). When coding ‘present’ for each of the below codes, provide explanation and give examples of the constraints being used, or note that the constraints were formalized but are no known instances of its use in practice.

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Governmental officials (i.e. judiciary/legislature) can veto or overturn executive decision (including removing a political appointment), or withhold cooperation (e.g., refuse to provide funds or allow raising troops), regardless of whether or not these limits were actually practiced. Explain in paragraph
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Non-governmental organization (elite, social group, community organization, economic group, etc.) can veto or overturn executive decision (including removing a political appointment), or withhold cooperation (e.g., refuse to provide funds or allow raising troops), regardless of whether or not these limits were actually practiced. Explain in paragraph. Note: this does not include religious groups (Church leaders, Buddhist monks, etc.), since that is coded elsewhere)
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. There is a legal mechanism for removing and replacing the head of state

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Members of the ‘elite’ inherit their status and positions. If the ruler position is inherited most of the time, then these are sufficient grounds to code this variable as present

Religion and Normative Ideology

Deification of Rulers

(‘gods’ is a shorthand for ‘supernatural agents’)

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. For example, rulers are blessed by gods; the institution of kingship is ordained by heaven

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown.

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

These codes refer to acts undertaken without direct compulsion from or out of adherence to a religious system (religious aspects of prosociality are coded below)

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Religious doctrine, philosophical statements, or practice makes claims about equality. For instance, explicit statements by religious groups or influential philosophers that all humans are equal

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Religious doctrine, philosophical statements, or practice makes claims about engaging in activity for the benefit of a wider community, for instance Christian traditions of alms-giving or Islamic sadaqah

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Public Goods refer to anything that incurs cost to an individual or group of individuals, but that can be used or enjoyed by others who did not incur any of the cost, namely the public at large. They are non-excludable and non-rivalrous goods. Examples are roads, public drinking fountains, public parks or theatres, temples open to the public, etc.

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ {absent;present} ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [48] [49] [50]

References

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  50. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html