MnShiwe

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Shiwei ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Tatar; Shih-wei ♥ "Tatar : (Chin. Ta-ta172) a confederation of 30 clans, the Otuz Tatars or perhaps 9 tribes, the Toquz Tatar. Later, a grouping within the Cinggisid confederation, their ethnic affiliation is, in all likelihood, Mongolic. They have recently been identified with the Shih-wei. Probably located East and Southeast of Lake Baikal." [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 600-1000 CE ♥ MnShiwe was a period of "Dark Age" when many tribal confederations were on the steppe, such as Zubu, Shiwei or early Mongols.[2]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥ "Productive activities were organized by the tribal leaders, as described in the Xin Tangshu, "in hunting (the tribes) were banded together, and dispersed afterward; the tribes did not rule over one another or submitted to one another".103 It can be seen that no united tribal confederation had been formed yet by the Shiwei. " [3]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Eastern Turk Khaganate ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Khitan Empire ♥ " From the end of the 9th Century onward, the Shiwei tribes underwent a process of a tribal re-combination and a gradual assimilation with stronger ethnic peoples, the Khitan, Jurchen, Mongols and Han Chinese.127" [4] Subjugated by the Khitans in 942 CE. [5]
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥

♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

According to the earliest known references to the Shiwei in Chinese records dating to the fifth century CE, they occupied the Hulun Buir, Ergüne, Nonni, Middle Amur, and Zeya watersheds, they were divided into between five and twenty tribes, they lived on agriculture and pastoralism, and they traded sable skins. They may have been the ancestors to the Mongols.[6]

Population and political organization

Sources do not provide clear descriptions of Shiwei political organization, but it is worth noting that the Wuluohou, one of the Shiwei peoples, was believed by Chinese record-keepers to have no supreme leader, only tribal chiefs.[7] Similarly, sources do not provide clear population estimates for the Shiwei.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

"Therefore the scope of the Shiwei's territory in the period from the Northern Qi to Sui can be approximated, it reached the Huolin River to the south, the Erguna River to the west, the Nenjiang River to the east, and the lower reaches of the Erguna River to the north. In the Tang period, it is known that there were twenty Shiwei tribes, according to the records in dynastic histories. They were the Wusugu, Yisaimo, Saiezhi, Hejie, Wuluohu, Nali, Lingxi, Shanbei, Huangtou, Da Ruzhe, Xiao Ruzhe, Powo, Nebeizhi, Luotuo, Dong Shiwei, Xi Shiwei, Da Shiwei, Mengwu Shiwei, Luozu Shiwei and Dagui." [8]

"Summing up the above discussion, the four boundaries of all the Shiwei tribes in the Tang Dynasty can be approximately described by the following: the eastern boundary was the modern Jingqili River; the western was the west of the modern Lake Hulun; the northern was the modern Sea of Okhotsk; and the southern was the south of the modern Huoli River."[9]

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People. "Sources based on Mongol oral history, however, use the term Tatar only for a particular tribe in the modern Hulun Buir area of northeast Inner Mongolia. The Tatars, even in this narrow sense, numbered 70,000 households according to RASHID-UD-DIN FAZL-ULLAH." [10] 70,000 households could imply around 350,000 inhabitants if each household has around 5 members.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

1. Tribal leaders

"The Wuluohou, who were believed a component part of the Shiwei tribal complex, inhabited the northwestern part of Manchuria. The Wuluohou’s pattern of succession in the period of northern Wei (383-534) is recorded in the Wei Shu. It reads, "They had no supreme leader. The position of the tribal chieftain Mofu (Mufuhe) was succeeded hereditarily".95" [11]

"The productive activities were organized by the tribal leaders, as described in the Xin Tangshu, "in hunting (the tribes) were banded together, and dispersed afterward; the tribes did not rule over one another or submitted to one another".103 It can be seen that no united tribal confederation had been formed yet by the Shiwei. Compared with their southern neighbors the Khitan, and the eastern neighbors, the Mohe, in the same period, the social organization of the Shiwei was not as developed. On account of their lower level of social organization, as declared in the Xin Tangshu, "they finally could not become a strong power, although they were valiant and belligerent".104" [12]


♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ absent ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥

♠ Judges ♣ ♥

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The Shiwei people produced millet, wheat and sorghum to the north of the Khitan." [13]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥ "The Khitan people also learned cart-making skill from the Shiwei. The Liao Shi records: 黑車子, 國也. 以善制車帳得名. 契丹之先, 嘗遣人往學之.51 Hei Chezi (some tribes of the Shiwei) was the name of a state. The name (which means "black cart) was got for the people who were skilled in making carts and tents. The ancestors of the Khitan had sent people to learn (how to make carts and tents) from them." [14]
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ ♥
♠ Script ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ [15]
♠ Tokens ♣ absent ♥ [16]
♠ Precious metals ♣ absent ♥ [17]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥ [18]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ [19]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ [20]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ long been in use in the region. Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region.[21] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [22]
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ long been in use in the region. Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region.[23] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [24]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region.[25] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [26]
♠ Steel ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ "The first composite bow with bone reinforced 'ears', a major development, may have been used around Lake Baikal, c.500 BC. Despite many individual external differences, across the steppe, and across time, the composite bow would remain essentially uniform in construction method." [27]
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon.[28]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ not in use until much later
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ "Firearms appeared in Siberia and Mongolia in the 17th century in the form of flintlock rifles. Flintlocks were the only firearms used in most areas until the turn of the 20th century." [29]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "Among the steppe riders a dagger was typically carried in all periods, and a number of dagger designs are encountered in the archaeological and artistic record." [30]
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ "The so-called 'Sword of Charlemagne' is probably an example of an 8th-century Avar sabre, and a similar blade in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art is also believed to have been made among Turkic or Mongol steppe people some time between the 9th and 12th centuries AD." [31]
♠ Spears ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Horses were the means of travel for mobile nomadic warriors since the establishment of cavalry forces by the mid-first millennium BCE
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ "Shields were known in all periods and, though they are mentioned in the contemporary literature, they only occasionally appear in artistic representations. They were typically made of leather on a reed frame, and a few rare examples survive." [32]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ "Shields were known in all periods and, though they are mentioned in the contemporary literature, they only occasionally appear in artistic representations. They were typically made of leather on a reed frame, and a few rare examples survive." [33]
♠ Helmets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Before the modern era of cannonball warfare


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred present ♥ "The Wuluohou, who were believed a component part of the Shiwei tribal complex, inhabited the northwestern part of Manchuria. The Wuluohou’s pattern of succession in the period of northern Wei (383-534) is recorded in the Wei Shu. It reads, "They had no supreme leader. The position of the tribal chieftain Mofu (Mufuhe) was succeeded hereditarily" [34]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [35] [36] [37]

References

  1. (Golden 1992, 145)
  2. (Nikolay Kradin 2016, Personal Communication)
  3. (Xu 2005, 180)
  4. (Xu 2005, 183)
  5. (Sneath 2007, 29)
  6. (Atwood 2004, 502)
  7. (Xu 2005, 127)
  8. (Xu 2005, 174)
  9. (Xu 2005, 175)
  10. (Atwood 2004, 529)
  11. (Xu 2005, 127)
  12. (Xu 2005, 180)
  13. (Xu 2005, 148)
  14. (Xu 2005, 152)
  15. (Kradin 2015, personal communication)
  16. (Kradin 2015, personal communication)
  17. (Kradin 2015, personal communication)
  18. (Kradin 2015, personal communication)
  19. (Kradin 2015, personal communication)
  20. (Kradin 2015, personal communication)
  21. (Baumer 2012) Baumer, Christoph. 2012. The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. I.B.Tauris. London.
  22. (Di Cosmo 2002, 84) Nicola Di Cosmo. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  23. (Baumer 2012) Baumer, Christoph. 2012. The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. I.B.Tauris. London.
  24. (Di Cosmo 2002, 84) Nicola Di Cosmo. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  25. (Baumer 2012) Baumer, Christoph. 2012. The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. I.B.Tauris. London.
  26. (Di Cosmo 2002, 84) Nicola Di Cosmo. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  27. (Karasulas 2004, 19)
  28. (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.
  29. (Atwood 2004, 229)
  30. (Karasulas 2004, 28)
  31. (Karasulas 2004, 27-28)
  32. (Karasulas 2004, 29)
  33. (Karasulas 2004, 29)
  34. (Xu 2005, 127)
  35. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  36. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  37. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html

Atwood, C. P. 2004. Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. New York: Facts on File.

Golden, P. 1992. An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples: Ethnogenesis and State-Formation in Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.

Karasulas, A. 2004. Mounted Archers of the Steppe 600BC-AD1300. Oxford: Osprey.

Sneath, D. 2007. The Headless State: Aristocratic Orders, Kinship Society and Misrepresentations of Nomadic Inner Asia. New York: Columbia University Press.

Xu, Elina-Qian. 2005. Historical Development of the Pre-Dynastic Khitan. Academic Dissertation, February 2005. University of Helsinki, Faculty of Arts, Institute for Asian and African Studies.