MlMali*

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥ General description written by AD.

♠ Original name ♣ Mali Empire ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Keita Dynasty; Mandingo Empire ♥ "The Keita dynasty ruled, with some interruptions, from 1230 to 1390."[1] Keita dynasty of Mali [2] Malinke. "The kingdom of Mali was founded by a local cheiftain, Sunjata (1230-55), of the Keita dynasty."[3] Mandingo Empire.[4][5]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1312-1337 CE ♥ Under Mansa Musa (1307-32 CE) [6]

Mansa Musa reigned 1312-1337 CE. "His 25-year reign, from 1312 to 1337, is thought of as the golden age of Mali." [7]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1230-1410 CE ♥

"Most modern syntheses place the floruit of Mali between 1235 and 1450."[8]

Core region of the Mali Empire was the region of Kangaba (south of the Ghana empire region) whose traders "enjoyed positions of privilege" within the preceding Ghana empire.[9]

"From the early thirteenth to the end of the sixteenth centuries" [10]

"In the first half of the 13th century, the Malinke chiefdoms of the Upper Niger began to join together into a new state" [11]

"The Keita dynasty ruled, with some interruptions, from 1230 to 1390."[12]

"By the end of the fourteenth century the Malian Empire was in decline." "As the the trade routes changed" in favour of Timbuktu and Jenne "local chieftains became independent, and this reduced Mali once again to a petty chieftaincy."[13]

Victory of Sundiata in 1235 CE over Soso/Soussou. [14] The unification of provinces of Do, Kiri and Banko made the Keita chief supreme authority. [15] Timbuktu captured by Tuareg in 1433 CE. [16] Fulanis - Futa Kingdom - conquered western Mali possessions early 16th Century CE. Mansa Mahmüd IV defeated at Jenne, 1599 CE. [17]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state; confederated state ♥

Confederation. Ghana and Mema were vassal kingdoms.[18]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

alliance relationships with trading berber nomadic groups?

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Sosso Kingdom ♥ Sosso Kingdom? "Mali had its origin among Malinke (Mande) peoples living between the Senegal and the Niger rivers." [19]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Mande States ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Mande ♥ "The dominant peoples of both the Ghana and Mali Empires ... were part of a huge, complex cultural group whose people, taken together, are known as Mande. " [20]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [1,700,000-1,900,000] ♥ km squared. For this estimate I have used the approximate territorial extent of the Mali Empire at its largest.

♠ Capital ♣ Niani ♥ [21]

Capital Niani in the core region of Kangaba. This was located near the Niger river - according to map, very near the source.[22]

Capital city referred to as Mali.[23] same place as Niani?

"Sorotomo is the first major settlement within Mali's core territory to be dated conclusively to the period of the historical empire. Niani, Mali's speculative first capital, has only furnished C14 dates from before or after the key 13th to 15th-century period. This indicates that, at best, it was a late imperial seat of power. The issue of ancient Mali's capital has thus been a matter of much debate - and is as yet unresolved. There is currently general agreement among historians that Mali's first centre(s) of power would have been located in the so-called 'Pays Manding', c.200km south-east of Sorotomo. There is, however, substantial historical evidence suggesting a rapid shift of power towards the north-east during the empire's apogee."[24]

♠ Language ♣ Mande; Arabic ♥ mid-14th century onwards? "Arabic became important both for the diffusion of religion and for communications and trade."[25] mid-14th century onwards? Arabic "was used for official correspondence in the Ghana Empire before the end of the twelfth century and in Mali in the mid-fourteenth century."[26]

General Description

After the gradual decline of the Ghana Empire, the power vacuum left in the Sudanese region was filled with several smaller successor states, including the Sosso Kingdom.[27] In the early 13th century CE, several Malinke chiefdoms from the Upper Niger region united against the Sosso and slowly aggregated into what would become the Mali Empire.[28] This polity, also known as the Mandingo Empire,[29] was the largest of the West African empires, and flourished from the early 13th to the late 14th/early 15th century, at which point it started to decline.[30][31] The apogee of the Mali Empire corresponds to the reign of Musa I of the Keita dynasty, the mansa (emperor) who reigned over 24 cities and their surrounding territories from 1312 to 1337.[32] His empire extended from the Atlantic to Gao and the Niger Inland Delta, and from the southern Sahara to the tropical forest belt.[33] Musa I is also famed for his patronage of Islam in Mali and for his lavish distribution of gold when he set off on a pilgrimage to Mecca in 1325.[34]

Population and political organization

The kings of the Keita dynasty sat at the apex of a confederation incorporating smaller kingdoms such as Ghana and Mema.[35] At its height, the empire comprised 12 provinces made up of smaller, village-centred clan units.[36] The mansa (emperor) was thus a 'chief of chiefs', assuming the mantle of a supreme patriarch, and he could dispense justice personally.[37] He received advice from the griot, chosen from the Kouyate clan, who was also his spokesman and the tutor of princes.[38]
The aristocracy formed around the Malinke warrior class,[39] including an elite corps of cavalry.[40] The empire maintained a strong army, with garrisons stationed in the main towns.[41] The merchant class, known as Dyula or Wangara,[42] formed settlements at the margins of the forest regions, such Kankan in modern-day Guinea, Bobo Dioulasso in modern Ivory Coast, and Begho in modern Ghana.[43]
The cities of Mali were cosmopolitan, inhabited by people of every occupation and from every province of the empire,[44] and prospering from their participation in Trans-Saharan trade networks and the export of gold, ivory, salt and slaves.[45] Their characteristic mudbrick architecture, known as banco, can still be admired today.[46] This distinctive architectural style is one of many signs of Mali's legacy in the region, as its language, laws and customs spread through West Africa. In the 15th century, however, a long period of gradual decline began. Timbuktu was captured by the Tuareg in 1433,[47] and a few decades of internal political struggles made it difficult for the emperors to maintain control over such a large region, leading to the contraction of the empire's territory.[48]
The empire was densely populated, with a reported 400 towns in the region and a compact net of villages near the trading city of Jenné.[49] When the Andalusi diplomat Leo Africanus visited Niani in the 16th century, he described a thriving city of 'six thousand hearths'.[50]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [1,700,000-1,900,000] ♥ in squared kilometers

1337 CE [51]

Map with largest extent of the Mali Empire.[52] expanded into Inland Delta, Gao, and eastern Songhai beginning 14th century. [53] by mid-14th century mansa's effective rule limited to Mande homelands. [54]

"The boundaries of the Empire of Mali stretched from Kaoga (Gao) all the way to the Atlantic and from the Sahara to the tropical forest."[55]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [4,000,000-5,000,000] ♥ People.

40-50 million [56] -- check (is reference correct? was it 4-5 million?). Reference checked, it was stated. However, it might be a typographical error. Population of Mali in 1960 was 5 million. No references in literature to massive population crash or genocide in the region between middle ages and 1960.

McEvedy and Jones have the region of "The Sahel States" (Mauritania, Mali, Niger and Chad) at 2 million in 1000 CE, rising slowly to 3 million in 1500 CE. [57]

Sahel states = Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad 2m by AD 1000

"Before the introduction of agriculture and animal husbandry the population of the area of the present-day Sahel states is unlikely to have exceeded 50,000: once pastoralism and agriculture had become well-established the population can hardly have been less than half a million. The chronology of the transition is as yet totally obscure, but there is no reason to postulate anything above the 50,000 line before 3000 BC or place the achievement of the half million later than 1000 BC. From this latter point a low rate of increase is all that is needed to bring the total to 1m by AD 1 and 2m by AD 1000." [58]


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [12,000-17,000] ♥ Inhabitants.

Within the Mande-speaking heartland the basic building-block of government was the kafu, a community of anything from 1000 to 15,000 people living in or near a mud-walled town and ruled by a hereditary dynast called a fama." [59]

Walata was a commercial city within the Mali Empire [60]

Capital Niani, now lost, described in 16th century by Moroccan Leo Africanus as of 'six thousand hearths' while its inhabitants were 'the most civilised, intelligent and respected' in the Western Sudan.[61]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ levels. Settlement hierarchy refers to the capital, important trading cities, mud-walled towns (“the basic building-block of government was the kafu, a community of anything from 1000 to 15,000 people living in or near a mud-walled town” ruled by a fama.), outlying villages who pay occasional tribute to the fama. [62] The Mali empire was based upon a center-periphery political administration, in turn divided into three geopolitical sectors: provinces, districts, and village communities. The peripheral areas were composed of the conquered people of the tributary states and were ruled indirectly. [63]

1. Capital town e.g. Niani

2. Commercial town e.g. Walata
3. Basic mud-walled small town called a kafu
4. Smaller settlements/villages

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [4-5] ♥ levels.

1. King of kings (mansa)

king had title Mansa [64]
"As in other African empires, the supreme ruler was a king of kings." [65]
The ruler "bore the military title of mansa, conqueror." [66]
"The mansas adopted the Ghanaian and Sudanic concepts of kingship to institutionalize their power." [67]
"The rulers surrounded themselves with a bodyguard, servants, and elaborate ceremonies."[68]


_Central government_

2. Head of the imperial council or one of the officials of the imperial council
there was an "imperial council" [69]
late 14th century government characterised by rule of powerful government officials and a sidelined monarch [70]
3. Government officials
After his pilgrimage to Cairo and Mecca "Mansa Musa returned to Mali with Arab and Berber adventurers to serve in his administration."[71]
Santigui (master of the treasury) [72]
4. Scribes
"court circle included clerics and lawyers literate in Arabic" [73]
4. State farms official
"Client clans, castes of dependent craftsmen, and people allied by marriage or by past service supported the ruler. Slaves and serfs worked in agricultural settlements to provide produce for the court, the army, and the administration." [74]
royal slaves worked in "settled colonies" in the inland delta region. "each had to produce a quota of grain for collection by boat at the appointed season."[75]


_Mande chiefdoms_

2. Chief (fama) of a kafu (or kafts)
"Mande-speaking ethnic core" [76]
"Mande-speaking peoples lived in family and village units, the head of the family being both priest and chieftain. A group of villages in turn formed a kafts, or kafu, a community of 1,000 to 15,000 people living around a mud-walled town and ruled by a hereditary chieftain called a fama."[77]
"Within the Mande-speaking heartland the basic building-block of government was the kafu, a community of anything from 1000 to 15,000 people living in or near a mud-walled town and ruled by a hereditary dynast called a fama."[78]
Mema was a province in the Mali Empire [79]
the paramount ruler "bore the military title of mansa, "conquerer", which underlined the reality that his dominion might expand or contract according to the range of his armed forces. Where the mansa's soldiers were no longer seen, there the kafus would soon resume their independence under their traditional famas." [80]
Oral tradition "Sunjata Epic" says Mali Empire founded by Sunjata Keita. Initially there was a Mande Chiefdom in Farakoro. The chief had the title maghan. Sunjata "organized the soldiers of all the Mande chiefdoms into a powerful army. They went to war against Susu." The unified Mande chiefdoms formed the basis of the Mali Empire. [81]
3. Village headman
"Mande-speaking peoples lived in family and village units, the head of the family being both priest and chieftain. A group of villages in turn formed a kafts, or kafu, a community of 1,000 to 15,000 people living around a mud-walled town and ruled by a hereditary chieftain alled a fama."[82]


_Vassal kingdoms_

2. Vassal king or chief
"Outside the Mande-speaking nucleus, the relationship with subordinate rulers was even more essentially based upon the regular or occasional payment of tribute."[83]
Mid-13th century: "the Wolof and the Fulbe recognised its paramountcy" and gave tribute [84]
ruler of Mali received tribute from lesser kings and chiefs. [85]
Mansa Musa reigned 1312-1337 CE. Ibn Kathir (c1300-c1374 CE) sad he ruled over 24 other kings. [86] Al-Umari said Musa had "conquered 24 cities, each with its surrounding district with villages and estates" and that he had a palace [87]
"In Mali, as in other African empires, the supreme ruler was essentially a paramount, a king of kings, the degree of whose authority varied greatly from one part of his dominions to another, according to the accessibility of each to the imperial armies and tax collectors." [88]
3. District
4. Villages


♠ Religious levels ♣ 2 ♥ levels.


1. King

The ruler was a "quasi-divine figure"[89]
"After Islam became the royal cult, rulers built mosques and adopted Islamic law, and the king and the entire court took part in public prayers held on the great Islamic festivals."[90]
2. Someone who helped the king become a "quasi-divine figure" inferred level


♠ Military levels ♣ 4 ♥ levels.

Later Songhay Empire: Askia Muhammad had a full time general called dyini-koy or balama.[91]

1. King

In Mali and Songhai "the king appinted the generals was himself commander-in-chief of the army and personally directed military operations"[92]
2. Generals
King of Mali had two generals, one responsible for the Mossi border, other northern desert border."[93]
2. Imperial council
there was an "imperial council" [94]
late 14th century government characterised by rule of powerful government officials and a sidelined monarch [95]
3. Vassal kings / Mande Chiefs
Ibn Battuta witnessed a ceremony in which both the Mansa and the lesser king had their own personal guards of honor. [96]
Oral tradition "Sunjata Epic" says Mali Empire founded by Sunjata Keita. Initially there was a Mande Chiefdom in Farakoro. The chief had the title maghan. There were diviners "whose job it was to predict the future." The chiefdom was conquered by Susu. Sunjata "organized the soldiers of all the Mande chiefdoms into a powerful army. They went to war against Susu." The unified Mande chiefdoms formed the basis of the Mali Empire. [97]
"In each kingdom, each nation, the army was divided into several corps assigned to the defense of different provinces, although under the command of the civil authority. Thus, each provincial governor had at his disposal a part of this army which he could assign tasks under the orders of a general whose powers were purely military."[98]
4. Individual soldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥ Manda Moussa I's pilgrimage story mentions an imperial escort of 8700 men. [99] This is unconfirmed by historical/archaeological evidence, but hints at the existence of a professional army. Later Songhay Empire: Askia Muhammad had a full time general called dyini-koy or balama.[100] "commanders" [101] At a later time Askia Muhammed Toure (r.1493-1529 CE) "created a professional full-time army" [102] before Askia Muhammad of Songhay Empire "Chiefs, kings and emperors of earlier times had relied on simply 'calling up' their subjects, their vassals, or their allies. ... But these were temporary armies. They were amateur armies. They served for a campaign or a war, and then everyone went home again until the next one."[103]

King of Mali had two generals, one responsible for the Mossi border, other northern desert border."[104]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ absent ♥ Manda Moussa I's pilgrimage story mentions an imperial escort of 8700 men. [105] This is unconfirmed by historical/archaeological evidence, but hints at the existence of a professional army. Later Songhay Empire: Askia Muhammed Toure (r.1493-1529 CE) "created a professional full-time army" [106] before Askia Muhammad of Songhay Empire "Chiefs, kings and emperors of earlier times had relied on simply 'calling up' their subjects, their vassals, or their allies. ... But these were temporary armies. They were amateur armies. They served for a campaign or a war, and then everyone went home again until the next one."[107]

Distinction between people and army during Songhai period: "beginning with the reign of Askia Mohammad ... Instead of mass conscription, a permanent army was created; civilians who were not part of it could go about their business."[108]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ After his pilgrimage to Cairo and Mecca Mansa Musa "built new mosques and palaces, appointed an imam for Friday prayers"[109]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred present ♥ late 14th century government characterised by rules of powerful government officials and a "puppet" monarch. [110] We know that under the Songhai Askias the bureaucracy became very well developed but it is possible more rudimentary aspects of the following description preexisted under the earlier Empires. During the Songhai period, each high official was directly appointed by the king[111], was given a "distinctive uniform and insignia" which were worn at royal audiences, and they sat together in a highly-formalised assembly.[112] For the Mali Empire specifically we have references to the following officials: the hari-farma managed fishing on the Niger river.[113] The sao-farma managed the forests.[114] The babili-farma was minister of agriculture.[115] The khalissi-farma was minister of finance.[116] Reference for the later period Songhai state to prisons at Kanato, Kabara (near Timbuktu) and elsewhere[117] where there was widespread use of "notarized documents" such as for an inventory of goods belonging to a prison inmate.[118]

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ "Mansa Musa sent diplomats and opened an embassy in Morocco, which stimulated trade with the Maghrib."[119]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Mali rulers enforced customary law when it suited them and preserved ancient ceremonials." Some of the ruling classes and merchant classes were Muslim, everyone else pagan.[120] "It was customary for rulers of Western Sudan kingdoms to hold what were called audiences, during which ordinary citizens could submit complaints and legal disputes." [121] They were held in public and one was witnessed by Ibn Battuta on his 1352-1353 visit. [122]

Judges and legal experts. [123] Islamic law. Judges chosen by Mansa. Mansa ultimate legal authority. [124]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred present ♥

"Mali rulers enforced customary law when it suited them and preserved ancient ceremonials." Some of the ruling classes and merchant classes were Muslim, everyone else pagan.[125] "It was customary for rulers of Western Sudan kingdoms to hold what were called audiences, during which ordinary citizens could submit complaints and legal disputes." [126] They were held in public and one was witnessed by Ibn Battuta on his 1352-1353 visit. [127]

The cadi was a Muslim judge appointed by the king who "handled mainly common-law misdemeanors, disputes between citizens, or between citizens and foreigners."[128]

♠ Courts ♣ ♥ unknown "Mali rulers enforced customary law when it suited them and preserved ancient ceremonials." Some of the ruling classes and merchant classes were Muslim, everyone else pagan.[129] "It was customary for rulers of Western Sudan kingdoms to hold what were called audiences, during which ordinary citizens could submit complaints and legal disputes." [130] They were held in public and one was witnessed by Ibn Battuta on his 1352-1353 visit. [131]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred present ♥ "court circle included clerics and lawyers literate in Arabic" [132]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ "Archaeological evidence affirms that the building of terraces and irrigation canals in sub-Saharan Africa pre-dates external influence..." [133]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ polity owned?
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ In the Songhai period state farms "were spread right across the empire, to supply the government and the garrisons, but the largest concentration was still to be found in the well-watered inland delta" [134] -- basic institution likely inherited from the preceding Mali Empire?

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Ibn Battuta (14th century) on the African interior said: "there is no need to travel by caravan, for the roads are that secure."[135] Maintenance of tracks for trade?
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ "Kabara is Timbuktu's port on the Niger River." [136]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ Gold mining (?) from Bambuk and Bure on the upper Niger.

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ inferred present ♥ oral histories, songs, poems, art?
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events."[137]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ inferred absent ♥ "There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [138] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events."[139] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao.[140]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ inferred present ♥ Classic Arabic of Koran. "There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [141] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events."[142] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao.[143]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ They had writing and so it was likely used to assist organization.
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Islamic calender.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Koran.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ mid-14th century onwards? "The rulers of Mali brought Muslim scholars from Cairo and Fez to help establish a West African tradition of Islamic learning."[144]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ After his pilgrimage to Cairo and Mecca Mansa Musa "introduced Arabic-style poetry to his court. He encouraged scholarship in Timbuktu ad sent Malian students to Fez."[145]
♠ History ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ al-Maghili was "a North African who wrote a book of advice about new methods of government for the benefit of King Muhammad Rumfa of the Hausa state of Kano in about 1490. He called his book The Duties of Kings."[146]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ After his pilgrimage to Cairo and Mecca Mansa Musa "introduced Arabic-style poetry to his court. He encouraged scholarship in Timbuktu ad sent Malian students to Fez."[147]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Barter "at the periphery of the African kingdoms, some backwards tribes, such as the Lem-Lem in Southwest Ghana, perhaps on the banks of the present-day Faleme River, had been carrying on barter trade since the Carthaginian period."[148] This was where, without any direct contact, Carthaginian and Arab traders exchanged their goods for gold dust. However, this simple form of economy was not characteristic of the economies of the polities of these times.[149]
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ Cowrie shells "can be accurately traded by weight, by volume, and by counting; their colour and lustre do not fade as their durability compares favourably with that of metal coins."[150]
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ Gold.
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ Some coins imported from Arabic polities? Cosmopolitan commerce centers: Timbuktu, Djenne, Biru, Soo, Ndob, Pekes and some others.[151] Currency "consisted of salt, cowries, or gold in either dust or pieces (of foreign or local mintage)."[152]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ inferred present ♥ "no trace of a die or mint has been found south of the desert."[153] Currency "consisted of salt, cowries, or gold in either dust or pieces (of foreign or local mintage)."[154] Currency included blocks of salt of different sizes.[155] Currency "consisted of salt, cowries, or gold in either dust or pieces (of foreign or local mintage)."[156] According to Leo Africanus cowries used as currency for trading came from the Indian Ocean, via Persia.[157] According to al Bakri (11th century) 'The dinars they used were of pure gold and were called sola [bald] because they bore no imprints.' ... Thus these documents allow us to be sure of the use in Black Africa of imprinted gold coins, without, however, being able to know whether such imprints were effiges of local emperors or kings, or to know whether there was any generalized imperial currency minited apart from the mitkal standard."[158]
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ Daily horseback couriers to provinces [159]
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥ unknown. Daily horseback couriers to provinces.[160] If these couriers had to travel very long distances did they keep the same horse for the entire journey or exchange horses at designated stations along the route?
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Iron ♣ inferred present ♥ Iron Age from 600 BCE in West Africa (e.g. Benue valley in Nigeria and upper Niger River) "the development and spread of the basic technologies of metal production and the forging and smithing of metal tools, notably in iron."[161] "Iron-headed hoes, probably invented some time after iron-pointed spears."[162] "Iron also brought, from about 600 BC onwards, a new source of military power."[163]
♠ Steel ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ Reference to hundreds of soldiers carrying bows and javelins at least in ceremonial context.[164]
♠ Atlatl ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ bow and arrow was a symbol of royal power [165] Reference to hundreds of soldiers carrying bows and javelins at least in ceremonial context.[166]
♠ Composite bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ The weapons used by the empire’s army included iron-tipped spears, daggers, and swords. Wooden objects used for defence included battle clubs. [167]
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ The weapons used by the empire’s army included iron-tipped spears, daggers, and swords. Wooden objects used for defence included battle clubs. [168]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ swords. [169] The weapons used by the empire’s army included iron-tipped spears, daggers, and swords. Wooden objects used for defense included battle clubs. [170]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ The weapons used by the empire’s army included iron-tipped spears, daggers, and swords. Wooden objects used for defence included battle clubs. [171]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ cavalry[172]
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ "The Tuaregs wore puffed trousers, a tunic, a turban, and a litham."[173] 1000-1650 CE period: "body armor was rare. Among the cavalry empires of the Sahel and sudan, quilted horse and body armor were common but plate was rarely used."[174]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ Cavalry and footsoldiers had shields.[175]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ Knights: "The princes of Black Africa who could afford to outfitted themselves in complete or partial armor like that of the knights of the Western Middle Ages."[176] "coat of mail and iron breastplate, helmet, boots, javelin ... all of it."[177] However, due to climate complete knightly armour not as common as in Europe and in fact Songhai Askia Bano died of suffocation.[178]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ reference to an iron breastplate on Songhai askia 1588 CE.[179] Knights: "The princes of Black Africa who could afford to outfitted themselves in complete or partial armor like that of the knights of the Western Middle Ages."[180] "coat of mail and iron breastplate, helmet, boots, javelin ... all of it."[181] However, due to climate complete knightly armour not as common as in Europe and in fact Songhai Askia Bano died of suffocation.[182] 1000-1650 CE period: "body armor was rare. Among the cavalry empires of the Sahel and sudan, quilted horse and body armor were common but plate was rarely used."[183]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Knights: "The princes of Black Africa who could afford to outfitted themselves in complete or partial armor like that of the knights of the Western Middle Ages."[184] "coat of mail and iron breastplate, helmet, boots, javelin ... all of it."[185] However, due to climate complete knightly armour not as common as in Europe and in fact Songhai Askia Bano died of suffocation.[186]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥ Knights: "The princes of Black Africa who could afford to outfitted themselves in complete or partial armor like that of the knights of the Western Middle Ages."[187] "coat of mail and iron breastplate, helmet, boots, javelin ... all of it."[188] However, due to climate complete knightly armour not as common as in Europe and in fact Songhai Askia Bano died of suffocation.[189]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Knights: "The princes of Black Africa who could afford to outfitted themselves in complete or partial armor like that of the knights of the Western Middle Ages."[190] "coat of mail and iron breastplate, helmet, boots, javelin ... all of it."[191] However, due to climate complete knightly armour not as common as in Europe and in fact Songhai Askia Bano died of suffocation.[192] 1000-1650 CE period: "body armor was rare. Among the cavalry empires of the Sahel and sudan, quilted horse and body armor were common but plate was rarely used."[193]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ Songhay Empire: Askia Muhammad created a full-time navy on the Niger. Before him Sunni Ali had "Niger boatmen in his amateur military system."[194]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred present ♥ Fleet Abubakari II? Songhay Empire: Askia Muhammad created a full-time navy on the Niger. Before him Sunni Ali had "Niger boatmen in his amateur military system."[195]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ mud-walled towns [196] Djenne had been "fortified by a system of ramparts, with a variable number of guarded gates. A fortified city was called a tata."[197]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥ mud-walled towns [198]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ mud-walled towns [199]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ inferred present ♥ The independence of the judiciary: "A judge's house and a mosque were inviolable sanctuaries. The cadi could with impunity admonish the king; to the princes, he was the respected intercessor whose words were heeded."[200]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ inferred present ♥ non-Muslim people in the countryside, people of the towns (i.e. merchant class?). Songhai Empire period: "Askia Muhammad made a sharp break with the religious and family traditions of the Sunni line of rulers. He based his power firmly on the towns, and, in line with this, ruled as a strict Muslim."[201]
♠ Impeachment ♣ inferred absent ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Especially from Songhay Askia the Great: "the rise of the 'king's men' ... appointed officials who were not members of the 'big families', and who were loyal only to the king their master."[202] So this period present? Top officials in Niani were mostly "noblemen" from aristocratic families.[203]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown: 1235-1311ce; present: 1312-1410ce ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawhid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [204]

"Like the Europeans of the Middle Ages (AD 600-1350), Africans lived in an 'age of faith'. They believed, in short, that political authority came not from men or women but from God and the spirits. Those who exercised power on earth could do so, in other words, only if they were accepted as speaking and acting with the good will of their departed ancestors, who, in turn, were their protectors and helpers in the world of the spirits. Rulers could only rule if they were spiritually appointed to do so; and their subjects obeyed them not simply from respect for the king's power and law, but also for reasons of religion."[205]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown: 1235-1311ce; absent: 1312-1410ce ♥ Islam is monotheistic [206]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown: 1235-1311ce; present: 1312-1410ce ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[207]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown: 1235-1311ce; present: 1312-1410ce ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[208]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown: 1235-1311ce; present: 1312-1410ce ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[209]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown: 1235-1311ce; present: 1312-1410ce ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [210] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [211]

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown: 1235-1311ce; present: 1312-1410ce ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [212]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent_to_present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [213] [214] [215]

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