MnUigur

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Uigur Khaganate ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Uighur Empire; Uygur; Uyghur ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 745-840 CE ♥ "The Uighur Empire, which ruled Mongolia from 744 to 840, converted to Manicheism and built numerous cities and settlements in Mongolia." [1]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ confederated state ♥ "The Uighur polity began from an initial coalition of nine smaller groups. Together this coalition was responsible for the fall of the second Turkic empire." [2] "Uighur political organization was relatively centralized, with several levels of administration, including a system of tax collection. Still, a leader often served dual civil and military functions. Some evidence indicates that local leaders were relatively autonomous and that royal edicts were not always the law of the land (Mackerras 1990, p. 328)." [3]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance; personal union ♥ "The Uighurs were frequently Chinese allies, which involved several marriage alliances between the royal courts." [4] "Like the Türks before them, the Uighurs ruled in a virtual symbiosis with the Sogdian merchants of Bukhara and Samarqand. Their attitude toward the Chinese, how- ever, was very different from the Türk rulers’ usually hostile stance. Facing a much weaker China, the Uighur rulers treated the Tang as a protectorate. In return for fighting rebels and Tibetans, the Uighurs expected vast sums of silk, as much as 230,000 bolts in a single year, and imperial princesses. Although the Uighurs also traded horses and presented “tribute goods” at the same time, the Tang found Uighur assistance very expensive, while Uighur troops were often as destructive as the rebels they were fighting." [5]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Second Turk Khaganate ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ elite migration; continuity ♥ "The Uighur polity began from an initial coalition of nine smaller groups. Together this coalition was responsible for the fall of the second Turkic empire." [6] "The Toquz Oghuz formed an important but turbulent subject population for the two TÜRK EMPIRES (552-630, 682-742). In 742, in cooperation with the Basmil near the Tianshan Mountains, and the QARLUQS in Zungharia, the Uighurs overthrew the second Türk Empire. Three years later the Uighurs drove out the Basmil and elevated Qulligh Boyla as the Qutlugh Bilge Kül Qaghan (744-47), establishing their capital, ORDU-BALIGH, in the ORKHON- RIVER-TAMIR region that had been the Türk Empire’s sacred center." [7] "The first Uighur rulers considered themselves continuers of the Türk tradition, and claimed legitimacy by linking themselves with Bumin Kaghan, the founder of the First Türk empire. The difference separating Türks from Uighurs must have been purely political. As is clearly shown by the inscriptions commemorating the deeds of their great men, Türks and Uighurs spoke the same language, used the same runic-type script and lived within the same geographic boundaries. Were it not for their name, the Uighurs would be indistinguishable from the Türks." [8]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Khitan Empire ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Turko-Sogdian ♥ "Archeologists speak of a Turko-Sogdian cultural complex, one notable symbol of which was An Lushan (Rokhshan)." [9]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Ordu Balik ♥ "There are several sites that have been associated with the Uighur empire. The most famous is the huge capital city of Ordu Balik (Khar Balgas), currently being excavated by a Mongolian-German project. It is estimated that the city encompassed a walled area of 25 km2 (Kiselev 1957; Radloff 1892; Rogers et al. 2005). In A.D. 821 the traveler Tam ̄ın ibn Bahr visited the city and described it as agriculturally rich with many outlying villages (Minorsky 1947, p. 283)." [10]


♠ Language ♣ Old Turkic ♥ "As is clearly shown by the inscriptions commemorating the deeds of their great men, Türks and Uighurs spoke the same language, used the same runic-type script and lived within the same geographic boundaries. Were it not for their name, the Uighurs would be indistinguishable from the Türks." [11] "The Türks spoke a dialect of Old Turkish belonging to the Oghuz family, close to modern Uighur, Uzbek, Türkmen, and Turkish, somewhat more distant from the Qipchaq family of Kazakh and Tatar, and quite far from the Oghur family of Chuvash and Old Bulghar. Although many other tribes also spoke close or identical dialects, the Türks’ imperial prestige gave a single name to the whole family of dialects." [12]

General Description

The Orkhon Valley lies either side of the Orkhon River, in north-central Mongolia. Between the 740s and the 840s, this region was controlled by the Uighur khaganate, notably one of only two polities ever to adopt Manichaeism as the official state cult.[13] The Uighur khaganate was relatively centralized, and included a tax collection system, but leaders often served both civil and military functions, and local rulers often enjoyed considerable autonomy.[14]

No population estimates specific to this polity could be found in the literature, though, according to McEvedy and Jones, at that time Mongolia and Siberia together likely had a population of no more than 500,000.[15]


Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [2,000,000-2,500,000] ♥ in squared kilometers.

Based on a map in Asimov and Bosworth.[16]

"Yet a few further and more specific comments may be worthwhile. A Chinese source records the situation in 745 as follows: " The eastern extremity was [the territory of] the Shih-wei, the western, the Altai Mountains, and the southern controlled the Gobi Desert so it covered the entire territory of the ancient Hsiung-nu."9 This passage shows that the Chinese emperor recognized the territorial gains which the kaghan had recently made. It is unfortu­ nately a somewhat vague statement since the Altai Mountains and the Gobi both cover a large territory, but it certainly suggests that the extent of the Uighur empire was substantial. The Shih-wei lived south of the Kerulen River. A northern limit is not specified, but probably the kaghan assumed that his possessions ran at least as far as Lake Baikal, into which the Orkhon River flows. The territory of the Uighurs was expanded west with the firmer cooynquest of the Basmil and Karluk and then remained constant at least until the death of Tun bagha. The loss of Beshbalik and its aftermath appear to have reduced the extent of the Uighur empire drastically. We are told that the Karluk "over­ came [the territory round] the Fou-t'u Valley and seized it from the Uighurs."1 0 This valley was probably northwest of Mt. Ótükán,1 1 the sacred forest of the Turkic peoples, and dangerously close to Karabalghasun. In any case, the extent of Uighur alarm over the loss of the Fou-t'u may be gauged from the following comments of the Chinese historian: "The Uighurs trem­bled with fear and moved all the northwestern tribes, with their sheep and their horses, to the south of their ral camp in order to escape from them [the Karluk]." [17]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [400,000-500,000] ♥ People.

According to McEvedy and Jones the areas of Mongolia and Siberia would not have had a population over 500,000.[18]


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Inhabitants. Karabalghasun. "It is certain, however, that Karabalghasun developed into quite an impressive city. It contained a royal palace, which appears from the Shine-usu inscription (south side, line 10) to have been built at about the same time as the city itself, and was completely walled. Tamim records that "the town has twelve iron gates of huge size. The town is populous and thickly crowded and has markets and various trades."4 2 He adds that it was dominated by a golden tent, which could be seen from some distance outside the city. It stood on the flat top of the palace and could hold 100 people. At least part of the Uighur community had forsaken its nomadic past. Even outside the great cities of the west like Kocho and Beshbalik, a settled urban civilization was being developed." [19]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

"The Uighur Empire, which ruled Mongolia from 744 to 840, converted to Manicheism and built numerous cities and settlements in Mongolia." [20]

1. City with royal palace

2. Town
3. Settlements

"Associated with the growth of agriculture we find the development of towns, the presence of which is well attested in the passage just quoted. We know also two important cities built on the initiative of Uighur kaghans. One of them was Bay-Balik [lit. "Rich Town"], to which I referred earlier. Work on its construction was started in 757 upon an order from kaghan. The other was Karabalghasun, built at about the same time. Both, then, were completed under Mo-yen-ch'o kaghan, so that the process of urbanization must have begun very quickly after the empire was founded. Very little is known about Bay-Balik, and its precise significance for the Uighurs is unclear. It is certain, however, that Karabalghasun developed into quite an impressive city. It contained a royal palace, which appears from the Shine-usu inscription (south side, line 10) to have been built at about the same time as the city itself, and was completely walled. Tamim records that "the town has twelve iron gates of huge size. The town is populous and thickly crowded and has markets and various trades."4 2 He adds that it was dominated by a golden tent, which could be seen from some distance outside the city. It stood on the flat top of the palace and could hold 100 people. At least part of the Uighur community had forsaken its nomadic past. Even outside the great cities of the west like Kocho and Beshbalik, a settled urban civilization was being developed." [21]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 4 ♥ levels. No specific data but Second Turk Khaganate coded 4 and this polity was similar in social complexity.

"Apparently, the confeder­ation still consisted of nine units, but the division was no doubt political rather than ethnical. In 744, the ruling tribe was the Uighurs, who were themselves subdivided into ten clans, collectively called On-Uighur (i.e. the Ten Uighurs). Of these, the dominant one was the Yaghlakar and, until the second dynasty was founded in 795, the whole empire was ruled by kaghans drawn from the Yaghlakar family." [22]

1. Kaghans

2. Rulers of the 10 clans?
3.
4.

♠ Religious levels ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

1. Supreme head/fa-wang

2. Regional archbishops/ mu-she
3. Local priest? and/or instructor of 10

"The first was the elect, the clergy of Manichaeism, themselves subdivided into a clear hierarchy, led by the supreme head (Chinese fa-wang) and regional "archbish­ops" (Chinese mu-she). Of this group was demanded a life of celibacy and fasting, including a ban on meat and fermented liquid. The second category was the auditors, the laymen of Manichaeism. They were expected to be abstemious, kind and generous in giving alms, but were allowed to eat normally and to keep a wife. An auditor who had fulfilled his duties would be reincarnated, after death, as an elect. When the great purification was over, those who had triumphed over the material world would live in the region of absolute light, while those who had succumbed would be taken to the region of total darkness." [23]

Instructor of 10 (or 9)

"According to one report, this decision was greeted with great joy by the people, who "gathered in crowds of thousands and tens of thousands [...] and gave themselves over to joy until morning."2 5 Yet despite these signs of popular approval, Mou-yu kaghan was apparently unconvinced that the zeal of the ordinary man would prove durable. He divided his people into groups of ten, in each of which one person was made responsible for the religious instruction and good works of the other nine. We see here echoes of an ancient military system, practised in Mongolia since the time of the Hsiung-nu, whereby one soldier was placed in charge of a unit of ten." [24]


♠ Military levels ♣ [5-6] ♥ levels.

Decimal system likely used - up to commander of 10,000?

1. Kaghan

2. Commander of 1000
3. Commander of 100
4. Commander of ten
5. Individual soldier.

"According to one report, this decision was greeted with great joy by the people, who "gathered in crowds of thousands and tens of thousands [...] and gave themselves over to joy until morning."2 5 Yet despite these signs of popular approval, Mou-yu kaghan was apparently unconvinced that the zeal of the ordinary man would prove durable. He divided his people into groups of ten, in each of which one person was made responsible for the religious instruction and good works of the other nine. We see here echoes of an ancient military system, practised in Mongolia since the time of the Hsiung-nu, whereby one soldier was placed in charge of a unit of ten." [25]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ "Uighur culture changed dramatically with Bayan- Chor’s forced conversion of his people to Manicheism. Manichean doctrines required strict vegetarianism of the elect priests, including the renunciation of KOUMISS. Bögü exhorted his people to “let [the country] with barbarous customs and smoking blood change into one where people can eat vegetables; and let the state where men kill be transformed into a kingdom where good works are encouraged.” By 821 the Arab visitor Tamim bin Bahr at the capital, Ordu-Baligh, found the city’s population primarily Manichean. Manicheism also adapted to Uighur life; Manichean hymns, for example, incorporated the Türk-Uighur reverence for Ötüken." [26]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ absent ♥ "The great majority of the officials under the kaghan fulfilled both a military and civil function. This is not surprising, since the Uighurs were a warlike people among whom administrators were, on the whole, expected to be competent soldiers."[27]

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The great majority of the officials under the kaghan fulfilled both a military and civil function. This is not surprising, since the Uighurs were a warlike people among whom administrators were, on the whole, expected to be competent soldiers."[28]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "It is certain, however, that Karabalghasun developed into quite an impressive city. It contained a royal palace, which appears from the Shine-usu inscription (south side, line 10) to have been built at about the same time as the city itself, and was completely walled. ... He adds that it was dominated by a golden tent, which could be seen from some distance outside the city. It stood on the flat top of the palace and could hold 100 people."[29]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ "Tamim's claim that the Uighurs practised agriculture has been strikingly confirmed by the discoveries of archeologists, who have found signs that the Uighurs used millstones, pestles and irrigation canals, and even evidence that grain, such as millet, was buried together with corpses of certain Uighurs." [30]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ "It is certain, however, that Karabalghasun developed into quite an impressive city. It contained a royal palace, which appears from the Shine-usu inscription (south side, line 10) to have been built at about the same time as the city itself, and was completely walled. Tamim records that "the town has twelve iron gates of huge size. The town is populous and thickly crowded and has markets and various trades."." [31]
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Tamim's claim that the Uighurs practised agriculture has been strikingly confirmed by the discoveries of archeologists, who have found signs that the Uighurs used millstones, pestles and irrigation canals, and even evidence that grain, such as millet, was buried together with corpses of certain Uighurs." [32]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ Possible that roads ran through the 12 gateways to Karabalghasun, but this is not confirmed by the sources.
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Irrigation canals were used,[33] but sources do not mention canals large enough to be used for transportation.
♠ Ports ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ "While their own spoken dialect may have differed somewhat, the Uighurs adopted the written form of Old Turkish used in the Türk empires. Uighur inscriptions found in Mongolia show the primary use of the Türks’ Runic script alongside a cursive adaption of Sogdian for Uighur, which after the fall of the empire became the Uighurs’ main script." [34]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ History ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ suspected unknown ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ "Earlier steppe people had exchanged some of their horses for Chinese silk, but the scale of the Sino- Uighur trade was unusually large. It reached impressive proportions about 760 and became one of the most important aspects of their mutual relations. A Chinese historian explains its development as follows: The Uighurs, taking advantage of their service to China [during the An Lu-shan rebellion], frequently used to send embassies with horses to trade at an agreed price for silken fabrics. Usually they came every year, trading one horse for forty pieces of silk. Every time they came they brought several tens of thousands of horses [. . .] The barbarians acquired silk insatiably and we were given useless horses. The court found it extremely galling.44 This was a forced trade, of far greater value to the Uighurs than to the Chinese, and continued throughout the period of the Uighur empire. Most of the vast quantity of silk involved could be re-exported to other countries or function as a form of currency. But some of it was possibly used among the urban rich, who were becoming accustomed to a softer life." [35]
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ "Most of the vast quantity of silk involved could be re-exported to other countries or function as a form of currency. But some of it was possibly used among the urban rich, who were becoming accustomed to a softer life." [36] "Other commodities were exchanged besides those already noted. When a group of Uighur officials and princesses came to Ch'ang-an in 821 to welcome the Princess of T'ai-ho, "they presented the court with camel's hair, brocade, white silk, sable and mouse furs," and other things like jade belts as well as 1,000 horses and 50 camels.4 5 These goods were no doubt sometimes traded by the Uighurs, but detailed information is nowhere recorded."[37]
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ "With time, the problem of the currency circulation unification was acute in the empire. Allsen (1987: 180­182) believes that a role of the universal currency has been played by the silver bar (Mong. süke, Chinese - ting, Persian - balīsh, Uigur - yastug, Russ. ­ slitok)." [38]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ The Uigur probably used Chinese and Sogdian money. [39]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ [40]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ [41]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ long been in use in the region. Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region.[42] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [43]
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ long been in use in the region. Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region.[44] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [45]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region.[46] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [47]
♠ Steel ♣ inferred present ♥ By the seventh century the "Sogdians and Turkic peoples "had their own sophisticated metallurgical industries."[48] "The other peoples who were heavily involved with arms production and trade with the Tibetans were the Turkic peoples and especially the Karluks, allies of the Tibetans during the eighth and early ninth centuries ... The Karluks ... were noted by Islamic geographers as producers and exporters of iron artifacts and weapons to Tibet and China."[49]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The Old T'ang history records that the Uighurs of the period before 744 "moved above in search of waters and pastures [...] and excelled in horsemanship and archery."" [50] Probably composite bows.
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Known since the Xiongnu
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon.[51]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ not in use at this time
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ "Firearms appeared in Siberia and Mongolia in the 17th century in the form of flintlock rifles. Flintlocks were the only firearms used in most areas until the turn of the 20th century." [52]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "Among the steppe riders a dagger was typically carried in all periods, and a number of dagger designs are encountered in the archaeological and artistic record." [53]
♠ Swords ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Spears ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ "The Old T'ang history records that the Uighurs of the period before 744 "moved above in search of waters and pastures [...] and excelled in horsemanship and archery."" [54]
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ "Shields were known in all periods and, though they are mentioned in the contemporary literature, they only occasionally appear in artistic representations. They were typically made of leather on a reed frame, and a few rare examples survive." [55]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ "Shields were known in all periods and, though they are mentioned in the contemporary literature, they only occasionally appear in artistic representations. They were typically made of leather on a reed frame, and a few rare examples survive." [56]
♠ Helmets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Qarshi, built by Kebek of the Chagatai Khaganate is an example "typical of Mongolian and south Siberian cities from the Xiongnu period onwards."; it was "bounded by a strong wall, 4.5 m thick, surrounded by a deep defensive ditch, 8-10 m wide and 3.5-4 m deep, and had four gates. The original layout of the city (before Timurid additions) included one central fortress/palace surrounded by an open spaced designed for the erection of tents."[57] We don't know if the walls in this region were made out of stone or earth.
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ Qarshi, built by Kebek of the Chagatai Khaganate is an example "typical of Mongolian and south Siberian cities from the Xiongnu period onwards."; it was "bounded by a strong wall, 4.5 m thick, surrounded by a deep defensive ditch, 8-10 m wide and 3.5-4 m deep, and had four gates. The original layout of the city (before Timurid additions) included one central fortress/palace surrounded by an open spaced designed for the erection of tents."[58]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Qarshi, built by Kebek of the Chagatai Khaganate is an example "typical of Mongolian and south Siberian cities from the Xiongnu period onwards."; it was "bounded by a strong wall, 4.5 m thick, surrounded by a deep defensive ditch, 8-10 m wide and 3.5-4 m deep, and had four gates. The original layout of the city (before Timurid additions) included one central fortress/palace surrounded by an open spaced designed for the erection of tents."[59] We don't know if the walls in this region were made out of stone or earth.
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ "Another important Uighur site, Baibalyk on the Tsagaan River (Bayar 1999, p. 176), consists of three large square enclosures, one still with very substantial walls." [60]
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ "Apparently, the confeder­ation still consisted of nine units, but the division was no doubt political rather than ethnical. In 744, the ruling tribe was the Uighurs, who were themselves subdivided into ten clans, collectively called On-Uighur (i.e. the Ten Uighurs). Of these, the dominant one was the Yaghlakar and, until the second dynasty was founded in 795, the whole empire was ruled by kaghans drawn from the Yaghlakar family."[61]

Religion and Normative Ideology

We are interested here in any systems of thought and behavior that can influence people's actions, which we term a Normative Ideology. Normative ideologies are thought-systems concerned with the correct behavior of people, governments/leaders, and other groups (and particularly the relationships between these groups).

Mainly, this will be a religious or ritual system. As usual, when we mention Religious or Ritual System our focus is on the 'official cult', defined the same way as in the Rituals section:

With the official cult we refer to the set of collective religious practices that are most closely associated with legitimation of the power structure (including elites, if any).

However, Normative Ideologies are not restricted to religious/ritual systems. They include other thought systems, such as philosophy or anything that prescribes a particular pattern of behaviour. An example is classical Greek philosophy, such as the works of Plato and Aristotle, who were concerned with correct or moral behaviour and whose thoughts influenced the actual practice of several societies (the empire of Alexander the Great, notably).

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

(‘gods’ is a shorthand for ‘supernatural agents’)

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from documents created in the Kingdom of Kocho, i.e. the polity founded by the Uyghur in the mid-9th centry CE. “Its ideological role was manifested in the Turkic literature from Kocho, which presents numerous examples of the glorification of the Uygur rulers of the steppe. For example, in one text (TM 417 and TM 47 [M 919]), the composer clearly sought to divinize these rulers by comparing one ruler’s death to the “sinking of the Sun God” and his enthronement to “the rising of the Moon God,” so that enthronement itself was likened to a reincarnation of the supreme bodies of Light, resident in the Khan. That these rulers accepted such symbols of their deification is evident from their titles which contained an element proclaiming that they had received their charisma or right to rule from the kun tangri ‘Sun God’ or the ay tangri ‘Moon God’ or both. Church leaders in Kocho had everything to gain from their conscious divinization of the Uygur rulers in the far-off steppe. Deification may not have been the sincerest form of flattery, but it did help to ensure protection of missionary activities within the realm.” [62]
♠ Rulers are gods ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from documents created in the Kingdom of Kocho, i.e. the polity founded by the Uyghur in the mid-9th centry CE. “Its ideological role was manifested in the Turkic literature from Kocho, which presents numerous examples of the glorification of the Uygur rulers of the steppe. For example, in one text (TM 417 and TM 47 [M 919]), the composer clearly sought to divinize these rulers by comparing one ruler’s death to the “sinking of the Sun God” and his enthronement to “the rising of the Moon God,” so that enthronement itself was likened to a reincarnation of the supreme bodies of Light, resident in the Khan. That these rulers accepted such symbols of their deification is evident from their titles which contained an element proclaiming that they had received their charisma or right to rule from the kun tangri ‘Sun God’ or the ay tangri ‘Moon God’ or both. Church leaders in Kocho had everything to gain from their conscious divinization of the Uygur rulers in the far-off steppe. Deification may not have been the sincerest form of flattery, but it did help to ensure protection of missionary activities within the realm.” [63]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

These codes refer to acts undertaken without direct compulsion from or out of adherence to a religious system (religious aspects of prosociality are coded below)

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ Due to the rigors of Manichean ethics, followers of this religion were divided into “a small elite of ‘perfect’ or ‘elect’ people”, who had to follow strict commandments, and “the greater community of devout lay-people”, who had to follow different, and less demanding, commandments. “The elect were submitted to five rigorous commandments which confined their lives to the duties of hearing and reading the instructive sermons and scriptures, singing hymns, offering prayers, attending the services and above all the sacramental communal meals, teaching and preaching the gospel of truth to brethren and lay-people, doing missionary work, etc. They were submitted to a strict vegetarian regime and forbidden to drink alcoholic drinks and eat meat, to earn their own livelihood (except for acts of financial business), or practice any sexual activities (Baur, 1831 = 1973, pp. 267-70; Puech, 1949, pp. 89-91).//But living a holy life affected more than the elect’s personal salvation. It made his body, and his digestive system in particular, a miraculous instrument for liberating the light particles of the World Soul that were imprisoned in melons, cucumbers, grapes, water, fruit juice, etc. By eating those fruits the elect set free the light particles from the material massa damnata and let them ascend to the New Paradise of Light in their hymns of praise, their prayers and, as Augustine derisively says, their belches (ructatibus, Baur, 1831 = 1973, p. 287). This happened in their sacramental meals, regularly held whenever fasting was not incumbent. If we call the communal meal of the elect a kind of Eucharist, it is just the opposite of the Christian ceremony. It does not mediate God’s redemption of the believers through Christ’s sacrifice, it affects the redemption of the suffering divine World Soul (also called Jesus patibilis by Faustus) through the redeeming force of holy men (Tardieu, 1981, pp. 111-12). In this way the elect gain a super-human rank, and it is doubtlessly in this function that they are addressed as “gods” (Copt. nnoute, Parth.yazdan, Kephalaia, ed. Polotsky and Bohlig, 1940, pp. 219.34-220.3; Gardner, 1995, p. 227; Zieme, 1975, pp. 28, 29).” [64]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from documents created in the Kingdom of Kocho, i.e. the polity founded by the Uyghur in the mid-9th centry CE. “Its ideological role was manifested in the Turkic literature from Kocho, which presents numerous examples of the glorification of the Uygur rulers of the steppe. For example, in one text (TM 417 and TM 47 [M 919]), the composer clearly sought to divinize these rulers by comparing one ruler’s death to the “sinking of the Sun God” and his enthronement to “the rising of the Moon God,” so that enthronement itself was likened to a reincarnation of the supreme bodies of Light, resident in the Khan. That these rulers accepted such symbols of their deification is evident from their titles which contained an element proclaiming that they had received their charisma or right to rule from the kun tangri ‘Sun God’ or the ay tangri ‘Moon God’ or both. Church leaders in Kocho had everything to gain from their conscious divinization of the Uygur rulers in the far-off steppe. Deification may not have been the sincerest form of flattery, but it did help to ensure protection of missionary activities within the realm.” [65]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ "Hearers had to do 'soul-service' by giving alms to the Elect of an amount of one tenth or one seventh of his property, which consisted in the donation of food, clothing, lodging, and other services, such as building residences or courier and transport services. They could also do social work, i.e. to pay for the release of a slave or hostage or to give a relative to the church (as a servant). It was regarded as a pious deed as well to donate money to the copying of the holy scriptures.” [66]

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [67] [68] [69]

References

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