MxAztec

From Seshat Data Browser
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Giulia Nazzaro ♥

♠ Original name ♣ ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1427-1526 CE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

Below code cultural relations between the coded (quasi)polity and the preceding one, as well as those nearby. These codes are particularly useful for archaeologically known polities.

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥

Language

♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

The Basin or Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly corresponding to modern-day Mexico City. Here, we are interested in the phase of its prehistory known as the Late Postclassic period, when the Aztecs or Mexica rose to power (c. 1427-1526 CE). The Aztec Empire was born from the "Triple Alliance" between the city-states (altepetl) of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan, who agreed to collaborate on campaign of territorial expansion and share the resulting tribute and tax payments.[1] Within a century, the three cities came to control a significant portion of Northern Mesoamerica, the main exception being the West, which, despite some military successes on the part of the Triple Alliance early on, largely remained under the control of the Tarascans.[2]

As the empire grew, so did the power of Tenochtitlan, which became the de-facto administrative capital, whose ruler came to hold the title huey tlatoani (“high king”). Tenochtitlan's power was strongest over the empire's central provinces, where the Aztecs ruled through governors, judges, tax collectors and other officials that they appointed themselves. For the "outer" provinces, the Aztecs limited themselves to targeting major centres, where, again, they appointed their governors and administrative officials. Finally, the Aztecs secured their power over "frontier" provinces by guaranteeing military protection from external foes, in exchange for "gifts" of soldiers and prestige goods.[3]

By the time of Spanish conquest in the 1520s, Tenochtitlan likely housed between 150,000 and 250,000 people,[4] perhaps even 3,000.[5]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Giulia Nazzaro ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 28,070 ♥ in squared kilometers. Valley of Mexico = 7,260 square km + Aztec Central Mexico = 20,810 square km.[6]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [3,000,000-4,000,000] ♥ "Just over one million people were living in the Valley of Mexico [...] in 1519 and another two to three million Aztecs dwelt in the surrounding valleys of central Mexico".[7]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [150,000-300,000] ♥ "When the Spanish arrived [...] the city could have housed up to 300,000 inhabitants".[8] In a recent personal communication, David Carballo suggested a rough estimate of "150-250k" for the inhabitants of Tenochtitlan at this time.[9]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 5 ♥ levels. Information retrieved from a map of the settlement pattern in the Valley of Mexico during the Aztec rulership.[10]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 6 ♥ levels.[11]

1. Huey Tlatoani (Great Speaker/Paramount ruler)
2. Cihuacoatl (Secretary of State)
3. Noble council members (could range from low dozens to low hundreds by city state)
4. Provincial governor (tlatoani) of subject city-state
5. Ward or district chiefs
6. Lineage heads
6. Hereditary nobles [12]

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Military levels ♣ [6-7] ♥ levels.

"Rank was achieved primarily by the taking of captives."[13]

1. Huey Tlatoani (Great Speaker/Paramount ruler)
2. Commanding General (has taken a difficult captive)[14]
3. General (inferred lower than Commanding General, has taken a difficult captive)[15]
4. Veteran Warriors (have taken more than four captives)[16]
5. Leader of Youth (three captives)[17]
6. Leading Youth (when a youth takes a captive without any help)[18]
7. Soldier without accomplishments (inferred)

A more meta look at the rankings in terms of groups of knights: "There were two orders of a quasi-noble rank (Eagle and Jaguar knights), lesser orders who could still wear fine battle gear, and simple foot soldiers."[19]

1. Huey Tlatoani (Great Speaker/Paramount ruler)
2. Eagle Knights
2. Jaguar Knights
3. Lesser orders of knights. Cuauhpipltin: "Commoners who had achieved noble status by virtue of their deeds in war."[20]
4. Simple foot soldiers: yaoquizqueh

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ Professional military officers are known by Teotihuacan (ca. 250-550 CE). Evidence is more secure from the Aztec Period (1450-1521). [21]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Professional soldiers are known by Teotihuacan (ca. 250-550 CE). Evidence is more secure from the Aztec Period (1450-1521). [22]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Professional priests are known by Teotihuacan (ca. 250-550 CE), and likely existed from the Middle Formative period. Evidence is more secure from the Aztec Period (1450-1521). [23]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ Full time bureaucrats are known by Teotihuacan (ca. 250-550 CE). Evidence more secure from the Aztec Period (1450-1521) than in previous periods. [24]

♠ Examination system ♣ [absent; present] ♥ "Possible but unlikely in the Aztec period through schools like the Calmecac."[25]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ present ♥ Present in the Aztec period.[26]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ "Nobles lived and worked in [...] palaces. These served as residencies and as administrative buildings where the lord attended to the affairs of whatever social and political institution [...] was under his direction".[27] Government buildings (such as council houses) present in this period. "There certainly were specialized government building by this definition in the Aztec period. There were council houses that were separate from the ruler's palace and akin to a "senate" in Classical Med societies. There were also state run schools in two tiers: the lower one more vocational/military and the higher one training the scribal, priest, and administrator classes."[28]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ Present in the Aztec period [29]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Present in the Aztec period [30]

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥ [31]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥ [32]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ "Almost every Aztec settlement[...] had a marketplace".[33]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥
♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ present ♥ Present since the Archaic Period c. 10 ka.[34]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ First evidence in the Early Formative period (1500-1000 BCE).[35]
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ "Absent in the Basin, present in lowland Mesoamerica c. 100 BCE-900CE."[36]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ First evidence in Teotihuacan c. 200 CE.[37]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ [38]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥ [39]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ First evidence in Mesoamerica c. 500 BCE. Present at Teotihuacan c. 200 CE onwards.[40]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Present in Classic Maya 200-900 CE. Possibly present in Teotihuacan. Present in the Basin by c. 1300 CE.[41]
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥ [42]
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥ [43]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Present in Classic Maya 200-900 CE. Only historical records in the Basin are conquest records by the Aztec (1450-1519 CE).[44]
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥ "Known for the colonial period, maybe oral philosophy earlier."[45]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ "Astronomical almanacs inferred for Classic period, c. 200-900, preserved from c. 1300 onwards."[46]
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥ [47]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Giulia Nazzaro ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent ♥ "Metals were another story. Throughout all these times [before 500 BCE], and even much later, they were essentially unused in Mesoamerica. Teotihuacan's predecessors [...] and Teotihuacan itself used only stone tools".[48]
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ "Metals were another story. Throughout all these times [before 500 BCE], and even much later, they were essentially unused in Mesoamerica. Teotihuacan's predecessors [...] and Teotihuacan itself used only stone tools".[49]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ "Metals were another story. Throughout all these times [before 500 BCE], and even much later, they were essentially unused in Mesoamerica. Teotihuacan's predecessors [...] and Teotihuacan itself used only stone tools".[50]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ "Metals were another story. Throughout all these times [before 500 BCE], and even much later, they were essentially unused in Mesoamerica. Teotihuacan's predecessors [...] and Teotihuacan itself used only stone tools".[51]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned by sources.
♠ Atlatl ♣ present ♥ Listed by Hassig.[52]
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ Listed by Hassig.[53]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Listed by Hassig.[54]
♠ Composite bow ♣ ♥
♠ Crossbow ♣ ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ Listed by Hassig.[55]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Listed by Hassig.[56]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Listed by Hassig.[57]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Listed by Hassig.[58]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ "The main Aztec shock weapons were thrusting spears".[59]
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned by sources.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Although domesticated dogs were present during this period,[60][61] their function is unclear (food and/or hunting),[62][63] and war dogs were unknown in Mesoamerica at the time of the Spanish Conquest; indeed, Hassig lists war dogs among the new military "technologies" the Spanish introduced to the region in the sixteenth century[64].[65][66]
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥ Not native to region.
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Not native to region.
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Not native to region.
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Not native to region.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ ♥
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Listed by Hassig.[67]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ "The Aztecs used shields, various forms of body armor, warriors' suits, and helmets […] the elite also adopted complete torso armor".[68]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ "The Aztecs used shields, various forms of body armor, warriors' suits, and helmets […] the elite also adopted complete torso armor".[69]
♠ Limb protection ♣ absent ♥ "Because archery placed continued stress on mobility, the limbs remained unarmored".[70]
♠ Chainmail ♣ ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ "For fortifications, Aztec sites show a broad range with some totally exposed on valley floors and others being walled or at elevations. Tenochtitlan only had walls around the sacred precinct but of course had natural fortification by being an island in a lake that could be entered only through a few causeways. At the high end of fortification was the Tlaxcalan stronghold of Tepeticpac, up on a high hill and encircled by walls. That was their strategy of resistance against the Aztec empire. Huexotla is a site in the domain of Texcoco with a large wall and their were fortified garrisons on the frontier between the Aztec and Tarascan empires, in west Mexico. But probably more sites were not fortified than were. There was nothing comparable to the medieval European pattern or earlier fortified city states of Mesopotamia or elsewhere in Eurasia."[71]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred absent ♥ "For fortifications, Aztec sites show a broad range with some totally exposed on valley floors and others being walled or at elevations. Tenochtitlan only had walls around the sacred precinct but of course had natural fortification by being an island in a lake that could be entered only through a few causeways. At the high end of fortification was the Tlaxcalan stronghold of Tepeticpac, up on a high hill and encircled by walls. That was their strategy of resistance against the Aztec empire. Huexotla is a site in the domain of Texcoco with a large wall and their were fortified garrisons on the frontier between the Aztec and Tarascan empires, in west Mexico. But probably more sites were not fortified than were. There was nothing comparable to the medieval European pattern or earlier fortified city states of Mesopotamia or elsewhere in Eurasia."[72]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred absent ♥ "For fortifications, Aztec sites show a broad range with some totally exposed on valley floors and others being walled or at elevations. Tenochtitlan only had walls around the sacred precinct but of course had natural fortification by being an island in a lake that could be entered only through a few causeways. At the high end of fortification was the Tlaxcalan stronghold of Tepeticpac, up on a high hill and encircled by walls. That was their strategy of resistance against the Aztec empire. Huexotla is a site in the domain of Texcoco with a large wall and their were fortified garrisons on the frontier between the Aztec and Tarascan empires, in west Mexico. But probably more sites were not fortified than were. There was nothing comparable to the medieval European pattern or earlier fortified city states of Mesopotamia or elsewhere in Eurasia."[73]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred absent ♥ "For fortifications, Aztec sites show a broad range with some totally exposed on valley floors and others being walled or at elevations. Tenochtitlan only had walls around the sacred precinct but of course had natural fortification by being an island in a lake that could be entered only through a few causeways. At the high end of fortification was the Tlaxcalan stronghold of Tepeticpac, up on a high hill and encircled by walls. That was their strategy of resistance against the Aztec empire. Huexotla is a site in the domain of Texcoco with a large wall and their were fortified garrisons on the frontier between the Aztec and Tarascan empires, in west Mexico. But probably more sites were not fortified than were. There was nothing comparable to the medieval European pattern or earlier fortified city states of Mesopotamia or elsewhere in Eurasia."[74]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred absent ♥ "For fortifications, Aztec sites show a broad range with some totally exposed on valley floors and others being walled or at elevations. Tenochtitlan only had walls around the sacred precinct but of course had natural fortification by being an island in a lake that could be entered only through a few causeways. At the high end of fortification was the Tlaxcalan stronghold of Tepeticpac, up on a high hill and encircled by walls. That was their strategy of resistance against the Aztec empire. Huexotla is a site in the domain of Texcoco with a large wall and their were fortified garrisons on the frontier between the Aztec and Tarascan empires, in west Mexico. But probably more sites were not fortified than were. There was nothing comparable to the medieval European pattern or earlier fortified city states of Mesopotamia or elsewhere in Eurasia."[75]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ "For fortifications, Aztec sites show a broad range with some totally exposed on valley floors and others being walled or at elevations. Tenochtitlan only had walls around the sacred precinct but of course had natural fortification by being an island in a lake that could be entered only through a few causeways. At the high end of fortification was the Tlaxcalan stronghold of Tepeticpac, up on a high hill and encircled by walls. That was their strategy of resistance against the Aztec empire. Huexotla is a site in the domain of Texcoco with a large wall and their were fortified garrisons on the frontier between the Aztec and Tarascan empires, in west Mexico. But probably more sites were not fortified than were. There was nothing comparable to the medieval European pattern or earlier fortified city states of Mesopotamia or elsewhere in Eurasia."[76]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ "For fortifications, Aztec sites show a broad range with some totally exposed on valley floors and others being walled or at elevations. Tenochtitlan only had walls around the sacred precinct but of course had natural fortification by being an island in a lake that could be entered only through a few causeways. At the high end of fortification was the Tlaxcalan stronghold of Tepeticpac, up on a high hill and encircled by walls. That was their strategy of resistance against the Aztec empire. Huexotla is a site in the domain of Texcoco with a large wall and their were fortified garrisons on the frontier between the Aztec and Tarascan empires, in west Mexico. But probably more sites were not fortified than were. There was nothing comparable to the medieval European pattern or earlier fortified city states of Mesopotamia or elsewhere in Eurasia."[77]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred absent ♥ "For fortifications, Aztec sites show a broad range with some totally exposed on valley floors and others being walled or at elevations. Tenochtitlan only had walls around the sacred precinct but of course had natural fortification by being an island in a lake that could be entered only through a few causeways. At the high end of fortification was the Tlaxcalan stronghold of Tepeticpac, up on a high hill and encircled by walls. That was their strategy of resistance against the Aztec empire. Huexotla is a site in the domain of Texcoco with a large wall and their were fortified garrisons on the frontier between the Aztec and Tarascan empires, in west Mexico. But probably more sites were not fortified than were. There was nothing comparable to the medieval European pattern or earlier fortified city states of Mesopotamia or elsewhere in Eurasia."[78]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ "For fortifications, Aztec sites show a broad range with some totally exposed on valley floors and others being walled or at elevations. Tenochtitlan only had walls around the sacred precinct but of course had natural fortification by being an island in a lake that could be entered only through a few causeways. At the high end of fortification was the Tlaxcalan stronghold of Tepeticpac, up on a high hill and encircled by walls. That was their strategy of resistance against the Aztec empire. Huexotla is a site in the domain of Texcoco with a large wall and their were fortified garrisons on the frontier between the Aztec and Tarascan empires, in west Mexico. But probably more sites were not fortified than were. There was nothing comparable to the medieval European pattern or earlier fortified city states of Mesopotamia or elsewhere in Eurasia."[79]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km. Inferred from lack of fortifications elsewhere. "For urban centres in the rest of Mesoamerica, the lack of perimeter walls and defensive settings is striking. The undefended nature of Aztec towns, for example, contrasts sharply with the ethnohistoric record of Aztec warfare".[80]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

These codes refer to an explicit or defined right for some group to constrain the activity of the executive in some way, typically through a legal code, but other ways are imaginable (explain in paragraph if other mechanisms found). When coding ‘present’ for each of the below codes, provide explanation and give examples of the constraints being used, or note that the constraints were formalized but are no known instances of its use in practice.

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Governmental officials (i.e. judiciary/legislature) can veto or overturn executive decision (including removing a political appointment), or withhold cooperation (e.g., refuse to provide funds or allow raising troops), regardless of whether or not these limits were actually practiced. Explain in paragraph
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Non-governmental organization (elite, social group, community organization, economic group, etc.) can veto or overturn executive decision (including removing a political appointment), or withhold cooperation (e.g., refuse to provide funds or allow raising troops), regardless of whether or not these limits were actually practiced. Explain in paragraph. Note: this does not include religious groups (Church leaders, Buddhist monks, etc.), since that is coded elsewhere)
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. There is a legal mechanism for removing and replacing the head of state

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Members of the ‘elite’ inherit their status and positions. If the ruler position is inherited most of the time, then these are sufficient grounds to code this variable as present

Religion and Normative Ideology

Deification of Rulers

(‘gods’ is a shorthand for ‘supernatural agents’)

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. For example, rulers are blessed by gods; the institution of kingship is ordained by heaven

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown.

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

These codes refer to acts undertaken without direct compulsion from or out of adherence to a religious system (religious aspects of prosociality are coded below)

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Religious doctrine, philosophical statements, or practice makes claims about equality. For instance, explicit statements by religious groups or influential philosophers that all humans are equal

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Religious doctrine, philosophical statements, or practice makes claims about engaging in activity for the benefit of a wider community, for instance Christian traditions of alms-giving or Islamic sadaqah

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Public Goods refer to anything that incurs cost to an individual or group of individuals, but that can be used or enjoyed by others who did not incur any of the cost, namely the public at large. They are non-excludable and non-rivalrous goods. Examples are roads, public drinking fountains, public parks or theatres, temples open to the public, etc.

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ {absent;present} ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ {absent;present} ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [81] [82] [83]

References

  1. (Smith and Sergheraert 2012: 449-451) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XC9E2B7Q.
  2. (Evans 2012: 125) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/AN5IUQ7X.
  3. (Smith and Sergheraert 2012: 455-457) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/XC9E2B7Q.
  4. (Carballo 2019: pers. comm. to E. Cioni and G. Nazzaro)
  5. (De Rioja 2017: 220) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/GC3T83JD.
  6. (Smith 1996: 62) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/6XJ65SKB
  7. (Smith 1996: 60) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/6XJ65SKB
  8. (De Rioja 2017: 220) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/GC3T83JD.
  9. (Carballo 2019: pers. comm. to E. Cioni and G. Nazzaro)
  10. (Smith 1979: 116-117) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2JN8GGSP
  11. Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  12. (Hassig 1988: 29) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/8U993JEU)
  13. (Hassig 1988: 37) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/8U993JEU)
  14. (Hassig 1988: 40) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/8U993JEU)
  15. (Hassig 1988: 40) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/8U993JEU)
  16. (Hassig 1988: 37) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/8U993JEU)
  17. (Hassig 1988: 37) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/8U993JEU)
  18. (Hassig 1988: 37) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/8U993JEU)
  19. Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  20. (Hassig 1988: 29) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/8U993JEU)
  21. (Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  22. (Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  23. (Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  24. (Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  25. (Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  26. (Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  27. (Smith 1996: 153) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/6XJ65SKB.
  28. (Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  29. (Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  30. (Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  31. (Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  32. (Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  33. (Smith 1996: 114) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/6XJ65SKB.
  34. (Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  35. (Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  36. (Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  37. (Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  38. (Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  39. Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  40. Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  41. Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  42. Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  43. Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  44. Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  45. Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  46. Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  47. Carballo, David. Personal Communication to Jill Levine and Peter Turchin. Email. April 23, 2020)
  48. (Cowgill 2015: 40) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JRFZPUXU.
  49. (Cowgill 2015: 40) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JRFZPUXU.
  50. (Cowgill 2015: 40) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JRFZPUXU.
  51. (Cowgill 2015: 40) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/JRFZPUXU.
  52. (Hassig 1992: 248) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/E9VHCKDG.
  53. (Hassig 1992: 248) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/E9VHCKDG.
  54. (Hassig 1992: 248) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/E9VHCKDG.
  55. (Hassig 1992: 248) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/E9VHCKDG.
  56. (Hassig 1992: 248) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/E9VHCKDG.
  57. (Hassig 1992: 248) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/E9VHCKDG.
  58. (Hassig 1992: 248) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/E9VHCKDG.
  59. (Hassig 1992: 138) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/E9VHCKDG.
  60. Savolainen, P., Y. Zhang, J. Luo, J. Lundeberg, and T. Leitner. (2002) "Genetic evidence for an East Asian origin of domestic dogs." Science 298:1610-1613.
  61. Leonard, J. A., R. K. Wayne, J. Wheeler, R. Valadez, S. Guillén, and C. Vilà. (2002) "Ancient DNA evidence for old world origin of new world dogs." Science 298: 1613-1616.
  62. Sanders, William T., Jeffrey R. Parsons, and Robert S. Santley. (1979) The Basin of Mexico: Ecological Processes in the Evolution of a Civilization. Academic Press, New York, pg. 285.
  63. Rosenswig, Robert M. (2015) "A Mosaic of Adaptation: The Archaeological Record for Mesoamerica’s Archaic Period." Journal of Archaeological Research 23(2): 115-162.
  64. (Hassig 1992, 143) Hassig, Robert. 1992. War and Society in Ancient Mesoamerica. London; Berkeley: University of California Press. Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/collectionKey/F76EVNU3/itemKey/E9VHCKDG
  65. Hassig, Ross. (1988) Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, pg. 237.
  66. Hassig, Ross. (1992) War and Society in Ancient Mesoamerica. Berkeley: University of California Press, pg.163.
  67. (Hassig 1992: 139) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/E9VHCKDG.
  68. (Hassig 1992: 139) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/E9VHCKDG.
  69. (Hassig 1992: 139) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/E9VHCKDG.
  70. (Hassig 1992: 139) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/E9VHCKDG.
  71. (Carballo 2019: pers. comm. to E. Cioni and G. Nazzaro)
  72. (Carballo 2019: pers. comm. to E. Cioni and G. Nazzaro)
  73. (Carballo 2019: pers. comm. to E. Cioni and G. Nazzaro)
  74. (Carballo 2019: pers. comm. to E. Cioni and G. Nazzaro)
  75. (Carballo 2019: pers. comm. to E. Cioni and G. Nazzaro)
  76. (Carballo 2019: pers. comm. to E. Cioni and G. Nazzaro)
  77. (Carballo 2019: pers. comm. to E. Cioni and G. Nazzaro)
  78. (Carballo 2019: pers. comm. to E. Cioni and G. Nazzaro)
  79. (Carballo 2019: pers. comm. to E. Cioni and G. Nazzaro)
  80. (Smith 2003: 38) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/WEIQNSNP
  81. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  82. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  83. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html