MlSong2

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupreyon ♥ General description written by AD.

♠ Original name ♣ Songhai Empire - Askiya Dynasty ♥ [1]

♠ Alternative names ♣ Askiya Dynasty ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1550 CE ♥

According to Kati, Askia Bunkan (1531-1537 CE) embellished court life: 'He increased the number of orchestras and singers of both sexes and lavished more favors and gifts. During his reign prosperity spread throughout his empire and an era of wealth began to be established.'[2]

Songhai height in the 16th century [3]

Askia Daud (r.1549-1582 CE) "was widely praised for memorizing the Quran and for supporting learning and religion. As part of this support, he is said to have established public libraries in his kingdom." [4]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1493-1591 CE ♥

Origins of Songhay people at Gao c7th century when they displaced the Sorko, and their capital was at Kukya. Rulers converted to Islam - perhaps influenced by Berber traders - beginning 11th century, possibly 1010 CE, and then capital transferred to Gao.[5] Gao was a centre for trans-Saharan trade even before 1000 CE and had been a state well before the establishment of the Songhai empire.[6]

"In methods of government, it seems that the new Songhay leadership mainly took over the old Malian system, and this tendency became clearer when, soon after the death of Sonni Ali, power was seized by one of his generals, the Askiya Muhammad Ture, whose name would strongly suggest that he was not of Songhay but of Soninke (i.e., northern Mande) origin, and that his coup d'etat represented a return to Mande leadership in what was predominantly a Mande-speaking empire." [7]

Conquered by Morocco 1591 CE. [8]

The Songhay Empire collapsed when it was invaded by the army of the Sultan of Morocco [9].

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

Alliance: "Relations with the Tuareg and the Sanhaja were restored, and through them Songhay established virtual control over the salt mines of Taghaza and the copper mines of Takedda, which were the keys to the successful working of the long-distane trade." [10]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Songhai Empire - Sonni Dynasty ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuation ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Saadi Dynasty ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Mande; Islamic ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [1,700,000-1,900,000] ♥ km squared. For this estimate I have used the approximate territorial extent of the Mali Empire at its largest.

♠ Capital ♣ Gao ♥ Gao was capital of empire. Had Arab, Berber, Sudanese communities. [11]


♠ Language ♣ Mande; Songhay ♥ Songhay [12] Mande language: "coup d'etat represented a return to Mande leadership in what was predominantly a Mande-speaking empire." [13]

General Description

Third of the great West African empires, the Songhay Empire emerged from a small kingdom based in the Gao region, which was a tributary to the Mali Empire until it started to gain autonomy in the late 14th century CE.[14] A Songhay leader named Sonyi Ali Beeri was responsible for transforming this polity into an expansionary empire from the late 15th century onwards.[15] The heyday of the Songhay Empire was under the Askiya (or Askia) dynasty, 1493‒1591. These kings consolidated Songhay power by building on the legacy of their Malinke predecessors and took control of more territories, extending their reach over the Niger Inland Delta, westward to the Atlantic ocean, northward to the salt pans of Taghaza, and eastward to the Tuareg kingdom of Agadez.[16][17][18] However, the empire was brought to an abrupt end in the late 16th century: after a succession crisis which sparked a civil war, the Sultan of Morocco invaded in 1591.[19][20]

Population and political organization

Unlike the preceding Ghana and Mali Empires, Songhay operated as a centralized unitary state.[21] The king was a revered figure but his authority was tempered by the precepts of Islam from the 11th century, and this religion became increasingly prevalent under the Askiya dynasty.[22] The imperial council coordinated the activities of the central government, which was divided into ministries including those of agriculture, finance, the army and the naval fleet.[23] The two major provinces, Kurmina in the west and Dendi in the southeast, were ruled by princes who were responsible for their own armies.[24] Thriving trading towns like Jenné, Timbuktu, Teghazza and Walata enjoyed a certain degree of autonomy due to the power of guilds and local chiefs, but had to report to a superintendent, tax inspectors, customs officials and other state appointees.[25] Vassal and tributary countries also bowed before the power of the Askiya when disputes arose.[26]
The Songhay empire is associated with the establishment of high centres of learning in Jenné, Dia, Gao and Timbuktu. The latter in particular was famed for its university, holy men, doctors and teachers, who contributed to the spread of Islamic humanism among the urban elite in the region from the 15th century.[27] The rural Songhay continued to venerate a pantheon of divinities and local spirits until Islam penetrated the countryside via the peaceful incursions of traders and government-sponsored marabouts.[28]
It is difficult to find substantiated population estimates for the Songhay Empire, but one scholar believes there could have been 70,000 people living in the city of Timbuktu by 1580 under Askiya Daoud.[29]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [600,000-700,000] ♥ in squared kilometers

"Songhay and tributary states" [30] - for this period including also the Mande tributary states.

Territory expanded westward under Muhammad Ture (1493-1528 CE).[31]

Askia Muhammed Toure (r.1493-1529 CE) conquered more territories beyond the Niger Inland Delta, "eastward to the Tuareg kingdom of Agadez" and "northward to the salt pans of Taghaza" [32]

"The Songhai Empire extended from east of the Niger River as far as the Atlantic Ocean and 'from the frontiers of the land of Bindoko as far as Teghezza and its dependencies' under Askia Mohammed."[33]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [4,000,000-5,000,000] ♥ People. Songhai Empire covered a similar area to the Mali Empire apart from the West African coast (and inland).

Niane had 40-50 million for the Mali Empire.[34] -- check (is reference correct? was it 4-5 million?). Yes, reference accurately reported. However, it might be a typographical error. Population of Mali in 1960 was 5 million. No references in literature to massive population crash or genocide in the region between middle ages and 1960.

McEvedy and Jones have the region of "The Sahel States" (Mauritania, Mali, Niger and Chad) at 2 million in 1000 CE, rising slowly to 3 million in 1500 CE. [35]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 60,000: 1512 CE; 70,000: 1580 CE ♥ Inhabitants.

Gao in 16th C

Mahmoud Kati explains how the inhabitants of Gao counted the number of houses in the 16th century, finding 7,626 houses, which gives a total population estimate of more than 100,000 inhabitants. [36]
"Under the Askia El Hadj a census taken by a group of students which lasted three days established that Gao consisted of 7,626 blocks of houses of solid construction (clay?) not counting straw huts."[37]

Timbuktu in 1580 CE

Timbuktu probably didn't have more than 15,000 inhabitants by the end of Sonni Ali's reign. In 1580, at the end of Askia Daoud's reign, it had gone over the 70,000 inhabitants mark. "Elle ne dépassait probablement guère 15 000 habitants à la fin du règne de Sonni Ali. En 1580, à la fin du règne d'Askia Daoud, elle était passée à plus de 70 000 habitants." [38]

Djenne in 1512 CE

In 1512, Niani still had about 60,000 inhabitants (6,000 households), as told by Leo Africanus. [39]

Within the Mande-speaking heartland the basic building-block of government was the kafu, a community of anything from 1000 to 15,000 people living in or near a mud-walled town and ruled by a hereditary dynast called a fama." [40]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ levels.

1. Capital city

2. Large town
3. Town - kafu
4. Village


Within the Mande-speaking heartland the basic building-block of government was the kafu, a community of anything from 1000 to 15,000 people living in or near a mud-walled town and ruled by a hereditary dynast called a fama." [41]

"Sudanic societies were built on small agricultural villages or herding communities, sometimes but not always integrated into larger tribal and linguistic groups." [42]

From Niane 1975: 4 Provinces: Garrison and police forces. [43] Supposedly provincial capital? Towns/cities: more or less autonomous. Village: the basic administrative unit. [44]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [4-5] ♥ levels.


1. King

when the Zuwa dynasty was replaced in the mid-15th Century, the Songhay kings had the title "sii (short for sonyi)" [45]
kings called dias until c1335 CE. After that titles were sunni or shi.[46]


__Court Bureaucracy__

Askia Muhammad Toure "supported by Mande clans ... created a standing army and a central bureaucracy."[47]

"The Songhay empire, like that of Mali before it thus involved a gigantic effort of state enterprise in production and trade as well as in military operations and civil government."[48]

2. barey-koy
in charge of court-arrangements[49]
3. kukura-koy
assistant, "whose job it was to provide food and other necessary supplies"[50]
3. garei-farmer
assistant, called master of the camp.[51]
2. katisi-farma
head of finance.[52]
3. waney-farma
assistant, "responsible for questions of property".[53]
3. bara-farma
assistant, in charge of wages.[54]
3. dey-farma
assistant, buying and selling activities of government.[55]
2. fari-mudia
farming official[56]
2. sao-farma
forestry official[57]
2. asari-mundia
head of the department of justice[58]


Slave colonies

"the Songhay empire depended greatly on its colonies of royal slaves and on its privileged castes of craftsmen, which had probably been built up originally from the more skilled groups of war captives, such as smiths, weavers and leather-workers. Here again, Songhay took over a system already initiated in Mali, while adding greatly to the numbers of slaves by means of the regular annual raids carried out by the Songhay cavalry among the unprotected, stateless peoples living south of the Niger bend." [59]
3. State farms manager (possibly 4. if responsible to an official from the court)
State farms "were spread right across the empire, to supply the government and the garrisons, but the largest concentration was still to be found in the well-watered inland delta" - a lot of this grain went to the towns, desert caravans and salt mines. [60]
4. Lower-level official


__Regional government__

2. Western Songhai (Mande speakers) - rule based in Timbuktu?
"Not under Muhammad only, but also under the succession of sons and grandsons who followed him as Akiyas until 1591, the real thrust of Songhay was toward the west and the north. It was an impetus based upon Timbuktu, both as the centre of Islamic learning in the western Sudan and as the meeting-point of river and desert communications.[61]
Askia Muhammad divided the army into two parts: "one for the western provinces based in Timbuktu and one for the eastern provinces based in Gao." [62]
3. Provinces
"Under Askia Muhammad, the Songhai Empire established lands in which the kings paid tribute." [63]
4. Town - kafu ruled by a fama
Within the Mande-speaking heartland the basic building-block of government was the kafu, a community of anything from 1000 to 15,000 people living in or near a mud-walled town and ruled by a hereditary dynast called a fama." [64]
"Sudanic societies were built on small agricultural villages or herding communities, sometimes but not always integrated into larger tribal and linguistic groups." [65]
5.
possibly another level below the fama, or someone who worked for the fama
2. Eastern Songhai (Songhai speakers) - rule based in Gao?
Wars of Askiya Muhammad Toure (1493-1528 CE), according to himself, "were undertaken to distract the Songhay-speaking element in his armies from meddling in the Mande-speaking western half of his empire where his own interests were strongest, and where he preferred to rule through slave armies recruited from his own war captives." [66]
Askia Muhammad Toure divided the army into two parts: "one for the western provinces based in Timbuktu and one for the eastern provinces based in Gao." [67]
3. Provinces
4. Village
"Sudanic societies were built on small agricultural villages or herding communities, sometimes but not always integrated into larger tribal and linguistic groups." [68]


2. Provinces
Songhai "was divided into provinces, cantons, villages, large cities of commercial character such as Djenne and Timbuktu, border areas which were strongholds such as Teghezza, Ualata, Nema, etc."[69]
3. Cantons?
4. Villages
2? Large cities: Djenne/Timbuktu
3. koira-banda mundio
"suburban administrator of a city."[70]
2? Border strongholds: Teghezza/Ualata/Nema


♠ Religious levels ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

Askia Mohammed requested a "Sherif, i.e., the descendant of the Prophet" to be sent to live with in the Sudan. Caliph Mulay Abbas obliged and the Sherif became an important figure, "exempt from all the duties of citizenship (taxes, etc.), but they received gifts of impressive value."[71]

1. Sherif

"The Sherifs, in oder to hold and increase their prestige, make consummate use of drugs (opium and hashish) which they discreetly mix with tobacco for smoking or give to their followers (the talebs) to chew. This gives rise to wonderful visions. The believer who comes back to his senses when the effects of the drug wear off is thus convinced that the gates of heaven were opened to him for a moment, and that he was thus miraculously, divinely transported to paradise."[72]

1. Caliph of the Land of Takrur

The sharif of Mecca made Askiya Muhammad Toure "caliph of the land of Takrur" however the masses were still pagan [73]
Askiya Muhammad Toure made Islam the official state religion, "built mosques, and brought Muslim scholars ... to Gao." [74]
2. Imams
3.


♠ Military levels ♣ [5-6] ♥ levels.

Songhay Empire: Askia Muhammad had a full time general called dyini-koy or balama.[75]

1. King

In Mali and Songhai "the king appinted the generals was himself commander-in-chief of the army and personally directed military operations"[76]
2. General of the armies (Djima koi)
3. Corps
"In each kingdom, each nation, the army was divided into several corps assigned to the defense of different provinces, although under the command of the civil authority. Thus, each provincial governor had at his disposal a part of this army which he could assign tasks under the orders of a general whose powers were purely military."In Mali and Songhai "the king appinted the generals was himself commander-in-chief of the army and personally directed military operations"[77]
4. officer ranks
5. officer ranks
6. Individual soldier

Divisions of army: "knights, cavalry, footsoldiers, auxiliary bodies of Tuaregs, elite infantry regiments, the royal guard, and an armed flotilla."[78]

Tunkoi, kuran, soira: subaltern military positions in city such as Djenne.[79]

Djenne-koi, Bani-koi, Kora-koi: "administrative and military chiefs of cities and regions; they thus had under their command a territorial guard."[80]

Wars of Muhammad Toure (1493-1528 CE), according to himself, "were undertaken to distract the Songhay-speaking element in his armies from meddling in the Mande-speaking western half of his empire where his own interests were strongest, and where he preferred to rule through slave armies recruited from his own war captives." [81]

"Under Askia Muhammad, the Songhai Empire established lands in which the kings paid tribute." [82]

divided the army into two parts: "one for the western provinces based in Timbuktu and one for the eastern provinces based in Gao." [83]

Askia Daud (r.1549-1582 CE).

reorganized Songhay army [84]

"Askia was a rank in the Songhai army with origins dating from at least the first half of the 13th century." [85]

General of the armies: Djima koï
Head of cavalry in the event of conflict: governor of Dirma (one of his many duties) [86]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ Askia Muhammed Toure (r.1493-1529 CE) "supported by Mande clans ... created a standing army"[87] Askia Muhammed Toure (r.1493-1529 CE) "created a professional full-time army" [88] General of the armies: Djima koï. Head of cavalry in the event of conflict: governor of Dirma (one of his many duties).[89] before Askia Muhammad "Chiefs, kings and emperors of earlier times had relied on simply 'calling up' their subjects, their vassals, or their allies. ... But these were temporary armies. They were amateur armies. They served for a campaign or a war, and then everyone went home again until the next one."[90]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present ♥ Askia Muhammed Toure (r.1493-1529 CE) "supported by Mande clans ... created a standing army"[91] Askia Muhammed Toure (r.1493-1529 CE) "created a professional full-time army" [92] before Askia Muhammad "Chiefs, kings and emperors of earlier times had relied on simply 'calling up' their subjects, their vassals, or their allies. ... But these were temporary armies. They were amateur armies. They served for a campaign or a war, and then everyone went home again until the next one."[93]

Distinction between people and army "beginning with the reign of Askia Mohammad ... Instead of mass conscription, a permanent army was created; civilians who were not part of it could go about their business."[94] Previously,uUnder Sonni Ali, "all able-bodied nationals were subject to enlistment."[95]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ "Muslim clerics, once restored to favour, supplied the ideological support and the legal framework necessary for the efficient government of a large territory within which many people were constantly moving around outside their traditional ethnic areas." [96] Ture "appointed the first qadi of Jenne and extended Islamic judicial administration to other towns by establishing courts and appointing judges." [97]


Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ Central government divided into ministries.[98]

The king's top officials included a finance officer (katisi-farma) he had sub-officials.[99] There were many other offices in the Songhai government.[100]

Letter writing was common means of communication.[101] Askia Mohammed had a secretary who could draw up written documents.[102]

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥

State farms "were spread right across the empire, to supply the government and the garrisons, but the largest concentration was still to be found in the well-watered inland delta" [103]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥

Askia Muhammed Toure (r.1493-1529 CE) 'appointed the first qadi of Jenne and extended Islamic judicial administration to other towns by establishing courts and appointing judges.' [104] Increasingly, law became Islamic law and a legal system developed that was independent of tribal chiefs, although customary law continued.[105]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Askia Muhammed Toure (r.1493-1529 CE) "appointed the first qadi of Jenne and extended Islamic judicial administration to other towns by establishing courts and appointing judges." [106]

Kadi. Islamic law. Legal system independent of tribal chiefs. Customary law. Court to punish adultery. Tribunals. [107]

The cadi was a Muslim judge appointed by the king who "handled mainly common-law misdemeanors, disputes between citizens, or between citizens and foreigners."[108]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ Askia Muhammed Toure (r.1493-1529 CE) "appointed the first qadi of Jenne and extended Islamic judicial administration to other towns by establishing courts and appointing judges." [109]

Kadi. Islamic law. Legal system independent of tribal chiefs. Customary law. Court to punish adultery. Tribunals. [110]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ "Archaeological evidence affirms that the building of terraces and irrigation canals in sub-Saharan Africa pre-dates external influence..." [111]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Weekly local or village markets were the center of a remarkable system of exchange and distribution for great quantities of food and other types of products. "Les marchés locaux ou marchés de village se tenant une fois par semaine étaint des centres d'un remarquable système d'échange et de distribution de grandes quantités de denrées alimentaires, et de produits de toutes sortes." [112] There were also interregional markets. [113] Description of the merchant class and their exchange activities in the cities (mainlt Djenné and Timbuktu), on rivers and in caravans [114] polity owed? An official called the Yobu-koi "was in charge of the market."[115]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ State farms "were spread right across the empire, to supply the government and the garrisons, but the largest concentration was still to be found in the well-watered inland delta" [116] Agricultural products from plantations "stored in clay granaies used for purposes of silage."[117]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ Ibn Battuta (14th century) on the African interior said: "there is no need to travel by caravan, for the roads are that secure."[118]
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ Canal dug during reign of Askiya Muhammad Toure in Kabara - Timbuktu region [119]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ "Kabara is Timbuktu's port on the Niger River." There was a "chief of the port" [120] The Guimi-koi or Gumei-koi was a "port director".[121] Guimi-koi or Gumei-koi was a "port director".[122]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events."[123] Written language was culture of an urban élite, that did not absorb surrounding cultures and languages [124] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao.[125]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Written language was culture of an urban élite, that did not absorb surrounding cultures and languages [126] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao.[127]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ inferred absent ♥ "There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [128] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events."[129] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao.[130]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ inferred present ♥ Classic Arabic of Koran. "There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [131] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events."[132] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao.[133]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ Used by government. Widespread use of "notarized documents" e.g. inventory of goods beloning to prison inmate.[134]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Islamic calender.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Koran.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ al-Maghili (d. 1504) "founder of an important tradition of Sudanic Muslim scholarship."[135]
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred present ♥ "Timbuktu flourished as a center of Arabic and Islamic sciences." [136]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Songhai historian Abd al-Rahman al-Sadi (d.1594 CE) wrote Tarikh al-Sudan (History of Sudan). [137]
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ "Timbuktu flourished as a center of Arabic and Islamic sciences." [138] al-Maghili was "a North African who wrote a book of advice about new methods of government for the benefit of King Muhammad Rumfa of the Hausa state of Kano in about 1490. He called his book The Duties of Kings."[139]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ "Timbuktu flourished as a center of Arabic and Islamic sciences." [140]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Poetry.


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Barter "at the periphery of the African kingdoms, some backwards tribes, such as the Lem-Lem in Southwest Ghana, perhaps on the banks of the present-day Faleme River, had been carrying on barter trade since the Carthaginian period."[141] This was where, without any direct contact, Carthaginian and Arab traders exchanged their goods for gold dust. However, this simple form of economy was not characteristic of the economies of the polities of these times.[142]
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ according to Ibn al-Mukhtar who was writing in the seventeenth century "the king would pay a dowry of 40,000 cowries to the girl's family in order to establish his right of ownership over her children" in the event she married a slave. [143] Cowrie shells "can be accurately traded by weight, by volume, and by counting; their colour and lustre do not fade as their durability compares favourably with that of metal coins."[144]
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ Gold.
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ Treasury of coins established from proceeds of taxation [145] Cosmopolitan commerce centers: Timbuktu, Djenne, Biru, Soo, Ndob, Pekes and some others.[146] Currency "consisted of salt, cowries, or gold in either dust or pieces (of foreign or local mintage)."[147]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ inferred present ♥ Surprisingly the state probably did not mint coins: 'no trace of a die or mint has been found south of the desert.'[148] There were coins of gold, but they were not minted. [149] There were also rings of iron that were used to purchase cheap items. [150] Currency "consisted of salt, cowries, or gold in either dust or pieces (of foreign or local mintage)."[151] According to Leo Africanus cowries used as currency for trading came from the Indian Ocean, via Persia.[152] According to al Bakri (11th century) 'The dinars they used were of pure gold and were called sola [bald] because they bore no imprints.' ... Thus these documents allow us to be sure of the use in Black Africa of imprinted gold coins, without, however, being able to know whether such imprints were effiges of local emperors or kings, or to know whether there was any generalized imperial currency minited apart from the mitkal standard."[153]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ An important courier service connected the court to various cities and towns, guaranteeing the transmission of the Askia's orders. "Un important service de courrier relie la cour aux différentes villes et chef-lieux assurant la transmission des ordres de l'Askia." [154] Letter writing was common.[155]
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥ unknown An important courier service connected the court to various cities and towns, guaranteeing the transmission of the Askia's orders. "Un important service de courrier relie la cour aux différentes villes et chef-lieux assurant la transmission des ordres de l'Askia." [156]
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Iron ♣ inferred present ♥ Iron Age from 600 BCE in West Africa (e.g. Benue valley in Nigeria and upper Niger River) "the development and spread of the basic technologies of metal production and the forging and smithing of metal tools, notably in iron."[157] "Iron-headed hoes, probably invented some time after iron-pointed spears."[158] "Iron also brought, from about 600 BC onwards, a new source of military power."[159]
♠ Steel ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ [absent; present] ♥ spears [160] uncertainty coded because we do not know if they were handheld or thrown
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred absent ♥ new world weapon
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ "Before the Moroccan invasion of Songhay, there were very few, if any firearms in that part of Africa south of the Sahara. In 1591, the soldiers of Songhay had never seen the arquebus or musket."[161]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Swords ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Spears ♣ [absent; present] ♥ spears [162] uncertainty coded because we do not know if they were handheld or thrown
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ "mounted lancers of the Songhay aristocracy"[163] Professional cavalry commanded by the tara-farma.[164] Chief of cavalry was called the tara-farma.[165]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ there were privileged castes of craftsmen which likely included leather-workers. [166] "The Tuaregs wore puffed trousers, a tunic, a turban, and a litham."[167] 1000-1650 CE period: "body armor was rare. Among the cavalry empires of the Sahel and sudan, quilted horse and body armor were common but plate was rarely used."[168]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ The Sudanese knight also wore an iron helmet, which made a loud clinking noise. "Le chevalier soudanais portait aussi un bouclier de fer dont le cliquetis faisait un vacarme impressionant." [169] Cavalry and footsoldiers had shields.[170]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ The songhay knight, like his French counterpart, wore a great helm, a hauberk, chainmail, an iron plate armour, a helmet and used a javelin. "Le chevalier songhoy, comme son homologue de l'Ile de France, portait heaume et haubert, cottes de mailles, cuirasse de fer, casque et javelot." [171]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ Knights: "The princes of Black Africa who could afford to outfitted themselves in complete or partial armor like that of the knights of the Western Middle Ages."[172] "coat of mail and iron breastplate, helmet, boots, javelin ... all of it."[173] However, due to climate complete knightly armour not as common as in Europe and in fact Songhai Askia Bano died of suffocation.[174] 1000-1650 CE period: "body armor was rare. Among the cavalry empires of the Sahel and sudan, quilted horse and body armor were common but plate was rarely used."[175]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ Knights: "The princes of Black Africa who could afford to outfitted themselves in complete or partial armor like that of the knights of the Western Middle Ages."[176] "coat of mail and iron breastplate, helmet, boots, javelin ... all of it."[177] However, due to climate complete knightly armour not as common as in Europe and in fact Songhai Askia Bano died of suffocation.[178]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ chainmail [179] Knights: "The princes of Black Africa who could afford to outfitted themselves in complete or partial armor like that of the knights of the Western Middle Ages."[180] "coat of mail and iron breastplate, helmet, boots, javelin ... all of it."[181] However, due to climate complete knightly armour not as common as in Europe and in fact Songhai Askia Bano died of suffocation.[182]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ The songhay knight, like his French counterpart, wore a great helm, a hauberk, chainmail, an iron plate armour, a helmet and used a javelin. "Le chevalier songhoy, comme son homologue de l'Ile de France, portait heaume et haubert, cottes de mailles, cuirasse de fer, casque et javelot." [183] 1000-1650 CE period: "body armor was rare. Among the cavalry empires of the Sahel and sudan, quilted horse and body armor were common but plate was rarely used."[184]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ Songhay Empire: Askia Muhammad created a full-time navy on the Niger. Before him Sunni Ali had "Niger boatmen in his amateur military system."[185] Commander of canoe-fleet called hi-koy.[186]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ ♥ Songhay Empire: Askia Muhammad created a full-time navy on the Niger. Before him Sunni Ali had "Niger boatmen in his amateur military system."[187] Commander of canoe-fleet called hi-koy.[188]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ In the 15th century, Djenné was the archetype of a fortified city: built on an island, it was defended by a ring of water; the city itself was protected by a wall with 11 doors. "Mais au XVè siècle, Djenné était la ville forte par excellence: bâtie sur une île, elle était admirablement défendue par une ceinture d'eau; la ville elle-même était protégée par une enceinte percée de 11 portes." [189]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ Djenne had been "fortified by a system of ramparts, with a variable number of guarded gates. A fortified city was called a tata."[190]
♠ Ditch ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ [absent; present] ♥ In the 15th century, Djenné was the archetype of a fortified city: built on an island, it was defended by a ring of water; the city itself was protected by a wall with 11 doors. "Mais au XVè siècle, Djenné était la ville forte par excellence: bâtie sur une île, elle était admirablement défendue par une ceinture d'eau; la ville elle-même était protégée par une enceinte percée de 11 portes." [191]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred present ♥ About Timbuktu: The first city wall seems to date from the time of Malian hegemony. It was probably fortified by Sonni Ali and Askia Mohammed to protect the city from surprise attacks. [...] The new city wall was a c.5km ring, with a diameter of 1000m. "La première enceinte de la ville semble dater du temps de l'hégémonie malienne. Elle fut fortifiée sans doute par Sonni Ali et Askia Mohammed pour mettre la ville à l'abri des attaques surprises. [...] La nouvelle enceinte décrivait un périmètre à peu près circulaire, long d'environ 5 kilomètres avec un diamètre de 1000 mètres." [192]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ inferred present ♥ The independence of the judiciary, "A judge's house and a mosque were inviolable sanctuaries. The cadi could with impunity admonish the king; to the princes, he was the respected intercessor whose words were heeded."[193]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ inferred present ♥ non-Muslim people in the countryside, people of the towns (i.e. merchant class?) "Unlike his father, Sunni Baru refused to declare himself a Muslim and at once made it clear that he was going to side entirely with the non-Muslim people in the countryside. ... But the people of the towns were too powerful to be treated in this way. They feared that they would lose power and influence, and that their trade would suffer. They found a rebellious leader in Muhammad Turay."[194] "Askia Muhammad made a sharp break with the religious and family traditions of the Sunni line of rulers. He based his power firmly on the towns, and, in line with this, ruled as a strict Muslim."[195]
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Askia Muhammad "opened the way for men of talent in royal service who were not necessarily members of leading descent-lines."[196] Especially from Songhay Askia the Great: "the rise of the 'king's men' ... appointed officials who were not members of the 'big families', and who were loyal only to the king their master."[197] However many appointments still went to sons, e.g. son of king or son of high official.[198]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawḥīd and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [199] The Askia's enthronement "was followed by the swearing of oaths. Generals, soldiers, all the people, even the clergy, had to swear on the Koran an oath of faithfulness and obedience to the new Askia. ... The king had to be present at the Friday prayer, which was said in his name."[200] Askia "claimed to have consulted the Almighty in order to find out whom he should name to lead the people of Dendi, and appointed Ali Dudo, who had presumably received the divine approval."[201] - ET

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [202]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[203]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[204]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[205]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [206] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [207]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, ʿUthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of ʿUmar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [208]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [209] [210] [211]

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