MnZungh

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Zungharian Empire ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Zungharia; Zunghars; Junghar; Dzungar ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1679-1745 CE ♥ "Galdan had been subjugating Mongol tribes since the 1670s, taking control of all of eastern Turkestan by 1679." [1] "In sum, competition with the Qing state drove the Zunghars to undertake significant steps toward “self-strengthening.” Like many earlier nomadic empires, they established cities, developed agriculture, fostered trade, and generated tax revenues, but the primary motivation was not “as- similation” to settled societies’ customs but mobilization of resources for defense. Internal upheaval after the death of Galdan Tseren in 1745, however, curtailed these investments." [2]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1670-1757 CE ♥ 1635? “In 1635, the year following Ligdan Khan’s death, the Oirat prince Ba’atur Khongtaiji (1634-53) of the Choros clan united all four Oirat tribes and founded the Dzungar (Junghar) khanate, with himself as its leader (see Chapter 6 above). In1640, at his instigation, an assembly was convened of Oirat, Khalkha, Koko Nor and Kalmuk rulers and representatives of the high clergy, at which the Oirat Mongol Legal Code was drafted and enacted, under which all were urged to consolidate their own internal position and to pool their efforts in order to resist the Manchus. However, fragmented as they were, the Mongols found these measures extremely difficult to carry out in practice. [3]

location of Kerulen river [1]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ confederated state ♥ "Atwood (2006, p. 209) describes the Zunghar political structure as ‘‘a confederated pattern of several ruling lineages competing for domination, and linked by marriage alliance.’’ Such a system contrasts sharply with the single-lineage type of power structure found in the earlier Mongol empire." [4]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Khalkhas ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ cultural assimilation ♥ “In 1688, on the pretext of supporting the Khalkha right wing, Galdan marched eastward, leading 30,000 Oirat troops over the Khangai into the Khalkha pastures. The Khalkha left-wing army commanded by Tüshiyetü Khan fought valiantly for three days but was routed. The khan and his younger brother, the first Jebzundamba Khutughtu, followed by hundreds of thousands of the Khalkha multitude, fled in panic across the Gobi into present-day Inner Mongolia to seek protection under the Manchu ( Qing) emperor Kang Xi." [5]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ China - Early Qing ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Oirats ♥ "By 1690 three different Oirat confederations, or states, had emerged. In Tibet the Khoshuds, with some Khoids and Torghuds, formed the khanate of Tibet under the descendants of Güüshi Khan (see UPPER MONGOLS). Strad- dling the Volga, the Torghuds, with some Dörböds and Khoshuds, formed the Kalmyk Khanate under Khoo-Örlög’s descendants. The Kalmyks numbered at their height 40,000-50,000 households. In the Oirat homeland of Zungharia, the ZÜNGHARS, an offshoot of the Dörböd also ruled by the Choros, displaced the Khoshud in 1676. The Zünghar principality included the Zünghars, Dör- böds, Khoshuds, and Khoids (with some attached Torghuds) and is said to have numbered 200,000 house- holds. From this time until 1771 the Oirats remained powerful players in Inner Asian politics." [6]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥


♠ Language ♣ Oirat ♥ "Oirat speech is a distinctive dialect or language of the Mongolian family. " [7]

General Description

The Zungharian polity was, according to Atwood,[8] "the last great independent power of the steppe". The tribal name "Zunghar" first appeared in the seventeenth century, as part of the Oirat confederation of steppe tribes; their rise to dominance within the confederation began under the leadership of Khara-Khula (d. 1634), but it was only in the 1670s, under Galdan, that they officially became the confederacy's leading tribe, and recognised as such even by the Dail Lama, who gave Galdan the title of Boshogtu Khan.[9] At its height, the Zungharian polity included portions of Central Asia, Kazakhstan, western Mongolia, neighbouring areas of southern Siberia, and Xinjiang.[10] In 1755, the Qing empire was able to annex the Zungharians following a relatively quick and bloodless military campaign; because the Zungharians had successfully repelled the Chinese army several times before, the cause for this sudden collapse can most likely be found in the conflict between the successors of the last great Zugharian ruler, Galdan-Tseren (d. 1735).[11]

Population and political organization

The Zungharian ruler, known as Khung-Taiji, benefited from the support of an office (yamu) or court (zarghu) composed of four chief officials, known as ministers (tüshimed), judges (zarghuchis), or grand councillors (zaisangs). Galdan-Tseren, the only Zungharian ruler to also be known by the title of Khan, added six additional councillors. Each of the tribes that made up the Zungharian-led confederacy (previously known as the Oirat confederacy) and its own ruler who was himself supported by his own councillors, as well as minor functionaries such as standard-bearers and trumpeters. Finally, each tribe was itself subdivided into otogs, which were themselves subdivided into smaller units (of 40 and then 20 households) governed by local commoner officials.[12]

Sources say that the Zungharian polity included "200,000 households";[13] with a conservative estimate of 3-8 people per household, the population would therefore have been in the range of 600,000-1,600,000 people.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [170,000-210,000]: 1700 CE ♥ in squared kilometers. "At its height it encompassed a region that included portions of Central Asia, Kazakhstan, western Mongolia and surrounding areas of southern Siberia, and Xinjiang." [14] "The Zunghar Mongols were based in the grasslands of the Yili River region of northern Xinjiang, in the remote northwest of what is now China." [15]

1928421.84 sq km based on Perdue's map at the end of the 17th century, estimated using Google area calculator. [16] This would give us a range of 170,000-210,000 sq kilometers.

♠ Polity Population ♣ [600,000-1,600,000] ♥ People. "The Zünghar principality included the Zünghars, Dörböds, Khoshuds, and Khoids (with some attached Torghuds) and is said to have numbered 200,000 households. From this time until 1771 the Oirats remained powerful players in Inner Asian politics." [17]

With an estimate of 3-8 people per household, the population would be in the range of 600,000-1,600,000 people. (AD's guess)

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels.

Perdue's map [18] indicates the presence of regional capitals and towns; however these probably corresponded to the Chinese administration. Erdeni Batur had built a capital for the Zunghars at Kubak Zar near Tashkent but it fell into disuse after his death (before the start of our polity) [19] Zunghar farms are also mentioned [20] From this we can infer at least two levels, towns and villages/farms, even though this society was nomadic.

1. Towns

2. Villages/hamlets/farms

"In sum, competition with the Qing state drove the Zunghars to un- dertake significant steps toward “self-strengthening.” Like many earlier nomadic empires, they established cities, developed agriculture, fostered trade, and generated tax revenues, but the primary motivation was not “as- similation” to settled societies’ customs but mobilization of resources for defense." [21]

"Those Oirats who stayed in Jungaria, led by the Choros under their khan Baatur-Khongtaiji (1634-53), consolidated their hold on the area, symbolizing this by stabilizing their headquarters in the form of a city which became the modern Chuguchak (Tacheng)." [22]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [2-5] ♥ levels.

1. Khung-Taiji ruler, later known as Khan

2. 54 albachi zaisang (tax officials) administering 24 otogs
2. Nobles administering 21 anggis (six Choros, one Khoshud, two Torghud, eight Khoid, and (presumably) four Dörböd)

"While often called the “Zunghar Khanate,” the Zünghar ruler bore the title of khan only rarely. Instead, the Zünghar ruler bore the title of Khung-Taiji, a title derived from Chinese huang-taizi, “crown prince” and originally meaning viceroy or regent for the khan. The title of khan was taken later, if at all, and only by special grant from an outside power, such as the Dalai Lama. While Galdan held the title of khan, his nephew and successor Tse- wang-Rabtan was merely Khung-Taiji. GALDAN-TSEREN (r. 1727-45) is usually called khan, but it is unclear from whom he received the title." [23]

"Galdan-Tseren reorganized the Zünghar principality, nominally numbering 200,000 households, into directly ruled otogs and appanages, or anggis. His directly subject households, nomadizing in the Ili valley, numbered 24 otogs administered by 54 albachi zaisang (tax officials), with a nominal strength of 87,300 households. These were his personal Choros subjects, captured Siberian and Mongolian peoples, and functional units such as the 4,000 Kötöchi-Nar (equerries), 1,000 Buuchin (musketeers), 5,000 Uruud (craftsmen), and 2,000 ZAKHACHINs (borderers). The appanages of the great nobles, which surrounded the Ili center, were arranged into 21 anggis, specified as six Choros, one Khoshud, two Torghud, eight Khoid, and (presumably) four Dörböd. The anggis did not pay regular taxes to the ruler." [24]

"The Kalmyk and Zünghar confederations were similar in many ways. Both were divided into tribes (AIMAG), which themselves were conglomerations of exogamous yasun (bones, or patrilineages). The khan or khung-taiji was assisted by an office (yamu) or court (zarghu) composed of four chief officials, variously called ministers (tüshimed), judges (zarghuchis; see JARGHUCHI), or zaisangs (from Chinese zaixiang, grand councillor). These were commoner retainers of the ruler’s tribe. The Zünghar ruler GALDAN-TSEREN (r. 1727-45) expanded the council by adding six zarghuchis to assist the four tüshimed. The people were assigned to appanages (ulus or anggi) controlled by a nobility (noyod or taiji; see NOYAN) of the tribes’ particular ruling “bones.” Below the noyods were the tabunangs, or sons-in-law or those who had married women of the noyod lineages. The positions of “four ministers,” or “judges,” were restricted to such tabunangs of the ruler. Below them were minor functionaries: standard bearers, trumpeters, aides-de-camp (kiya), and so on. Each appanage was divided into otogs (a camp district composed of several clans and usually with 3,000 to 6,000 households; see OTOG). The otogs were divided into groups of 40 households, and they in turn into 20s. Each of these units had officials: zaisangs, demchis, and shülengges, respectively. These local officials were all accounted commoners. Commoners without office were divided into the “good” (said), the “middle,” and the “base.” "[25]

1. Khan

_Social structure_

2. Tribes
3. Patrilineages (yasun)

_Central government_

2. 4 Chief officials at court, called ministers (tüshimed), judges (zarghuchis; see JARGHUCHI), or zaisangs. These were tabunangs of the ruler.
3. Six zarguchis to assist them

_Distribution of the people_

2. Appanages (ulus or anggi) controlled by a noyod or taiji noble.

__Appanage central government__

3. Tabunangs: sons-in-law or those who had married women of the noyod lineages
4. Minor functionaries: standard bearers, trumpeters, aides-de-camp, etc.

__Administrative hierarchy of the appanage__

3. Otog (a camp district composed of several clans and usually with 3,000 to 6,000 households) governed by zaisang officials.
4. Groups of 40 households governed by demchi officials.
5. Groups of 20 households governed by shülengge officials.


♠ Religious levels ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels.

"A nobleman might donate up to 10,000 horses for a single religious service or requisition his subjects to become bandi (novices) or lay servants in the monasteries. The clergy and their “disciples” were protected from both violence and state duties. Novices who had married without taking the major vows were probably common although legally discouraged. The monasteries were mostly nomadic, although in 1638 a Zünghar ruler requested pigs from Russia to give to the monasteries. At its height the Kalmyk chief lama’s estate of shabinar (disciples, or serfs), for example, reached 3,000-4,000 households. Galdan-Tseren organized the entire clergy into nine jisai (Mongolian, jisiya), with 9,000 lamas and 10,600 households of shabinar. To improve the clergy, he requisitioned 500 pupils, each with two yurts, three servants, two horses, and 100 sheep to be trained by a respected Tibetan lama. One special otog, or camp district, named Altachin, “goldsmiths,” was dedicated to making Buddhist images." [26]

1. Lamas, divided into 9 jisai.

2. Novices (bandi)


♠ Military levels ♣ [3-6] ♥ levels. Might have paralleled the administrative level (AD inference).

1. Khan (Khung Taiji)

2. Appanages (ulus or anggi) controlled by a noyod or taiji noble. - Military chief?
3. Otog (a camp district composed of several clans and usually with 3,000 to 6,000 households) governed by zaisang officials. Otog military chief?
4. Groups of 40 households governed by demchi officials. military chief?
5. Groups of 20 households governed by shülengge officials. military chief?
6. Individual soldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥ continuity with Mongolian Empire?

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present ♥ continuity with Mongolian Empire?

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ "At its height the Kalmyk chief lama’s estate of shabinar (disciples, or serfs), for example, reached 3,000-4,000 households. Galdan-Tseren organized the entire clergy into nine jisai (Mongolian, jisiya), with 9,000 lamas and 10,600 households of shabinar. To improve the clergy, he requisitioned 500 pupils, each with two yurts, three ser- vants, two horses, and 100 sheep to be trained by a respected Tibetan lama. One special otog, or camp dis- trict, named Altachin, “goldsmiths,” was dedicated to making Buddhist images." [27]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred present ♥ "Local officials were responsible for keeping their people in line and reporting external or internal disorder. The commoner officials were required to assemble periodically at the palace-yurt (örgöö) of their noyon, and otog elders had to assemble the demchis; failure to appear was subject to a fine. Government was maintained almost entirely by in-kind contributions. The commoners were required to give food, mounts, and other necessary supplies to government messengers and “feed” their own nobles, tabunangs, and the high officials." [28]

This quote seems to indicate that high officials in the government were supported through tribute and had no other occupation. Besides, the presence of tax officials reinforces the probability that there were full-time bureaucrats. AD.

"According to Liang Fen, Galdan also established a rudimentary taxation system by delegating a traveling inspector to exact payments of horses, oxen, and sheep from fron- tier tribes, and to keep careful track of income and expenses. This man, who “represented Galdan’s eyes and ears . . . gathered up people and goods in his net.”7" [29]

"Galdan-Tseren reorganized the Zünghar principality, nominally numbering 200,000 households, into directly ruled otogs and appanages, or anggis. His directly subject households, nomadizing in the Ili valley, numbered 24 otogs administered by 54 albachi zaisang (tax officials), with a nominal strength of 87,300 households. These were his personal Choros subjects, captured Siberian and Mongolian peoples, and functional units such as the 4,000 Kötöchi-Nar (equerries), 1,000 Buuchin (musketeers), 5,000 Uruud (craftsmen), and 2,000 ZAKHACHINs (borderers). The appanages of the great nobles, which surrounded the Ili center, were arranged into 21 anggis, specified as six Choros, one Khoshud, two Torghud, eight Khoid, and (presumably) four Dörböd. The anggis did not pay regular taxes to the ruler." [30]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ Family connections used to obtain positions. "The Kalmyk and Zünghar confederations were similar in many ways. Both were divided into tribes (AIMAG), which themselves were conglomerations of exogamous yasun (bones, or patrilineages). The khan or khung-taiji was assisted by an office (yamu) or court (zarghu) composed of four chief officials, variously called ministers (tüshimed), judges (zarghuchis; see JARGHUCHI), or zaisangs (from Chinese zaixiang, grand councillor). These were commoner retainers of the ruler’s tribe. The Zünghar ruler GALDAN-TSEREN (r. 1727-45) expanded the council by adding six zarghuchis to assist the four tüshimed. The people were assigned to appanages (ulus or anggi) controlled by a nobility (noyod or taiji; see NOYAN) of the tribes’ particular ruling “bones.” Below the noyods were the tabunangs, or sons-in-law or those who had married women of the noyod lineages. The positions of “four ministers,” or “judges,” were restricted to such tabunangs of the ruler. Below them were minor functionaries: standard bearers, trumpeters, aides-de-camp (kiya), and so on." [31]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥ Family connections used to obtain positions. "The Kalmyk and Zünghar confederations were similar in many ways. Both were divided into tribes (AIMAG), which themselves were conglomerations of exogamous yasun (bones, or patrilineages). The khan or khung-taiji was assisted by an office (yamu) or court (zarghu) composed of four chief officials, variously called ministers (tüshimed), judges (zarghuchis; see JARGHUCHI), or zaisangs (from Chinese zaixiang, grand councillor). These were commoner retainers of the ruler’s tribe. The Zünghar ruler GALDAN-TSEREN (r. 1727-45) expanded the council by adding six zarghuchis to assist the four tüshimed. The people were assigned to appanages (ulus or anggi) controlled by a nobility (noyod or taiji; see NOYAN) of the tribes’ particular ruling “bones.” Below the noyods were the tabunangs, or sons-in-law or those who had married women of the noyod lineages. The positions of “four ministers,” or “judges,” were restricted to such tabunangs of the ruler. Below them were minor functionaries: standard bearers, trumpeters, aides-de-camp (kiya), and so on." [32]


♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred absent ♥ This quotation suggests that there were no specialized government buildings (the 'palace yurt' doubled as an elite residence and was also non-permanent): "Local officials were responsible for keeping their people in line and reporting external or internal disorder. The commoner officials were required to assemble periodically at the palace-yurt (örgöö) of their noyon, and otog elders had to assemble the demchis; failure to appear was subject to a fine."[33]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred present ♥ "In 1640 the Qalqa and the Oyirad gave up their traditional enmity to form an alliance in the face of the growing threat from the Ch'ing Empire, and jointly promulgated a Mongol-Oyirad Code. The existence of a unified code does not necessarily presuppose that of a unified nation. The Code was in the tradition of Mongol laws since the Yasa of Chingis Khan in that it was applicable only to cases involving more than one of the member groups of the alliance. The Code notwithstanding, a chief had a full possession of his subjects, and cases arising within a group were left to be disposed of by the group itself." [34]

"the Oirats governed themselves pursuant to a document known as the Great Code of the Nomads (Iki Tsaadzhin Bichig). The Code was promulgated in 1640 by them, their brethren in Dzungaria and some of the Eastern Mongols who all gathered near the Tarbagatai Mountains in Dzungaria to resolve their differences and to unite under the banner of the Gelugpa sect. Although the goal of unification was not met, the summit leaders did ratify the Code, which regulated all aspects of nomadic life."[35]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥ Non-specialised function. "The Kalmyk and Zünghar confederations were similar in many ways. Both were divided into tribes (AIMAG), which themselves were conglomerations of exogamous yasun (bones, or patrilineages). The khan or khung-taiji was assisted by an office (yamu) or court (zarghu) composed of four chief officials, variously called ministers (tüshimed), judges (zarghuchis; see JARGHUCHI), or zaisangs (from Chinese zaixiang, grand councillor). These were commoner retainers of the ruler’s tribe. The Zünghar ruler GALDAN-TSEREN (r. 1727-45) expanded the council by adding six zarghuchis to assist the four tüshimed." [36]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred absent ♥ primarily nomadic society

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥ not mentioned in the literature.

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ "Tsewang Rabdan and Galdan Tseren also developed agricultural produc- tion at Ili, the Irtysh River, and Ürümchi by bringing in Turkic oasis dwellers, called Taranchi, who knew the special skills of high-yielding irrigated agriculture. A Qing soldier captured by Tsewang in 1731 reported seeing wide fields and gardens, and even some Zunghars themselves began to take up agriculture, in the form of military colonies, imitating Qing prac- tice.10" [37] "In northwestern Mongolia irrigation systems existed with channels and even simple aqueducts made of hollow logs (onggocha/ongots). Many of these irrigation systems were ancient, dating back to the military farms created under the Mongol Empire (see CHINQAI; QARA-QORUM; SIBERIA AND THE MON- GOL EMPIRE)." [38]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Border markets. "The border trade not only altered Zunghar internal relations but also began to change relations with the frontier merchants. Border officials, realizing that merchants knew prices better than the government, decided to co- operate with them. They created a system of “merchant management under overall official supervision” (shangban er guan wei zongshe zhaokan).17 Nineteenth-century advocates of self-strengthening programs would later call this arrangement “official supervision and merchant management” (guandu shangban). The quantities of goods which the Zunghars brought to the border exceeded what local markets could bear. Dried grapes and rare medicinal products like sal ammoniac and antelope horn, obtained from mines in Turkestan and pastures in Mongolia, piled up in warehouses when no one could arrange distribution. Cattle and sheep served local interests better because they could be used to support military garrisons, but even these herds exceeded local demand. Furthermore, Zunghars constantly insisted on being paid in silver, thus threatening to cause a substan- tial bullion outflow." [39]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ Warehouses at border markets. "The border trade not only altered Zunghar internal relations but also began to change relations with the frontier merchants. Border officials, realizing that merchants knew prices better than the government, decided to co- operate with them. They created a system of “merchant management under overall official supervision” (shangban er guan wei zongshe zhaokan).17 Nineteenth-century advocates of self-strengthening programs would later call this arrangement “official supervision and merchant management” (guandu shangban). The quantities of goods which the Zunghars brought to the border exceeded what local markets could bear. Dried grapes and rare medicinal products like sal ammoniac and antelope horn, obtained from mines in Turkestan and pastures in Mongolia, piled up in warehouses when no one could arrange distribution. Cattle and sheep served local interests better because they could be used to support military garrisons, but even these herds exceeded local demand. Furthermore, Zunghars constantly insisted on being paid in silver, thus threatening to cause a substan- tial bullion outflow. " [40]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ Caravans. There must have been established trade routes and possibly roads. "Although disputes continued to break out with Russia over levies of tribute, refugees, and Russian military expansion southward, Zunghar caravans traveled frequently to Semipalatinsk, Tobolsk, and Yamyshev and became a significant presence in Siberian markets.9 (See Table 8.1.)" [41]
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ absent ♥ landlocked region

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ "Because of their need of weaponry the Dzungar rulers opened iron, copper and silver mines and produced spears, shields, gunpowder, cannon, bullets and iron utensils." [42] "Copper, lead, and fine steel came from the ground. Rocks by the water’s edge produced gold and pearls: [there were so many that] they put them aside and did not use them. No one could surpass them in swift horses and numbers of barbarian riders.” (As this passage indicates, he seems to have learned the technology of Persian steel refining from his contacts with east Turkestan.)" [43]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ inferred present ♥ oral tradition?
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ "While Tibetan language and scriptures were diligently studied in the monasteries, for civil purposes the Kalmyks and Zünghars used Oirat Mongolian in Zaya- Pandita’s clear script, in which a number of diplomatic letters have survived in Russian archives." [44]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ "While Tibetan language and scriptures were diligently studied in the monasteries, for civil purposes the Kalmyks and Zünghars used Oirat Mongolian in Zaya- Pandita’s clear script, in which a number of diplomatic letters have survived in Russian archives." [45]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ Oirat Mongolian is alphabetic, and so is the Tibetan script.

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ "While Tibetan language and scriptures were diligently studied in the monasteries, for civil purposes the Kalmyks and Zünghars used Oirat Mongolian in Zaya-Pandita’s clear script, in which a number of diplomatic letters have survived in Russian archives." [46]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ "Large numbers of Buddhist translations are mentioned, but the only surviving historical works from before the loss of indepen- dence are Zaya Pandita’s hagiography Sarayin gerel (Light of the moon), written in Zungharia around 1690, and Emchi (Physician) Ghabang-Sharab’s Dörbön Oyirodiyintöüke (History of the four Oirats), written in Kalmykia in 1737." [47]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ "Another interesting monument of Oirat intellectual activity consists of two detailed and comparatively accurate maps drawn by a Zünghar cartographer in 1742 and taken to Europe by a returning Swedish captive." [48]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ " Large numbers of Buddhist translations are mentioned, but the only surviving historical works from before the loss of indepen- dence are Zaya Pandita’s hagiography Sarayin gerel (Light of the moon), written in Zungharia around 1690, and Emchi (Physician) Ghabang-Sharab’s Dörbön Oyirodiyintöüke (History of the four Oirats), written in Kalmykia in 1737." [49]
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ "To give an idea of the amount of trade involved in one of these official trade missions, in 1750 the Junghars “brought goods worth 186,000 taels, the largest amount ever, which they exchanged for 167,300 taels’ worth of cloth and tea, with the balance in silver.”23 The Junghars certainly profited from the trade, as did the urban peoples and merchants involved." [50]
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ [51]
♠ Precious metals ♣ absent ♥ [52]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ [53]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ "Like all Central Eurasian nomad rulers, the Junghars were intensely interested in fostering trade and, to that end, minted their own coins to unify the diverse currencies of the different petty states in their territory of East Turkistan." [54]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ [55]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥ Government messengers are mentioned. To what extent where they full-time? "Government was maintained almost entirely by in-kind contributions. The commoners were required to give food, mounts, and other necessary supplies to government messengers and “feed” their own nobles, tabunangs, and the high officials." [56]
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred present ♥ "Caravan trade was tightly confined by the ecological parameters set by the desert, steppe, and oasis environment. Three institutions were critical to it: garrisons and watchtowers manned by soldiers to keep the peace; postal relay stations, originally established by the Mongol empire, for rapid communications; and caravanserai, to provide lodgings and trading places in the oases. " [57] This description refers to the wider geographic region, but we can infer that these features were also present in the Zungharian empire because of trade.
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ "Because of their need of weaponry the Dzungar rulers opened iron, copper and silver mines and produced spears, shields, gunpowder, cannon, bullets and iron utensils." [58]
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ long been in use in the region. Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region.[59] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [60]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ "Because of their need of weaponry the Dzungar rulers opened iron, copper and silver mines and produced spears, shields, gunpowder, cannon, bullets and iron utensils." [61]
♠ Steel ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ "The first composite bow with bone reinforced 'ears', a major development, may have been used around Lake Baikal, c.500 BC. Despite many individual external differences, across the steppe, and across time, the composite bow would remain essentially uniform in construction method." [62] and still used by the Qing: "Under the QING DYNASTY (1636-1912) training in archery was required of all bannermen. The military com- pound bow used was only about 1 1/4 meters (four feet) long, although ones more than two meters (six feet) long were also used for hunting." [63]
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ present ♥ "Because of their need of weaponry the Dzungar rulers opened iron, copper and silver mines and produced spears, shields, gunpowder, cannon, bullets and iron utensils." [64]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ present ♥ "What led to this sudden collapse? A few factors can be discounted. Neither the possession of firearms by the Qing nor some inherent weakness of nomadic polities seems plausible as an explanation, since the Zünghars had been overcoming these obstacles for many decades past." [65] "From 1697 on the Kalmyks as Russian allies received a regular supply of gunpowder and bullets from Russia as well as the use of cannons during war. Supplying Russian firearms to the Zünghars was still banned, however. Bukharan merchants and Zünghar trade missions frequently evaded these bans, and raids on Siberia also supplied firearms." [66]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "Among the steppe riders a dagger was typically carried in all periods, and a number of dagger designs are encountered in the archaeological and artistic record." [67]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ "Even so, demand remained high for sabers, lances, bows and arrows, armor, and helmets, and these edged weapons were still the mainstay of the Oirat armies." [68]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ "Because of their need of weaponry the Dzungar rulers opened iron, copper and silver mines and produced spears, shields, gunpowder, cannon, bullets and iron utensils." [69]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Horses were the means of travel for mobile nomadic warriors since the establishment of cavalry forces by the mid-first millennium BCE
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ "Liang Fen also notes: [Galdan] [...] loaded his cannon on camels. People who heard their thunderous roar near and far submitted." [70]
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ "Because of their need of weaponry the Dzungar rulers opened iron, copper and silver mines and produced spears, shields, gunpowder, cannon, bullets and iron utensils." [71]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ "Even so, demand remained high for sabers, lances, bows and arrows, armor, and helmets, and these edged weapons were still the mainstay of the Oirat armies." [72]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ "Liang Fen also notes: [Galdan] did not obtain military supplies from distant places, because he was very clever at making high-quality weapons himself. He made armor with small links of chain mail, as light as cloth. " [73]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ "While often called the “Zunghar Khanate,” the Zünghar ruler bore the title of khan only rarely. Instead, the Zünghar ruler bore the title of Khung-Taiji, a title derived from Chinese huang-taizi, “crown prince” and originally meaning viceroy or regent for the khan. The title of khan was taken later, if at all, and only by special grant from an outside power, such as the Dalai Lama. While Galdan held the title of khan, his nephew and successor Tse- wang-Rabtan was merely Khung-Taiji. GALDAN-TSEREN (r. 1727-45) is usually called khan, but it is unclear from whom he received the title."[74]

Religion and Normative Ideology

We are interested here in any systems of thought and behavior that can influence people's actions, which we term a Normative Ideology. Normative ideologies are thought-systems concerned with the correct behavior of people, governments/leaders, and other groups (and particularly the relationships between these groups).

Mainly, this will be a religious or ritual system. As usual, when we mention Religious or Ritual System our focus is on the 'official cult', defined the same way as in the Rituals section:

With the official cult we refer to the set of collective religious practices that are most closely associated with legitimation of the power structure (including elites, if any).

However, Normative Ideologies are not restricted to religious/ritual systems. They include other thought systems, such as philosophy or anything that prescribes a particular pattern of behaviour. An example is classical Greek philosophy, such as the works of Plato and Aristotle, who were concerned with correct or moral behaviour and whose thoughts influenced the actual practice of several societies (the empire of Alexander the Great, notably).

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

(‘gods’ is a shorthand for ‘supernatural agents’)

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ absent/present/unknown. For example, rulers are blessed by gods; the institution of kingship is ordained by heaven.

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ 'The problem of violence stems from human craving, the root of all evil, and there are two basic responses to the problem: On the social level, the response takes the form of the human - not divine (!) - institution of a ruler who is given a monopoly on the use of force so as to contain violence and guarantee peace and justice.' [75]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

These codes refer to acts undertaken without direct compulsion from or out of adherence to a religious system (religious aspects of prosociality are coded below)

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ Inferred from two things. First, in its essence, Buddhist society is divided between clergy and laity, and each of these groups has different tasks and different responsibilities for one another—e.g. the laity provides the clergy with food, and the clergy provides the laity with moral teaching [76]. Second, Buddhist teachings contain specific instructions regarding the correct behaviour of a servant towards their master, and vice versa [77]. Code changed to "present" after meeting with expert. Buddhism is fundamentally egalitarian: every human being has a potential to achieve what Buddha achieved, regardless of class or ethnicity [78] .

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ 'The king’s religious status was generally seen as that of the leading lay-follower, the first among the faithful laity. Under Mahāyāna influence - though by no means only in Mahāyāna-Buddhist countries - he was accorded the status of a Bodhisattva, that is, one who is on his way to becoming a Buddha and acts only for the welfare of all others (see Chapter 10).' [79]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ Inferred from the fact that, in its essential form, Buddhist society is characterised by a division between clergy and laity, not between aristocracy and commoners [80] Even the king is merely 'the leading lay-follower, the first among the faithful laity' [81]. Code changed to "present" after meeting with expert. Buddhism is fundamentally egalitarian: every human being has a potential to achieve what Buddha achieved, regardless of class or ethnicity [82] .

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ 'The twofold benefit of living a morally good life is linked to a twofold motivation: ‘Protecting oneself, one protects others; protecting others, one protects oneself ’ - just as each acrobat in a balancing act protects his partner by concentrating on himself, and protects himself by concentrating on his partner (see SN 47:19). If we take care of our own spiritual development, we render a service to others; and if we develop love towards others, we thereby also help ourselves. Accordingly, it is explicitly stated, someone who pursues the path of salvation only for his or her own benefit is to be censured, while the one who follows the path for one’s own benefit and for the benefit of others is to be commended (see AN 7:64).' [83] 'Three segments of the Noble Eightfold Path (3 - 5) are traditionally subsumed under the principle of morality (sila): ‘right speech’ (3), ‘right action’ (4) and ‘right livelihood’ (5). [...] ‘Right action’ is explained as abstaining from harming and killing sentient beings - including animals (!), and further as abstaining from ‘taking what is not given’ and from sexual misconduct, which means avoiding sexual relations with women who are still under the protection of their families, or with those who are married, betrothed, or celibate for religious reasons. From monks and nuns complete sexual abstention is demanded. ‘Right livelihood’ means abstaining from those sources of income which involve harming other beings: trading in weapons for instance, or trading in living beings, meat, intoxicants or poison; also included is the avoidance of fraud and avarice.' [84]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ 'Leading a moral life is seen as having a wider social dimension as well. Establishing public parks, constructing bridges, digging wells and providing a residence for the homeless (see SN 1:1:47; similarly Jat 31) - all these are commended.' [85]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [86] [87] [88]

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