MnMongL

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Agathe Dupeyron ♥ Enrico Cioni contributed to the General description and languages.

♠ Original name ♣ Late Mongols ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Khalkhas; Northern Yuan ♥ "The Eastern or Khalkha Mongols continued the imperial dynasty as the Northern Yuan from 1368 A.D. until the defeat of Ligdan by the Manchus in 1634 A.D." [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1368-1690 CE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ [quasi-polity; nominal] ♥ "Toghon Temür, the last Yüan emperor of China and a Genghisid of the Toluy-Qubilay line, fled in 1368 to Mongolia after the dynasty’s defeat and replacement by the national Ming Dynasty. From then on, his descendants and those of other Genghisid lineages would claim the right to rule the Mongols, but without achieving the re-establishment of even a unified Mongolia, to say nothing of a resurrection of the Genghisid empire." [2]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Great Yuan ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Zungharian Empire ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Mongols ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Karakorum ♥ “Following the collapse of the Yüan dynasty in 1368, its last emperor, the Mongol ejen qaghan (emperor, hereafter spelled kaghan) Toghon Temür, retired from Beijing and returned to Mongolia with his army. Karakorum once again became the capital of a Mongol state, one which now ruled essentially within its own ethnic boundaries. This country, which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgyzstan between the Great Wall of China and Lake Baikal, was a relatively large entity, and its ambitions to regain sovereignty over China still caused considerable anxiety to the Ming dynasty, which had supplanted the Yüan in China. » [3] Karakorum was then destroyed by the Ming in 1380. [4]

♠ Language ♣ Khalkha ♥ "Khalkha dialect is the standard language of Mongolia." [5]

General Description

After the Yuan dynasty collapsed in 1368, Toghon Temur, its last emperor retired with his army to Mongolia, where he established a new state, with Karakorum as its capital, that extended from Manchuria to Kyrgyzstan between the Great Wall of China and Lake Baikal.[6] The new Mongolian polity was actually a loose alliance of six tribal confederations or tümens united under a common Khan, and the Khalkhas were one of these confederations. The Khalkhas were themselves divided into the Northern and Southern Khalkhas, and the Northern Khalkhas were divided into left-flank and right-flank Khalkhas For much of their history, the Khalkhas fought against the neighbouring Oirat confederation, with only a few decades' truce in the first half of the seventeenth century. In 1662, conflict flared up between the left-flank and right-flank Khalkhas, but it was the Oirats' invasion under Zungharian leadership that led to the fall of the Khalkha confederacy, as it pushed the Khalkhas to request Beijing's protection, which the Chinese emperor granted in 1691, in exchange for political submission.[7]

Population and political organization

Like other Mongol confederacies, the Khalkhas were organised in a confederacy ruled by its own ruler, who however deferred to the overarching khan. [8]
In the 1630s, the Khalkhas, along with the Chahars, comprised 19,580 families;[9] estimating 3-8 people per family results in a figure of between 58,740 and 156,640 people, which, halved to exclude the Chahars, falls to between 30,000 and 80,000.


Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [2,500,000-3,000,000] ♥ in squared kilometers. After 1604 CE: “The Mongol state was at that time divided into three independent khanates: the Southern Mongol Chahar khanate, the Northern Mongol Khalkha khanate and the Western Mongol Oirat confederation." [10]

Area calculated using Google area calculator: 2,789,498.67 sq km. Based on the following quote and Perdue's map [11] :“Following the collapse of the Yüan dynasty in 1368, its last emperor, the Mongol ejen qaghan (emperor, hereafter spelled kaghan) Toghon Temür, retired from Beijing and returned to Mongolia with his army. Karakorum once again became the capital of a Mongol state, one which now ruled essentially within its own ethnic boundaries. This country, which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgyzstan between the Great Wall of China and Lake Baikal, was a relatively large entity, and its ambitions to regain sovereignty over China still caused considerable anxiety to the Ming dynasty, which had supplanted the Yüan in China. » [12]


♠ Polity Population ♣ [30,000-80,000]: 1600 CE ♥ People.

"Despite the growing intimacy of Manchu-Mongol ties, one major Mon- gol leader, Ligdan (Linden) Khan of the Chahars, resolutely opposed the growing Manchu power. As the last descendant of Chinggis Khan, he held an official Yuan seal and viewed himself as the legitimate representative of the Mongolian imperial tradition. But after his losses in battle to the Man- chus in 1628 and 1632, the Manchus took over the Yuan seal and enrolled the Eastern Mongols as a whole in the banner system. Ligdan Khan’s son married a Manchu princess after Ligdan died of smallpox in Qinghai. The Chahar and Khalkha Mongols comprised 384 niru with 19,580 families, the Khorcin 448 niru with 22,308 families." [13]

So the total population of the Chahar and Khalkhas in the 1630s was comprised between 58,740 and 156,640 people using an estimate of 3-8 people per family. Halving this figure to exclude the Chahar, we get a rough population estimate of 30,000-80,000 people for the Khalkhas.


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels.

"Permanent settlements in Mongolia had begun with the conversion of the Mongols to Tibetan Buddhism in the sixteenth century. The first towns grew up around the monastic establishment. These included Hohhot (Ch. Huhehaote), whose major construction began in 1555, and Urga (modern Ulaan Baatar), the headquarters of the leading Buddhist cleric of Mongolia since the early seventeenth century." [14]

1. Towns

2. Villages
(3. Hamlets/ Isolated farms)

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 3 ♥ levels. Late 15th century: “These 6 tümens were major administrative units, often called ulu ̄s tümens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tümens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yüan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops, and the 4 Oirat tribal tümens. For this reason, the Mongol state was sometimes known as the ‘Forty Mongol Tümens and the Four Oirat Tümens’, or simply the ‘Forty and Four’" [15]

1. Khan or Khagan

2. Ulus tümens (princedoms) : 6
3. Tümens (administrative units consisting of 10,000 cavalry troops) : 40 (Mongol) and 4 (Oirat)

"In the early seventeenth century, in the remaining part of Mongolia, the Khalkha khanate was headed by the grandson of Abtai Khan, the Tüsheet khan Ghombodorji. It consisted of three large aymaqs (princedoms). The largest and most important of these was the aymaq of the Tüsheet khan himself. The other two aymaqs of the right and left flanks were under the direct control of their own khans, who were subordinate to the Tüsheet khan. The leader of the left-flank aymaq was the Sechen khan, and of the right-flank aymaq, the Jasaghtu khan. As previously, the aymaqs continued to be divided into qoshuns, which were headed by jasaq noyans. The Tüsheet khan’s aymaq had two large qoshuns, the Sechen khan’s a single qoshun and the Jasaghtu khan’s four small qoshuns. The three aymaqs of the Khalkha khanate contained a total of seven qoshuns." [16]

1. Khan, leader of the largest Aymaq (princedom)

2. Left and right Aymaqs -princedoms
3. Qoshuns headed by jasaq noyans (7 in total)


♠ Religious levels ♣ 1: 1368-1576 CE; [3-4]: 1576-1690 CE ♥ levels. “In 1576 Tümen Jasaghtu Khan invited the head of the Red Hat sect, the Karma-pa Lama (bLama), to his headquarters and agreed with him that Tibetan Buddhism should be adopted as the state religion of Mongolia. In implementation of this decision, Altan Khan and Khutughtai Sechen Khongtaiji received the head of the Yellow Hat sect, the third Dalai Lama, with great pomp in 1577. The Tümed and Ordos Mongols con- verted simultaneously to Buddhism. On meeting the Dalai Lama at Altan Khan’s head- quarters, Abtai Khan also declared his desire to convert the whole of northern Mongolia to the Buddhist faith. » [17]

Before 1576 CE, shamanism: "While ruling China as the Yüan Dynasty, Qubilay and his successors began to abandon their people’s ancestral shamanism, which was marked by religious indifference or tolerance, and to display a growing interest in Buddhism." [18]

1. Shaman

"In all three cases the form adopted was the Tibetan denomination of the Yellow Hat, better known as Lamaism - and more correctly, in scholarly terminology, given its Tibetan name Gelugpa. It was famous for its extreme monasticism, theocracy eventually symbolized by the person of the Dalai Lama reigning from Lhassa, and a complex system of reincarnations. This also meant a lasting and mutually supportive relationship between the Mongol and Tibetan churches, which began in 1578 when Sonam-Gyatso (or bSod-nams rgya-mts’o, if we follow the generally accepted scholarly transliteration), chief of the Tibetan church, came to Mongolia to organize the new junior branch. It was at that point that the title Dalai Lama appeared for the first time - a Mongolian-Tibetan hybrid with the connotation of “Universal Lama” - apparently bestowed upon the Tibetan prelate by Altan Khan and from then on assumed by the spiritual and temporal chief of the Tibetan church. Sonam-Gyatso then returned to Tibet, but not without leaving in Mongolia a substitute of sorts, a “Living Buddha” who then resided at the aforementioend Köke-khoto or Huehot, a city in Inner Mongolia near the northeastern bend of the Yellow River and now the capital of China’s Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region." [19]

1. Dalai Lama - head of the Tibetan church

2. Living Buddha in Mongolia - a local substitute for the Dalai Lama
3. Lama
(4. Novice?)

♠ Military levels ♣ [4-6] ♥ levels. The decimal system might still have been in use.

1. Khan

2. General of 10,000 soldiers
3. (General of 1,000 soldiers?)
4. 100
5. 10
6. Individual soldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥ Khan's special guard. inferred continuity from the Mongol Empire.

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present ♥ Khan's special guard. inferred continuity from the Mongol Empire.

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ "In revenge, Galdan led the Junghars deep into Mongolia, where they smashed the Khalkha forces. They also captured and plundered Erdeni Zuu (located at Karakorum), the greatest monastic establishment in Mongolia, ostensibly because its abbot, the Jebtsundamba Khutukhtu—the younger brother of Tüsiyetü—had claimed to be of equal rank with the Dalai Lama (the former superior of Galdan, who had long lived as a monk in Tibet)." [20] A monastery implies priests and monks. We can infer that the abbot had a full-time role. “Mongolia had so far been shamanist in faith, but in the second half of the sixteenth century it turned definitively towards the Tibetan form of northern (Maha ̄ya ̄na) Buddhism. Although the Yüan emperors had adopted Buddhism as the official religion of the empire, it had never gained much currency in Mongolia and, for that reason, the country had long remained almost completely shamanist." [21] perhaps specialised priests inferred absent before 1550 and present afterwards.

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred absent ♥ present in Mongol Empire and Yuan but that is because they conquered territories where they would have been present. Difficult to infer that the Khalkhas also had full-time bureaucrats.

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ [22]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥ present in Yuan but diffiuclt to infer that the Khalkhas also had a merit promotion system.

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred absent ♥ present in Mongol Empire and Yuan but that is because they conquered territories where they would have been present. Difficult to infer that the Khalkhas also had specialised government buildings.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present: 1590-1690 CE ♥ The Monggol Oirad-Chaaji [23] also used much later in following polities. (not coded) Late 16th century: “Tümen Jasaghtu Khan tried to unify the country administratively and so included in his government not only Abtai, Altan and Khutughtai Sechen, but also other influential nobles from all the tümens and from the Oirat regions. He compiled a new code that was supposed to be based on Chinggis Khan’s Great Ya ̄sa ̄ or Jasaq (see Volume IV, Part One). Subsequently, Altan Khan, Abtai Khan and, most likely, several others followed his example and adopted their own laws and codes in their respective tümens. But only some of these have been preserved, whether wholly or partially. They were written in the old Mongol script, which had been borrowed from the Uighur, and adopted under Chinggis Khan as the official script of the Mongols. » [24]

♠ Judges ♣ ♥ present in Mongol Empire and Yuan but that is because they conquered territories where they would have been present. Difficult to infer that the Khalkhas also had full-time judges.

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ "In northwestern Mongolia irrigation systems existed with channels and even simple aqueducts made of hollow logs (onggocha/ongots). Many of these irrigation systems were ancient, dating back to the military farms created under the Mongol Empire (see CHINQAI; QARA-QORUM; SIBERIA AND THE MON- GOL EMPIRE)." [25]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ continuity with Mongol Empire and the Yuan?
♠ food storage sites ♣ ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥ were present in Mongol Empire and Yuan dynasty, but these encompassed wider territories including more urban areas.
♠ Ports ♣ inferred absent ♥ Landlocked quasi-polity.

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ inferred present ♥ oral histories?
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Late 16th century: “Tümen Jasaghtu Khan tried to unify the country administratively and so included in his government not only Abtai, Altan and Khutughtai Sechen, but also other influential nobles from all the tümens and from the Oirat regions. He compiled a new code that was supposed to be based on Chinggis Khan’s Great Ya ̄sa ̄ or Jasaq (see Volume IV, Part One). Subsequently, Altan Khan, Abtai Khan and, most likely, several others followed his example and adopted their own laws and codes in their respective tümens. But only some of these have been preserved, whether wholly or partially. They were written in the old Mongol script, which had been borrowed from the Uighur, and adopted under Chinggis Khan as the official script of the Mongols. » [26]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Late 16th century: “Tümen Jasaghtu Khan tried to unify the country administratively and so included in his government not only Abtai, Altan and Khutughtai Sechen, but also other influential nobles from all the tümens and from the Oirat regions. He compiled a new code that was supposed to be based on Chinggis Khan’s Great Ya ̄sa ̄ or Jasaq (see Volume IV, Part One). Subsequently, Altan Khan, Abtai Khan and, most likely, several others followed his example and adopted their own laws and codes in their respective tümens. But only some of these have been preserved, whether wholly or partially. They were written in the old Mongol script, which had been borrowed from the Uighur, and adopted under Chinggis Khan as the official script of the Mongols. » [27]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Yuan and imperial Mongol times. Chinese astronomers "used Middle Eastern astronomical tables to revise Chinese calendars and produce a new calendar for the Mongol rulership."[28]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ inferred present ♥ importance of Buddhist monasteries.
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred present ♥ “Ligdan Khan built a new capital in Chahar known as Chaghan Baishin (White House) and he encouraged the building of monasteries and the translation of Tibetan canonical literature into Mongolian.» [29] although Ligdan Khan was in practice not controlling the Khalkhas, we can infer similar behaviour in what was officially still part of the Mongol state ?
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Late 16th century: “Tümen Jasaghtu Khan tried to unify the country administratively and so included in his government not only Abtai, Altan and Khutughtai Sechen, but also other influential nobles from all the tümens and from the Oirat regions. He compiled a new code that was supposed to be based on Chinggis Khan’s Great Ya ̄sa ̄ or Jasaq (see Volume IV, Part One). Subsequently, Altan Khan, Abtai Khan and, most likely, several others followed his example and adopted their own laws and codes in their respective tümens. But only some of these have been preserved, whether wholly or partially. They were written in the old Mongol script, which had been borrowed from the Uighur, and adopted under Chinggis Khan as the official script of the Mongols. » [30]
♠ History ♣ inferred present ♥ Continuity with the Mongol Empire and the Yuan.
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ [31]
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ [32]
♠ Precious metals ♣ absent ♥ [33]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ [34]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ [35]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ [36]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥ present in Mongol Empire and Yuan Dynasty.
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred present ♥ "Qing generals also planned to build walled fortresses in the steppe at Khobdo, Ulan Gumu, and other places in Khalkha territory. Here, too, exiled criminals were set to work clearing land. Postal relay stations linked these military settlements to the interior." [37] Considering that postal stations were established by the previous Mongol Empire and are still attested by the time of the Qing conquest, we can infer that they were maintained during the Khalkha period.
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ long been in use in the region. Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region.[38] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [39]
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ long been in use in the region. Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region.[40] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [41]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region.[42] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [43]
♠ Steel ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present: 1400 CE; inferred present: 1500 CE; suspected unknown: 1600 CE ♥ The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn't a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three 'left-flank' tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had 'right-flank' tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..."[44] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dyansty is coded present for javelins so we are here suggesting some of the Late Mongol cavalry probably carried throwing spears to use in addition to their bow.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ "The first composite bow with bone reinforced 'ears', a major development, may have been used around Lake Baikal, c.500 BC. Despite many individual external differences, across the steppe, and across time, the composite bow would remain essentially uniform in construction method." [45]
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred present ♥ Used the Mongolian Empire, and referenced in the 1709 Khalkhan law code: "The seven original articles cover supply of provisions for the “Gegeen” (the Jibzundamba Khutugtu), government messengers and nobility; premedi- tated murder; theft; marriage engagements, bridewealth, and dowries; fugitives and intruders; the prerogatives of the Gegeen; limitations on killing animals; death, bodily harm, or loss caused by noblemen’s “jokes”; lies; assaults; lost cattle or other things; injuries from mad dogs, mad people, or trip-wired crossbows; public drunkenness; desecrating graves; wolves; disputes over wells and camp- sites; Chinese and Russian merchants; military prepared- ness; hospitality; witnesses in criminal cases; and relations of parents and children." [46]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn't a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three 'left-flank' tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had 'right-flank' tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..."[47] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dyansty is coded present for tension siege engines.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn't a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three 'left-flank' tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had 'right-flank' tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..."[48] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dyansty is coded present for sling siege engines. "Of the date of the introduction of the counterweight trebuchet to China there can be no doubt. It occurred in 1272, during one of the greatest sieges of Chinese history, at Xiangyang, where the Mongols besieged the Southern Song for five years." [49]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn't a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three 'left-flank' tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had 'right-flank' tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..."[50] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dyansty is coded present for gunpowder siege artillery. Likely to be present but will code this as suspected unknown since the army referenced refers to cavalry and cannons are not highly mobile.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent: 1368-1599CE; inferred present: 1600-1690CE ♥ "Firearms appeared in Siberia and Mongolia in the 17th century in the form of flintlock rifles. Flintlocks were the only firearms used in most areas until the turn of the 20th century." [51] Firearms were known to the Khalkhas in the early 17th century: "Hearing about Sholoi from the Kyrgyz as the Altyn czar (Golden Emperor), Russian Cossacks made contact with him in 1616. Hoping for firearms and Russian assistance against the Oirats, Sholoi provisioned and guided the Russian envoys to China." [52]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn't a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three 'left-flank' tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had 'right-flank' tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..."[53] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dyansty is coded present for war clubs. Presumably Mongol cavalry could use it as a secondary weapon.
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn't a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three 'left-flank' tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had 'right-flank' tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..."[54] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dyansty is coded present for battle axe. Presumably Mongol cavalry could use it as a secondary weapon.
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "Among the steppe riders a dagger was typically carried in all periods, and a number of dagger designs are encountered in the archaeological and artistic record." [55]
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn't a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three 'left-flank' tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had 'right-flank' tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..."[56] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dyansty is coded present for swords. Presumably the Late Mongols when engaged in infantry combat used swords.
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn't a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three 'left-flank' tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had 'right-flank' tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..."[57] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dyansty is coded present for spears. Presumably Mongol cavalry could use the spear or lance as a weapon.
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ [58]
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn't a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three 'left-flank' tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had 'right-flank' tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..."[59] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dynasty is coded present for this armour.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn't a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three 'left-flank' tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had 'right-flank' tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..."[60] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dynasty is coded present for this armour.
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn't a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three 'left-flank' tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had 'right-flank' tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..."[61] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dynasty is coded present for this armour.
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn't a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three 'left-flank' tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had 'right-flank' tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..."[62] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dynasty is coded present for this armour.
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn't a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three 'left-flank' tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had 'right-flank' tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..."[63] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dynasty is coded present for this armour.
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ The last Yuan emperor Toghon Temur returned to Mongolia and established the capital of his new Mongol state ("which extended from Manchuria to Kyrgystan") at Karakorum. At that time the MilTech codes would be the same as for the preceding Yuan China. Over the next decades the state lost territory and there was civil war at the start of the 15th century although in 1409 CE they still managed to rout a very large invading Ming army. The Ming attacked again but the Mongols were not conquered. Under an Oirat noble called Esen (1440-1455 CE) they invaded China in 1449 CE with 20,000 cavalry and captured the Ming emperor. In 1451 CE Esen overthrew the Mongol Khan but he wasn't a direct descendent of Genghis Khan and was killed during a 1455 CE rebellion. His rule was followed by minor Khans who ruled a Mongolia in which the Khalkhas were one of three 'left-flank' tumens (in addition to Chahars and Uriangqais). The state also had 'right-flank' tumens (Ordos, Tumeds, Yunshebus) and the Oirats of western Mongolia. "These 6 tumens were major administrative units, often called ulus tumens (princedoms), comprising the 40 lesser tumens of the military-administrative type inherited from the Yuan period, each of which was reputedly composed of 10,000 cavalry troops ..."[64] The narrative suggests at least for 1400 CE and 1500 CE the army was cavalry based and in continuity with the preceding Yuan. The Yuan Dynasty is coded present for this armour.
♠ Chainmail ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred present ♥ "In the early seventeenth century, in the remaining part of Mongolia, the Khalkha khanate was headed by the grandson of Abtai Khan, the Tüsheet khan Ghombodorji. It consisted of three large aymaqs (princedoms). [65]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ unknown: 1368-1580ce; absent: 1581-1689ce ♥ 'The problem of violence stems from human craving, the root of all evil, and there are two basic responses to the problem: On the social level, the response takes the form of the human - not divine (!) - institution of a ruler who is given a monopoly on the use of force so as to contain violence and guarantee peace and justice.' [66]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

These codes refer to acts undertaken without direct compulsion from or out of adherence to a religious system (religious aspects of prosociality are coded below)

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown: 1368-1580ce; present: 1581-1689ce ♥ Buddhism is fundamentally egalitarian: every human being has a potential to achieve what Buddha achieved, regardless of class or ethnicity [67] .

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown: 1368-1580ce; absent: 1581-1689ce ♥ 'The king’s religious status was generally seen as that of the leading lay-follower, the first among the faithful laity. Under Mahayana influence - though by no means only in Mahāyāna-Buddhist countries - he was accorded the status of a Bodhisattva, that is, one who is on his way to becoming a Buddha and acts only for the welfare of all others (see Chapter 10).' [68]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred present: 1368-1580ce; present: 1581-1689ce ♥ Inferred from the fact that, in its essential form, Buddhist society is characterised by a division between clergy and laity, not between aristocracy and commoners [69] Even the king is merely 'the leading lay-follower, the first among the faithful laity' [70]. Buddhism is fundamentally egalitarian: every human being has a potential to achieve what Buddha achieved, regardless of class or ethnicity. Before the advent of Buddhism in Mongolia in the 16th century, Mongolia was already fairly egalitarian. Even though social differences between Chinggisids and non-Chinggisids were marked, the elites were not considered spiritually superior. [71] .

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown: 1368-1580ce; present: 1581-1689ce ♥ 'The twofold benefit of living a morally good life is linked to a twofold motivation: ‘Protecting oneself, one protects others; protecting others, one protects oneself ’ - just as each acrobat in a balancing act protects his partner by concentrating on himself, and protects himself by concentrating on his partner (see SN 47:19). If we take care of our own spiritual development, we render a service to others; and if we develop love towards others, we thereby also help ourselves. Accordingly, it is explicitly stated, someone who pursues the path of salvation only for his or her own benefit is to be censured, while the one who follows the path for one’s own benefit and for the benefit of others is to be commended (see AN 7:64).' [72] 'Three segments of the Noble Eightfold Path (3 - 5) are traditionally subsumed under the principle of morality (sila): ‘right speech’ (3), ‘right action’ (4) and ‘right livelihood’ (5). [...] ‘Right action’ is explained as abstaining from harming and killing sentient beings - including animals (!), and further as abstaining from ‘taking what is not given’ and from sexual misconduct, which means avoiding sexual relations with women who are still under the protection of their families, or with those who are married, betrothed, or celibate for religious reasons. From monks and nuns complete sexual abstention is demanded. ‘Right livelihood’ means abstaining from those sources of income which involve harming other beings: trading in weapons for instance, or trading in living beings, meat, intoxicants or poison; also included is the avoidance of fraud and avarice.' [73]

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown: 1368-1580ce; present: 1581-1689ce ♥ 'Leading a moral life is seen as having a wider social dimension as well. Establishing public parks, constructing bridges, digging wells and providing a residence for the homeless (see SN 1:1:47; similarly Jat 31) - all these are commended.' [74]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent: 1368CE-1580CE; present: 1581CE-1689CE ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred absent: 1368CE-1580CE; present: 1581CE-1689CE ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent: 1368CE-1580CE; present; 1581CE-1689CE ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred absent: 1368CE-1580CE; present: 1581CE-1689CE ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred absent: 1368CE-1580CE; present: 1581CE-1689CE ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred absent: 1368CE-1580CE; present: 1581CE-1689CE ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred absent: 1368CE-1580CE; present: 1581CE-1689CE ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent: 1368CE-1580CE; present: 1581CE-1689CE ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred absent: 1368CE-1580CE; present: 1581CE-1689CE ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred absent: 1368CE-1580CE; absent: 1581CE-1689CE ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [75] [76] [77]

References

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  2. (Soucek 2000, 167)
  3. (Ishjamts 2003, 210-211)
  4. (Sanders 1996, 175)
  5. (Atwood 2004, 299)
  6. (Ishjamts 2003, 210-211)
  7. (Atwood 2004, 299-300)
  8. (Ishjamts 2003, 213)
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  10. (Ishjamts 2003, 216)
  11. (Perdue 2005, 95)
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  16. (Ishjamts 2003, 218)
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  20. (Beckwith 2009, 234)
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  22. (Cartier 1979)
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