MnRourn

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Rouran Khaganate ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Jujan ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 402-429 CE ♥ [402-429 CE]; [521-552 CE] "Two main peaks of Rouran might may be pinpointed: (a) the initial ascent during the reign of Shelun, the founder of the empire, and his immediate successors in 402-429, and (b) the rise and progress of the process of Sinicisation under the rule of Anagui in 521-552." [1]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 300-555 CE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ confederated state ♥ "The Jujan polity emerged in the central portion of Inner Asia under a powerful leader (Shelun) who forged a confederation of several local groups that lasted 175 years." [2]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥ "Displeased, the Chinese had him interned; he died in Lo-yang in 524, and A-na-kui remained the sole ruler of the Juan-juan. It is difficult to know how much real power he wielded, but he skilfully exploited the internal difficulties of the rapidly disintegrating W ei state. He established matrimonial relations with both the Eastern and Western Wei, and at times was an effective power broker between contending Chinese factions." [3] The Rouran tended to raid the Wei, with periods of alliance. There were several strategic marriage alliances between the two polities. However, this might be too unstable (because of the raiding) to code as 'alliance'?

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Xianbei Confederation ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ "Subsequent to the death of Tanshikhuai, his brother came to power, followed by a nephew, and then an unrelated leader (Kebineng), but unity was ephemeral and by A.D. 235 the Xianbei broke into a series of smaller polities, eventually reemerging as the Toba (northern) Wei polity." [4] "Given their Tung-hu-Hsien-pi origins, it is presumed that the Jou-Jan were Mongolic in speech." [5]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ First Turk Khaganate ♥ "Consequently, there was no evidence of any feudal civil strife until 552, when the Rouran, at the peak of their might, suffered defeat from the Turks. [...] In 555, the ruler of the Western Wei empire handed over the remaining few thousand Rouran to the Turks, all of whom (except children under sixteen) were put to cruel death." [6]
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Mumocheng ♥ "Historical documents make reference to Jujan permanent settlements, including palaces and a capital (Mumocheng)." [7]

♠ Language ♣ Rouran ♥ "Since, as we shall see, the Turk state replaced that of the Juan-juan, it would be tempting - and probably correct - to assume that the Juan-juan language continued in use among the subjects of the newly formed Turk empire. Unfortunately we do not know what Juan-juan was like. In spite of repeated attempts to reconstruct them on the basis of Chinese transcriptions, Juan- juan proper names show no trace of being Turkic, nor can they consistently be explained from Mongol. It is probably safe to say that within the perimeter of the Juan-juan state a number of partly unrelated languages were in use, and that the Turks, together with the political power, inherited the linguistic status quo. Scattered but convincing data support such a hypothesis." [8]

General Description

The Orkhon Valley lies either side of the Orkhon River, in north-central Mongolia. Between about 300 and 550 CE, it was under the control of the Rouran. Though these began as nomadic pastoralists like their predecessors the Xianbei and Xiongnu, there is evidence that by the sixth century CE they had transitioned to a settled, agricultural way of life, and from shamanism to Buddhism.[9] At their peak, they ruled over an empire comprising around 4,000,000 squared kilometers,[10] with a population of no less than 500,000.[11] This empire was divided into an eastern and a western wing, each ruled by a silifa, who were subordinate to the paramount ruler or khagan.[12] For ease of organisation, both the population and the army were divided into groups of hundreds and thousands.[13]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 4,000,000 ♥ in squared kilometers. "At its height, Jujan geographical boundaries were similar to those of the Xiongnu (Kradin 2005b, p. 155)." [14] "At its height the Xiongnu empire controlled a region encompassing all of Mongolia and extending south to the Ordos region in the loop of the Yellow River in northern China (Fig. 1). In the north control extended to the boreal forests of Siberia, including Tuva and Buriatia in the Russian Federation (Kradin 2005a). Based on a variety of maps and geographical information on the location of different groups, at its height the Xiongnu empire encompassed a region on the order of 4,000,000 km2." [15]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [500,000-1,000,000] ♥ People. Not less than 500,000.

"Undoubtedly, the Rouran khaganate was a multi-tribal confederation. Its total population (based on the approximately known size of the army) was not less than 500 thousand people."[16]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

After 500 CE

"It was at this time that the Juan-juan are reported to have first built a town: they surrounded it with inner and outer walls and called it Mumochen. They also gradually learnt to write, and by now there were many learned people among them."[17]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels.

c500 CE and after

"It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [18]

"It is also known from the sources that the number of nomadic bu could vary from one thousand tents (i.e. about 4-5 thousand people) to several tens of thousands of people (Taskin 1984, pp. 275-276, 294). Chapter 103 of the Wei shu reports that the Rouran had 10 "nomads' camps" in 521." [19]

"From Chinese chronicles: "They do not have towns surrounded with inner and outer walls, but herd livestock, going from place to place in search of water and grass. Their homes are felt tents, which they take to the place where they stop." " [20]

"the Hsiung-nu Huns in China were changing their society ... as attested by the discovery of a city built by them in northwestern China's Shaanxi Province in the fifth century C.E."[21]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 4 ♥ levels. Decimal structure like previous and following polities. "He radically reorganised the military-administrative structure of the Rouran society, dividing the population-army into hundreds and thousands, introduced the obligatory registration of available warriors, established strict rules of behaviour in battle and the penalties for their violation [...]." [22] "It was divided into western and eastern wings, but, as we know, the dual organisation was recorded already during the pre-empire period. Initially, the ruler of the eastern wing was considered to have the higher status (WS 103: 1b-2a; Taskin 1984, p. 267) but later this, seemingly, changed (Taskin 1984, pp. 273, 278, 285)."[23]

The administrative structure is not mentioned, but Kradin refers to the following elite hierarchy:

1. Khagan

2. Rulers of empire wings (silifa)
3. Dignitaries - ruling elite, chiefs, elders [24]
4. Tribal chiefs and clan elders (commanders of 1000 and 100 horsemen)

"The social organisation of the Rouran was slightly different from the public organisation of other nomads in Eurasia, and it was a complex hierarchical multi-level system." [25]

♠ Religious levels ♣ 1: 300-499ce; 2: 500-551ce ♥ levels. Shamans. [26] Buddhism was also present, probably more levels: "The Juan-juan khagans and nobles were well acquainted with Buddhist teachings and were probably Buddhists as early as the beginning of the sixth century. It is known that in 511 they sent a Buddhist monk and preacher to China with the gift of an image of the Buddha ornamented with pearls for the emperor." [27]

♠ Military levels ♣ 4 ♥ levels. "The Wei shu reports that early in the 5th century, Shelun introduced the so-called decimal system: "For the first time, military laws were established according to which 1000 people formed a detachment (run), and at the head of a detachment a military leader was placed. 100 people formed a banner (zhuang) and a chief stood at the head of a banner" (WS 103: 3a; Taskin 1984, p. 269). A term run can be translated as 'military head', while shawu as 'leader or commander'." [28]

1. Khagan

2. Head of detachment (1000 men)
3. Chief of a banner (100 men)
4. Soldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥ "The Wei shu reports that early in the 5th century, Shelun introduced the so-called decimal system: "For the first time, military laws were established according to which 1000 people formed a detachment (run), and at the head of a detachment a military leader was placed. 100 people formed a banner (zhuang) and a chief stood at the head of a banner" (WS 103: 3a; Taskin 1984, p. 269). A term run can be translated as 'military head', while shawu as 'leader or commander'." [29]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present ♥ "The Wei shu reports that early in the 5th century, Shelun introduced the so-called decimal system: "For the first time, military laws were established according to which 1000 people formed a detachment (run), and at the head of a detachment a military leader was placed. 100 people formed a banner (zhuang) and a chief stood at the head of a banner" (WS 103: 3a; Taskin 1984, p. 269). A term run can be translated as 'military head', while shawu as 'leader or commander'." [30]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ A female shaman is mentioned: "Ch'ou-nu kaghan (508-20) - his position shaken because of his attachment to a female shaman - was murdered, apparently on the orders of his own mother, who then had her younger son A-na-kui enthroned." [31] Buddhist monks/priests probably present: "The Juan-juan khagans and nobles were well acquainted with Buddhist teachings and were probably Buddhists as early as the beginning of the sixth century. It is known that in 511 they sent a Buddhist monk and preacher to China with the gift of an image of the Buddha ornamented with pearls for the emperor." [32]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred absent ♥ "However, it would be incorrect to consider these innovations as evidence of the emergence among the Rouran of a bureaucratic organisation of administration resembling the Chinese one. Most likely, it was only an outward similarity with Chinese institutions, its main aim was the preservation of steppe traditions. This is evident from the chronicler's list of posts (chamberlain, etc.) that were related to the way of life of the ruler and his court rather than to record keeping and the administration of the central or regional institutions of power. Shunyu Tan, grandiloquently called a principal clerk, judging by the context, was the only official of his department, moreover, he also held the most important post of chamberlain." [33] "There are actually no data of any specialised functionaries (professional bureaucrats), who were present in almost every early state (Claessen-Skalnik 1978, p. 580). The sole exception is the above-mentioned Shunyu Tan who was appointed principal clerk by Anagui." [34]

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown: 300-500 CE; inferred present: 501-551 CE ♥

Suspected unknown at least for the period up to 500 CE.

c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [35]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Unlike the Xianbei, they established a more centralized imperial confederation with systematic warrior registration and rules of behavior. However, there was no written legal system or functionaries to administer laws beyond the military."[36] "As regards rights and laws, we have no data whatsoever on courts, appeals, written law, the existence of a penal code, specialised functionaries overseeing the obersvation of law in the Rouran khaganate." [37]

♠ Judges ♣ absent ♥ "Unlike the Xianbei, they established a more centralized imperial confederation with systematic warrior registration and rules of behavior. However, there was no written legal system or functionaries to administer laws beyond the military." [38]

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥ "Unlike the Xianbei, they established a more centralized imperial confederation with systematic warrior registration and rules of behavior. However, there was no written legal system or functionaries to administer laws beyond the military." [39]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥ "Unlike the Xianbei, they established a more centralized imperial confederation with systematic warrior registration and rules of behavior. However, there was no written legal system or functionaries to administer laws beyond the military." [40]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥ c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [41]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ markets ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ [absent; present]: 300-499 CE; inferred present: 500-555 CE ♥ c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [42]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ suspected unknown ♥ c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [43]
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥ c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [44]
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ inferred absent ♥ No water transport known.

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ inferred present ♥ "They had no written alphabet, so that they could not keep written records, but later they learnt to make records well by making notches in wood..." [45] "the early steppe peoples would not have been a promising vehicle for the diffusion of complicated, textually based knowledge; according to the Northern Wei dynastic history, the Rouran were illiterates whose leaders at first kept records of their troop numbers by piling up sheep turds as counters but eventually graduated to scratching simple marks onto pieces of wood. Not surprisingly, there is no evidence of the transmission of Chinese military theories and texts to the West by way of the Avars, other steppe nomads, Silk Road caravans, or any other channel prior to the activities of the Jesuit missionaries in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries."[46] to place, wherever he could find water and grass"
♠ Written records ♣ inferred absent: 300-499 CE; inferred present: 500-555 CE ♥ "Historical sources report that by A.D. 500 the Jujan were actively adopting a variety of Chinese influences, including the use of written Chinese for official records. " [47] c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished."[48] "the early steppe peoples would not have been a promising vehicle for the diffusion of complicated, textually based knowledge; according to the Northern Wei dynastic history, the Rouran were illiterates whose leaders at first kept records of their troop numbers by piling up sheep turds as counters but eventually graduated to scratching simple marks onto pieces of wood. Not surprisingly, there is no evidence of the transmission of Chinese military theories and texts to the West by way of the Avars, other steppe nomads, Silk Road caravans, or any other channel prior to the activities of the Jesuit missionaries in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries."[49]
♠ Script ♣ inferred absent: 300-499 CE; inferred present: 500-555 CE ♥ "Historical sources report that by A.D. 500 the Jujan were actively adopting a variety of Chinese influences, including the use of written Chinese for official records. " [50] "the early steppe peoples would not have been a promising vehicle for the diffusion of complicated, textually based knowledge; according to the Northern Wei dynastic history, the Rouran were illiterates whose leaders at first kept records of their troop numbers by piling up sheep turds as counters but eventually graduated to scratching simple marks onto pieces of wood. Not surprisingly, there is no evidence of the transmission of Chinese military theories and texts to the West by way of the Avars, other steppe nomads, Silk Road caravans, or any other channel prior to the activities of the Jesuit missionaries in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries."[51]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ inferred absent: 300-499 CE; inferred present: 500-555 CE ♥ Coded for Chinese, not (Turkic?) Juan-juan language. "Historical sources report that by A.D. 500 the Jujan were actively adopting a variety of Chinese influences, including the use of written Chinese for official records. " [52]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ inferred absent ♥ Coded for Chinese, not (Turkic?) Juan-juan language. "Historical sources report that by A.D. 500 the Jujan were actively adopting a variety of Chinese influences, including the use of written Chinese for official records. " [53]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred absent: 300-499 CE; inferred present: 500-555 CE ♥ c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [54]
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred absent: 300-499 CE; inferred present: 500-555 CE ♥ c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [55]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ inferred absent: 300-499 CE; inferred present: 500-555 CE ♥ c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [56]
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred absent: 300-499 CE; inferred present: 500-555 CE ♥ c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [57]
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred absent: 300-499 CE; inferred present: 500-555 CE ♥ "Historical sources report that by A.D. 500 the Jujan were actively adopting a variety of Chinese influences, including the use of written Chinese for official records." [58]
♠ History ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources, though by the beginning of the sixth century the Rouran were a literate society.
♠ Philosophy ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Buddhist learning flourished."[59]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred absent: 300-499 CE; [absent; present]: 500-555 CE ♥ c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [60]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [61]
♠ Tokens ♣ absent ♥ According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [62]
♠ Precious metals ♣ absent ♥ According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [63]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥ According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [64]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [65]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ According to personal communication with N. Kradin. [66]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ c500 CE and after: "It may be assumed that by then some of the Juan-juan already lived a settled life and practised agriculture. The original sources repeatedly mention that their khagans obtained ‘seed millet’ from China (some 10,000 shi each time). This shows that the Juan-juan society and state had gradually developed from nomadic herding to a settled agricultural way of life, from yurts to the building of houses and monumental architecture, from the nomadic district to towns. They had invented their own system of writing and developed their own local culture and Buddhist learning flourished." [67]
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ long been in use in the region. Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region.[68] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [69]
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ long been in use in the region. Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region.[70] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [71]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region.[72] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [73]
♠ Steel ♣ inferred absent ♥ No steel of a high quality until later By the seventh century the "Sogdians and Turkic peoples "had their own sophisticated metallurgical industries."[74] "The other peoples who were heavily involved with arms production and trade with the Tibetans were the Turkic peoples and especially the Karluks, allies of the Tibetans during the eighth and early ninth centuries ... The Karluks ... were noted by Islamic geographers as producers and exporters of iron artifacts and weapons to Tibet and China."[75]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Weapon of the Americas, extremely unlikely to be present here
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ "Among the Avars that followed them, the bow was also complemented by a lance, with a new kind of lance-head." [76]
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon.[77]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not in use until much later.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ "Firearms appeared in Siberia and Mongolia in the 17th century in the form of flintlock rifles. Flintlocks were the only firearms used in most areas until the turn of the 20th century." [78]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "Among the steppe riders a dagger was typically carried in all periods, and a number of dagger designs are encountered in the archaeological and artistic record." [79]
♠ Swords ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ "Among the Avars that followed them, the bow was also complemented by a lance, with a new kind of lance-head." [80]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ "Shields were known in all periods and, though they are mentioned in the contemporary literature, they only occasionally appear in artistic representations. They were typically made of leather on a reed frame, and a few rare examples survive." [81]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ "Shields were known in all periods and, though they are mentioned in the contemporary literature, they only occasionally appear in artistic representations. They were typically made of leather on a reed frame, and a few rare examples survive." [82]
♠ Helmets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred absent ♥ Rouran were nomads who did not have permanent settlements so no reason to use boats to travel from point A-B when they have horses to do so.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ There were rivers, but the Rouran were nomads who did not have permanent settlements so no reason to use boats to travel from point A-B when they have horses to do so. Certainly would not have needed to use river vessels for military use. Half the year the rivers would be frozen.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ There were rivers, but the Rouran were nomads who did not have permanent settlements so no reason to use boats to travel from point A-B when they have horses to do so. Certainly would not have needed to use river vessels for military use. Half the year the rivers would be frozen.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ From Chinese chronicles: "They do not have towns surrounded with inner and outer walls, but herd livestock, going from place to place in search of water and grass. Their homes are felt tents, which they take to the place where they stop."[83] The Chinese chronicles on this matter seem to be lacking in detail and therefore suspect. They might be referring to the condition of the majority of the Rouran so it might not preclude the existence of a capital town/city that is fortified. "Early in the 6th century, probably under Anagui's reign, the Rouran built their capital city, the town of Mumocheng, encircled with two walls constructed by Liang shu (LS 54: 47a-47b; Taskin 1984, p. 290)." [84] "However, no trace of the town has been found to date and historians argue about its location." [85] Qarshi, built by Kebek of the Chagatai Khaganate is an example "typical of Mongolian and south Siberian cities from the Xiongnu period onwards."; it was "bounded by a strong wall, 4.5 m thick, surrounded by a deep defensive ditch, 8-10 m wide and 3.5-4 m deep, and had four gates. The original layout of the city (before Timurid additions) included one central fortress/palace surrounded by an open spaced designed for the erection of tents."[86]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ From Chinese chronicles: "They do not have towns surrounded with inner and outer walls, but herd livestock, going from place to place in search of water and grass. Their homes are felt tents, which they take to the place where they stop."[87] The Chinese chronicles on this matter seem to be lacking in detail and therefore suspect. They might be referring to the condition of the majority of the Rouran so it might not preclude the existence of a capital town/city that is fortified. "Early in the 6th century, probably under Anagui's reign, the Rouran built their capital city, the town of Mumocheng, encircled with two walls constructed by Liang shu (LS 54: 47a-47b; Taskin 1984, p. 290)." [88] "However, no trace of the town has been found to date and historians argue about its location." [89] Qarshi, built by Kebek of the Chagatai Khaganate is an example "typical of Mongolian and south Siberian cities from the Xiongnu period onwards."; it was "bounded by a strong wall, 4.5 m thick, surrounded by a deep defensive ditch, 8-10 m wide and 3.5-4 m deep, and had four gates. The original layout of the city (before Timurid additions) included one central fortress/palace surrounded by an open spaced designed for the erection of tents."[90]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ From Chinese chronicles: "They do not have towns surrounded with inner and outer walls, but herd livestock, going from place to place in search of water and grass. Their homes are felt tents, which they take to the place where they stop."[91] The Chinese chronicles on this matter seem to be lacking in detail and therefore suspect. They might be referring to the condition of the majority of the Rouran so it might not preclude the existence of a capital town/city that is fortified. "Early in the 6th century, probably under Anagui's reign, the Rouran built their capital city, the town of Mumocheng, encircled with two walls constructed by Liang shu (LS 54: 47a-47b; Taskin 1984, p. 290)." [92] "However, no trace of the town has been found to date and historians argue about its location." [93] Qarshi, built by Kebek of the Chagatai Khaganate is an example "typical of Mongolian and south Siberian cities from the Xiongnu period onwards."; it was "bounded by a strong wall, 4.5 m thick, surrounded by a deep defensive ditch, 8-10 m wide and 3.5-4 m deep, and had four gates. The original layout of the city (before Timurid additions) included one central fortress/palace surrounded by an open spaced designed for the erection of tents."[94]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ "Early in the 6th century, probably under Anagui's reign, the Rouran built their capital city, the town of Mumocheng, encircled with two walls constructed by Liang shu (LS 54: 47a-47b; Taskin 1984, p. 290)." [95] "However, no trace of the town has been found to date and historians argue about its location." [96]
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Not in use until much later.

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Khagan Yujiulü Datan was the son of Khagan Yujiulü Hulü who was overthrown by Datan's cousin Yujiulü Buluzhen. Datan was succeeded by his son Yujiulü Wuti.

Religion and Normative Ideology

We are interested here in any systems of thought and behavior that can influence people's actions, which we term a Normative Ideology. Normative ideologies are thought-systems concerned with the correct behavior of people, governments/leaders, and other groups (and particularly the relationships between these groups).

Mainly, this will be a religious or ritual system. As usual, when we mention Religious or Ritual System our focus is on the 'official cult', defined the same way as in the Rituals section:

With the official cult we refer to the set of collective religious practices that are most closely associated with legitimation of the power structure (including elites, if any).

However, Normative Ideologies are not restricted to religious/ritual systems. They include other thought systems, such as philosophy or anything that prescribes a particular pattern of behaviour. An example is classical Greek philosophy, such as the works of Plato and Aristotle, who were concerned with correct or moral behaviour and whose thoughts influenced the actual practice of several societies (the empire of Alexander the Great, notably).

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

(‘gods’ is a shorthand for ‘supernatural agents’)

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ absent/present/unknown. For example, rulers are blessed by gods; the institution of kingship is ordained by heaven. NB This variable is particularly likely to vary according to polity/NGA.


♠ Rulers are gods ♣ unknown: 300-499 CE; absent: 500-551 CE ♥ “The problem of violence stems from human craving, the root of all evil, and there are two basic responses to the problem: On the social level, the response takes the form of the human - not divine (!) - institution of a ruler who is given a monopoly on the use of force so as to contain violence and guarantee peace and justice.” [97] NB This variable is particularly likely to vary according to polity/NGA.

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

These codes refer to acts undertaken without direct compulsion from or out of adherence to a religious system (religious aspects of prosociality are coded below)

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ unknown: 300-499Ce; present: 500-551CE ♥ Buddhism is fundamentally egalitarian: every human being has a potential to achieve what Buddha achieved, regardless of class or ethnicity [98].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ unknown: 300-499Ce; absent: 500-551CE ♥ “The king’s religious status was generally seen as that of the leading lay-follower, the first among the faithful laity. Under Mahāyāna influence - though by no means only in Mahāyāna-Buddhist countries - he was accorded the status of a Bodhisattva, that is, one who is on his way to becoming a Buddha and acts only for the welfare of all others (see Chapter 10).” [99]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ unknown: 300-499Ce; present: 500-551CE ♥ Buddhism is fundamentally egalitarian: every human being has a potential to achieve what Buddha achieved, regardless of class or ethnicity [100].

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ unknown: 300-499Ce; present: 500-551CE ♥ “The twofold benefit of living a morally good life is linked to a twofold motivation: ‘Protecting oneself, one protects others; protecting others, one protects oneself ’ - just as each acrobat in a balancing act protects his partner by concentrating on himself, and protects himself by concentrating on his partner (see SN 47:19). If we take care of our own spiritual development, we render a service to others; and if we develop love towards others, we thereby also help ourselves. Accordingly, it is explicitly stated, someone who pursues the path of salvation only for his or her own benefit is to be censured, while the one who follows the path for one’s own benefit and for the benefit of others is to be commended (see AN 7:64).” [101] “Three segments of the Noble Eightfold Path (3 - 5) are traditionally subsumed under the principle of morality (śīla): ‘right speech’ (3), ‘right action’ (4) and ‘right livelihood’ (5). [...] ‘Right action’ is explained as abstaining from harming and killing sentient beings - including animals (!), and further as abstaining from ‘taking what is not given’ and from sexual misconduct, which means avoiding sexual relations with women who are still under the protection of their families, or with those who are married, betrothed, or celibate for religious reasons. From monks and nuns complete sexual abstention is demanded. ‘Right livelihood’ means abstaining from those sources of income which involve harming other beings: trading in weapons for instance, or trading in living beings, meat, intoxicants or poison; also included is the avoidance of fraud and avarice.” [102]

♠ production of public goods ♣ unknown: 300-499Ce; present: 500-551CE ♥ “Leading a moral life is seen as having a wider social dimension as well. Establishing public parks, constructing bridges, digging wells and providing a residence for the homeless (see SN 1:1:47; similarly Jat 31) - all these are commended.” [103]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [104] [105] [106]

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