MnMongE

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ PT ♥ Old page (if necessary for history reference): Mongolia, Early Mongols (1000-1206)

♠ Original name ♣ Early Mongols ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Borgigins; Tatars; Kereids; Naimans ♥ Borgigins, Tatars, Kereids, Naimans, ...

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1206 CE ♥ The date of Kurultai when Chinggiz created the Empire.


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1000-1206 CE ♥ By the starting date of 1000 CE we already have mentions of ethnic terms designating various tribal groups in Mongolia: Tatars, Naimans, Kereids, Mongols (Menggu in Chinese sources). These terms appeared at the very end of the first millennium CE. Citation: Taskin 1984, Rachewiltz 2004). The ending date is when Chinggiz formed the empire.

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥ A typical chief/paramount chief exerted strong control over the warband during the times of war, but between wars the chief's authority became diffuse (reference needed).

PT: How do we code this? We need to bring our coding scheme in line with nomadic polities

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none; alliance ♥ During this period Mongolia was a quasi-polity inhabited by simple and complex chiefdoms that alternatively warred against each other and formed alliances (Togan 199?).

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Khitan Empire ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Mongol Empire ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥ None. Chiefs and their retinues constantly moved around, establishing temporary camps of a few dozen yurts (tents) (Kradin and Skrynnikova 2006).

♠ Language ♣ Mongolian; Kereid; Tatar; Naimans ♥ Mongolic family: Mongolian, Kereid, Tatar (these were probably dialects). Turkic family: Naimans

General Description

According to Chinese records from the Tang dynasty (618-906), one of the nomadic Shiwei tribe was known as the Mengwu. This might be the earliest known reference to the Mongols. few centuries later, another Chinese document, this time dating to 1084, describes the "Menggu" as a remote tribe that paid tribute to the Khitan; they lived on a mixture of hunting and pastoralism, they were believed to wear fish skins, and their technology was largely made out of wood and bone because of the Khitans' (and, subsequently, the Jurchens') ban on the exportation of iron. With time, more clans joined the Mongols, such as the Jajirad and the Qonggirad. In the twelfth century, under Jurchen rule, the Mongols became one of the leading steppe tribes, and indeed they rebelled against the Jurchen. At first, the Mongols managed to score a number of victories, and for some time the Jurchen had no choice but to appease them through gifts such as cattle, grains, and silks. However, the Jurchen eventually gained the upper hand, capturing Mongol slaves through regular military expeditions between the 1160s and the 1190s, and forcing the Mongol rulers to pay frequent tribute. Chinggis Khan stopped the tributes in 1210.[1]

Population and political organization

At this time, the Mongols were divided into clans, and each clan belonged to either the Niru'un or the Dürlükin moiety. The Niru'un clans ruled the Dürlükin ones, though, due to traditional rules of exogamy, the Niru'un had to marry among the Dürlükin and vice versa.[2]
The overall population of Mongolia was 600,000-1,000,000.[3] Between 80,000 and 120,000 seems like a reasonable estimate for just the Mongols, who inhabited the region alongside similarly sized peoples, such as the Naimans, Kereids, Tatars, and Merkids.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ PT ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [70,000-90,000] ♥ uncoded Within the territory of Mongolia with norwestern part of Inner Mongolia and east Trans-Baikal region there were roughly 20 polities (chiefdoms and complex chiefdoms), according to Rashid al-Din (1952). The largest were Naimans, Kereids, Tatars, Merkids, and Mongols whose territories ranged from ?? - ?? km sq. The code reflects the territory size of an 'average' large polity in this region (referring to those named above).

Inner Mongolia is shaped South West to North East. The territory's description would make more sense if it included the North Eastern part of Inner Mongolia and East of Lake Baikal. Such an estimate would produce a territory of 1,000,000 km2 which is an average of 50,000 km2 each.

AD: Nikolay Kradin confirmed that the map produced by Edward was correct, so this means that his assessment of the territory including the North Eastern part of Inner Mongolia was right.

Under another variable Kradin says: "The rough scale of these chiefdoms was ?? km. A mounted messenger could cover this distance in 5-7 days." Orbis database says Roman horse could cover 56 km day[4] 50*6 is 300 km. Square-shaped polity would be 90,000 km2.


Because this NGA during this period was a quasi-polity, the codes refer to a typical large polity, such as Naimans, Kereids, Tatars, Merkids, and Mongols.

♠ Polity Population ♣ [80,000-120,000] ♥ Typical number of inhabitants of a polity.

The overall population of Mongolia during this period was 600,000-1,000,000 (Kradin 2002). Chinggiz Khan had 8 (check) thousand warriors in the decisive battle against Jamucha, who had roughly the same size of his force. 16,000 x 5 (est. average Mongol 'tent') = 80,000. Rounding this gives us an estimate of the population size of the larger polities in Mongolia (Rachewiltz 2004).

Because this NGA during this period was a quasi-polity, the codes refer to a typical large polity, such as Naimans, Kereids, Tatars, Merkids, and Mongols.

"Around 1260 the total nomadic population of Central and Inner Asia, all of which was included in the Mongol empire at that time, would have been about 4,250,000. Two fifths of this, or 1.7 million people, would have been found in Outer or Inner Mongolia; one fifth, or 850,000 people, in the Chaghatay realm of Transoxania, Semirechye and parts of Jungaria and the Tarim Basin; one-fifth in the Juchids' domains in northern Central Asia and the North Caucasian and South Russian steppe; and the remaining fifth in the Middle East with Hulegu."[5]


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 500 ♥ The mobile camp of the chief and his retinue could have more than 100 tents, which gives us a rough estimate of 500 (Kradin and Skrynnikova 2006).

Because this NGA during this period was a quasi-polity, the codes refer to a typical large polity, such as Naimans, Kereids, Tatars, Merkids, and Mongols.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

There were no permanent settlements. There are some indications that the Naiman territory possibly included permanent settlements. This is uncertain. Avarga site near Kerulen River consists of several tens of houses protected on one side by an earthen rampart has been proposed by some to be a permanent settlement, but it is not universally accepted (Shiraishi 2006).

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 2 ♥ levels.

(1) Ayl (group of tents)

(2) clan

♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels. (1) Shamans

♠ Military levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels. According to our current understanding, there was no decimal system. (1) Khan (leader of the ulus = in thhis case, the complex chiefdom)

(2) Chief of ulus (subordinate chiefdom; 'ulus' can refer to both a simple and complex chiefdoms)
(3) Leader of irgen ('tribe')
(4) Leader of the obok (clan)
(5) Ordinary nomad warrior. (Rachewiltz 2004, Kradin and Skrynnikova 2006)

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present: 1000-1185 CE; present: 1185-1206 CE ♥ After 1185 Chinggiz established specialized military units, including heavy cavalry, scouts, etc. Officers of these specialized units (around two dozens of them) were probably full-time specialists.

"Chingggis did not have professional military officers before 1185, but other khans (heads of chiefdoms) had professional military officers. This was bodyguards - nukers (in Mongolian)." [6]

however, forces in nomadic armies usually unpaid other than in loot.

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Nukers (members of the chief's military retinue) were full-time military specialists.

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Samans (shamans) were full-time religious specialists.

R 2004, K+S 2006

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ absent ♥ R 2004, K+S 2006

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ absent ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ Töro was unwritten traditional legal code. R 2004, K+S 2006.

♠ Judges ♣ absent ♥ Chiefs were the judges.

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ absent ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ absent ♥
♠ markets ♣ absent ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ absent ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ absent ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ absent ♥
♠ Canals ♣ absent ♥
♠ Ports ♣ absent ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ absent ♥ Mongols did not have writing. However, the Naimans used Uyghur script. (Note: we need a category for syllabaries)
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ absent ♥
♠ Written records ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There could be diplomatic letters perhaps with the Uyghurs. There could be individuals who knew Chinese writing.
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥ This religious literature is in addition to the sacred texts. For example, providing commentary on the sacred texts. Include prophecies here.
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥ For example manuals on agriculture, military, cooking, etc
♠ History ♣ absent ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ In China, Li Ye published Ceyuan haijing, a guide to solving geometry problems with algebra in 1248 CE.[7]
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ livestock, silk and probably other prestige goods
♠ Tokens ♣ absent ♥ (example: cowries)
♠ Precious metals ♣ absent ♥ non-coined silver, gold, platinum
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ absent ♥ Full-time professional couriers.
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥ Specialized buildings exclusively devoted to the postal service.
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥ This refers to a postal service that not only serves the ruler's needs, but carries mail for private citizens.

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ PT ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ long been in use in the region. Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region.[8] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [9]
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ long been in use in the region. Majemir culture from 900 BCE is an example of one of the first iron-using cultures in the Altai region.[10] and by 300 BCE in the Ordos region of Mongolia iron was becoming much more frequently used for weapons and horse fittings. [11]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ [12]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ absent ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥
♠ Slings ♣ absent ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ [13]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ [14]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ first mentioned later for Genghis Khan
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ "Firearms appeared in Siberia and Mongolia in the 17th century in the form of flintlock rifles. Flintlocks were the only firearms used in most areas until the turn of the 20th century." [15]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ [16]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ [17]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ [18]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ [19]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ [20]
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ [21]
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ Bactrian camels could be used for transport [22]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ absent ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ [23]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ [24]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ [25]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ [26]
♠ Limb protection ♣ absent ♥ E.g., greaves.
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ [27]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ [28]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ absent ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ (such as galleys and sailing ships)

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ absent ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ absent ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ Qarshi, built by Kebek of the Chagatai Khaganate is an example "typical of Mongolian and south Siberian cities from the Xiongnu period onwards."; it was "bounded by a strong wall, 4.5 m thick, surrounded by a deep defensive ditch, 8-10 m wide and 3.5-4 m deep, and had four gates. The original layout of the city (before Timurid additions) included one central fortress/palace surrounded by an open spaced designed for the erection of tents."[29]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ Kuren: Carts arranged in a circle defending the camp. [30]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ When there are more than one concentric ring of walls.
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Khan (leader of the ulus = in this case, the complex chiefdom).

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ "Before Chinggis Khan’s birth the Borjigid aristocracy among the Mongols had justified its rule through predestination by “Eternal Heaven” (see TENGGERI) and legends of its divine origin from its ancestress ALAN GHO’A. Chinggis Khan himself came to see heavenly predestination in his extraordinary rise to power." [31]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ .

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

These codes refer to acts undertaken without direct compulsion from or out of adherence to a religious system (religious aspects of prosociality are coded below)

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [32] [33] [34]

References

  1. (Atwood 2004, 389-390)
  2. (Atwood 2004, 390-391)
  3. (Kradin 2002)
  4. http://orbis.stanford.edu/
  5. (Wink 2002, 168) Wink, Andre. 2002. Al-Hind: The Slavic Kings and the Islamic conquest, 11th-13th centuries. BRILL.
  6. (Kradin 2016, personal communication)
  7. (Martzloff 1997, 143) Jean-Claude Martzloff. 1997. A History of Chinese Mathematics. Translated by Stephen S. Wilson. Berlin: Springer.
  8. (Baumer 2012) Baumer, Christoph. 2012. The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. I.B.Tauris. London.
  9. (Di Cosmo 2002, 84) Nicola Di Cosmo. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  10. (Baumer 2012) Baumer, Christoph. 2012. The History of Central Asia: The Age of the Steppe Warriors. I.B.Tauris. London.
  11. (Di Cosmo 2002, 84) Nicola Di Cosmo. 2002. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  12. (Timothy May 2007)
  13. (Timothy May 2007)
  14. (Timothy May 2007)
  15. (Atwood 2004, 229)
  16. (Timothy May 2007)
  17. (Timothy May 2007)
  18. (Timothy May 2007)
  19. (Timothy May 2007)
  20. (Timothy May 2007)
  21. (Timothy May 2007)
  22. (Timothy May 2007)
  23. (Timothy May 2007)
  24. (Timothy May 2007)
  25. (Timothy May 2007)
  26. (Timothy May 2007)
  27. (Timothy May 2007)
  28. (Timothy May 2007)
  29. (Biran 2013, 271-272) Michal Biran. Rulers and City Life in Mongal Central Asia (1220-1370) David Durand-Guedy. Turko-Mongol Rulers, Cities and City Life. BRILL. Leiden.
  30. (Timothy May 2007)
  31. (Atwood 2004, 99)
  32. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  33. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  34. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html

May, T. 2007. The Mongol Art of War. London: Pen & Sword.