MxArch*

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Giulia Nazzaro ♥

♠ Original name ♣ ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 6000-2001 BCE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ MxInitl ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥


Language

♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

The Basin or Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly corresponding to modern-day Mexico City. Here, we are interested in the phase of its prehistory known as the Archaic or Pre-Ceramic period (c. 6000-2001 BCE). This period may be described as a long, gradual transition from a lifestyle centred on big-game hunting prevalent in the preceding "Paleo-Indian" period to a sedentary, agricultural lifestyle in the succeeding "Formative" period. Indeed, Archaic sites are defined by their lack of both large animal remains and ceramics.[1] No population estimates could be found in the consulted literature. Similarly, no information could be found on the political organisation of settlements at the time.


Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Giulia Nazzaro ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ suspected unknown ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ suspected unknown ♥ People.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Inhabitants.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 1 ♥ levels. The earliest known village settlement have been found in the Valley of Mexico around 2000 BCE.[2]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ levels.[3]

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Military levels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ levels.[4]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ [5]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ [6]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ suspected unknown ♥ [7]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Likely present in Teotihuacan, unknown before.[8]

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Possible in the Aztec period, unknown before.[9]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Likely present in Teotihuacan, unknown before.[10]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred absent ♥ A Middle Archaic example of open-air site is Gheo-Shih [Oaxaca Valley], which is a field marked by boulders and kept clean. This is considered to be one of Mesoamerica's earliest example of a community-focus structure, such as the plaza, temple-pyramid, and palace, all of which developed in the Formative and later periods.[11]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred absent ♥ Unlikely in this period.[12]

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Present in the Aztec period, unsure earlier.[13]

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥ [14]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥ [15]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ The following suggests that perhaps "community-focus structures" developed later. A Middle Archaic example of open-air site is Gheo-Shih [Oaxaca Valley], which is a field marked by boulders and kept clean. This is considered to be one of Mesoamerica's earliest example of a community-focus structure, such as the plaza, temple-pyramid, and palace, all of which developed in the Formative and later periods.[16]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ The following suggests that perhaps "community-focus structures" developed later. A Middle Archaic example of open-air site is Gheo-Shih [Oaxaca Valley], which is a field marked by boulders and kept clean. This is considered to be one of Mesoamerica's earliest example of a community-focus structure, such as the plaza, temple-pyramid, and palace, all of which developed in the Formative and later periods.[17]
♠ markets ♣ inferred absent ♥ The following suggests that perhaps "community-focus structures" developed later. A Middle Archaic example of open-air site is Gheo-Shih [Oaxaca Valley], which is a field marked by boulders and kept clean. This is considered to be one of Mesoamerica's earliest example of a community-focus structure, such as the plaza, temple-pyramid, and palace, all of which developed in the Formative and later periods.[18]
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred absent ♥ The following suggests that perhaps "community-focus structures" developed later. A Middle Archaic example of open-air site is Gheo-Shih [Oaxaca Valley], which is a field marked by boulders and kept clean. This is considered to be one of Mesoamerica's earliest example of a community-focus structure, such as the plaza, temple-pyramid, and palace, all of which developed in the Formative and later periods.[19]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ present ♥ Present since the Archaic Period c. 10 ka.[20]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ absent ♥ First evidence in the Early Formative period (1500-1000 BCE).[21]
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ "Absent in the Basin, present in lowland Mesoamerica c. 100 BCE-900CE."[22]
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥ First evidence in Teotihuacan c. 200 CE.[23]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ [24]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥ [25]
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥ First evidence in Mesoamerica c. 500 BCE. Present at Teotihuacan c. 200 CE onwards.[26]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥ Present in Classic Maya 200-900 CE. Possibly present in Teotihuacan. Present in the Basin by c. 1300 CE.[27]
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥ [28]
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥ [29]
♠ History ♣ absent ♥ Present in Classic Maya 200-900 CE. Only records in the Basin are conquest records by the Aztec (1450-1519 CE).[30]
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥ "Known for the colonial period, maybe oral philosophy earlier."[31]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥ "Astronomical almanacs inferred for Classic period, c. 200-900, preserved from c. 1300 onwards."[32]
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥ [33]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Giulia Nazzaro ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent ♥ "Metals were another story. Throughout all these times [before 500 BCE], and even much later, they were essentially unused in Mesoamerica. Teotihuacan's predecessors [...] and Teotihuacan itself used only stone tools".[34]
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ "Metals were another story. Throughout all these times [before 500 BCE], and even much later, they were essentially unused in Mesoamerica. Teotihuacan's predecessors [...] and Teotihuacan itself used only stone tools".[35]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ "Metals were another story. Throughout all these times [before 500 BCE], and even much later, they were essentially unused in Mesoamerica. Teotihuacan's predecessors [...] and Teotihuacan itself used only stone tools".[36]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ "Metals were another story. Throughout all these times [before 500 BCE], and even much later, they were essentially unused in Mesoamerica. Teotihuacan's predecessors [...] and Teotihuacan itself used only stone tools".[37]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Little is known about warfare in Mesoamerica before the Middle Formative [...] warfare was relatively unorganized, conducted by small groups armed with unspecialized tool-weapons".[38]
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred absent: 6000-4001BCE; present: 4000-2001BCE ♥ "In Mesoamerica [...] tools that could double as weapons, including handheld spears and spearthrowers (atlatls) [...] have been found as early as 4000 BC".[39]
♠ Slings ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Little is known about warfare in Mesoamerica before the Middle Formative [...] warfare was relatively unorganized, conducted by small groups armed with unspecialized tool-weapons".[40]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Little is known about warfare in Mesoamerica before the Middle Formative [...] warfare was relatively unorganized, conducted by small groups armed with unspecialized tool-weapons".[41]
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Little is known about warfare in Mesoamerica before the Middle Formative [...] warfare was relatively unorganized, conducted by small groups armed with unspecialized tool-weapons".[42]
♠ Crossbow ♣ ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Little is known about warfare in Mesoamerica before the Middle Formative [...] warfare was relatively unorganized, conducted by small groups armed with unspecialized tool-weapons".[43]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Little is known about warfare in Mesoamerica before the Middle Formative [...] warfare was relatively unorganized, conducted by small groups armed with unspecialized tool-weapons".[44]
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ The Archaic toolkit included knives. However, it is possible that these were used in hunting rather than warfare.[45]
♠ Swords ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Little is known about warfare in Mesoamerica before the Middle Formative [...] warfare was relatively unorganized, conducted by small groups armed with unspecialized tool-weapons".[46]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred absent: 6000-4001BCE; present: 4000-2001BCE ♥ "In Mesoamerica [...] tools that could double as weapons, including handheld spears and spearthrowers (atlatls) [...] have been found as early as 4000 BC".[47]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Little is known about warfare in Mesoamerica before the Middle Formative [...] warfare was relatively unorganized, conducted by small groups armed with unspecialized tool-weapons".[48]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ Hassig lists war dogs among the new military "technologies" the Spanish introduced to the region in the sixteenth century[49]
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥ Not native to region.
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Not native to region.
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Not native to region.
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Not native to region.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ ♥
♠ Shields ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Little is known about warfare in Mesoamerica before the Middle Formative [...] warfare was relatively unorganized, conducted by small groups armed with unspecialized tool-weapons".[50]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Little is known about warfare in Mesoamerica before the Middle Formative [...] warfare was relatively unorganized, conducted by small groups armed with unspecialized tool-weapons".[51]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Little is known about warfare in Mesoamerica before the Middle Formative [...] warfare was relatively unorganized, conducted by small groups armed with unspecialized tool-weapons".[52]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Little is known about warfare in Mesoamerica before the Middle Formative [...] warfare was relatively unorganized, conducted by small groups armed with unspecialized tool-weapons".[53]
♠ Chainmail ♣ ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ absent ♥ "Whereas no sites are documented as fortified or military observatories during the Formative and Classic periods, approximately one quarter of sites are during the Epiclassic and one-third of sites are during the Postclassic."[54]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ absent ♥ "Whereas no sites are documented as fortified or military observatories during the Formative and Classic periods, approximately one quarter of sites are during the Epiclassic and one-third of sites are during the Postclassic."[55]
♠ Ditch ♣ absent ♥ "Whereas no sites are documented as fortified or military observatories during the Formative and Classic periods, approximately one quarter of sites are during the Epiclassic and one-third of sites are during the Postclassic."[56]
♠ Moat ♣ absent ♥ "Whereas no sites are documented as fortified or military observatories during the Formative and Classic periods, approximately one quarter of sites are during the Epiclassic and one-third of sites are during the Postclassic."[57]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥ "Whereas no sites are documented as fortified or military observatories during the Formative and Classic periods, approximately one quarter of sites are during the Epiclassic and one-third of sites are during the Postclassic."[58]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ "Whereas no sites are documented as fortified or military observatories during the Formative and Classic periods, approximately one quarter of sites are during the Epiclassic and one-third of sites are during the Postclassic."[59]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ "Whereas no sites are documented as fortified or military observatories during the Formative and Classic periods, approximately one quarter of sites are during the Epiclassic and one-third of sites are during the Postclassic."[60]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ "Whereas no sites are documented as fortified or military observatories during the Formative and Classic periods, approximately one quarter of sites are during the Epiclassic and one-third of sites are during the Postclassic."[61]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km. "Whereas no sites are documented as fortified or military observatories during the Formative and Classic periods, approximately one quarter of sites are during the Epiclassic and one-third of sites are during the Postclassic."[62]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

These codes refer to an explicit or defined right for some group to constrain the activity of the executive in some way, typically through a legal code, but other ways are imaginable (explain in paragraph if other mechanisms found). When coding ‘present’ for each of the below codes, provide explanation and give examples of the constraints being used, or note that the constraints were formalized but are no known instances of its use in practice.

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Governmental officials (i.e. judiciary/legislature) can veto or overturn executive decision (including removing a political appointment), or withhold cooperation (e.g., refuse to provide funds or allow raising troops), regardless of whether or not these limits were actually practiced. Explain in paragraph
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Non-governmental organization (elite, social group, community organization, economic group, etc.) can veto or overturn executive decision (including removing a political appointment), or withhold cooperation (e.g., refuse to provide funds or allow raising troops), regardless of whether or not these limits were actually practiced. Explain in paragraph. Note: this does not include religious groups (Church leaders, Buddhist monks, etc.), since that is coded elsewhere)
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. There is a legal mechanism for removing and replacing the head of state

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Members of the ‘elite’ inherit their status and positions. If the ruler position is inherited most of the time, then these are sufficient grounds to code this variable as present

Religion and Normative Ideology

Deification of Rulers

(‘gods’ is a shorthand for ‘supernatural agents’)

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. For example, rulers are blessed by gods; the institution of kingship is ordained by heaven

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown.

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

These codes refer to acts undertaken without direct compulsion from or out of adherence to a religious system (religious aspects of prosociality are coded below)

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Religious doctrine, philosophical statements, or practice makes claims about equality. For instance, explicit statements by religious groups or influential philosophers that all humans are equal

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Religious doctrine, philosophical statements, or practice makes claims about engaging in activity for the benefit of a wider community, for instance Christian traditions of alms-giving or Islamic sadaqah

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Public Goods refer to anything that incurs cost to an individual or group of individuals, but that can be used or enjoyed by others who did not incur any of the cost, namely the public at large. They are non-excludable and non-rivalrous goods. Examples are roads, public drinking fountains, public parks or theatres, temples open to the public, etc.

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [63] [64] [65]

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