MlJeJe2

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Enrico Cioni ♥ General description written by EC.

♠ Original name ♣ Jenne-jeno II ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Jenne-jeno Phase II; Djoboro; Do-Dojobor; Zoboro; Old Jenne; Djenne-jeno ♥ Djoboro[1], Do-Dojobor and Zoboro. [2] Jenne-jeno ("Old Jenne"; Djenne-jeno) [3]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 399 CE ♥

"Jenne-jeno's floruit: 450-1100 C.E."[4]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 50-399 CE ♥

Phase II: 50-400 CE[5]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥

There is no evidence of a hierarchical social system and centralized control[6]

Jenne-jeno was "a large, complex, but non-coercive urban settlement."[7] "the demands of specialization pushed groups apart while the requirements of a generalized economy pulled them together ... created a dynamism that ensured growth and the establishment of urban settlements. And they were non-coercive settlements. Groups congregated by choice. This is an instance of transformation from a rural to an urban society that did not establish a hierarchical society and coercive centralized control... The process in the delta and at Jenne-jeno in particular, was one of 'complexification' rather than centralization."[8]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥ unknown

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Jenne-jeno I ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuation ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Jenne-jeno III ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Sahel Tell Culture ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [1,500,000-2,500,000] ♥ km squared. "Permanent settlement in the delta, resulting in the formation of tells (large mounds consisting of the accumulated remains of ancient settlements), was initiated by people who entered the region during the last 500 years BC. They made pottery similar to that found at earlier sites along the southern fringe of the Sahara, suggesting that the immigrants were part of a southward movement of herders, fishermen, and cultivators that began with the accelerating desiccation of the Sahara and Sahel regions around 2000 BC."[9]

♠ Capital ♣ ♥


♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

The archaeological site of Jenne-jeno (or Djenné-djenno) is a mound located in the Niger Inland Delta, a region of West Africa just south of the Sahara and part of modern-day Mali, characterized by lakes and floodplains. It was continuously inhabited between 250 BCE and 1400 CE. 'Jenne-jeno II' refers to the period from 50 to 400 CE. During this time, the site's inhabitants fished, gathered wild plants, hunted, and cultivated rice (as well as millet and sorghum). They also made and used pottery, and smelted, smithed and used iron, though they probably imported the raw material for the latter from far afield.[10]

Population and political organization

It appears that the heterarchical organization that characterized Jenne-jeno in later times developed during this period.[11] As for population, it is unclear how many people were living at Jenne-jeno or at the surrounding sites at this time, but a relatively rapid demographic increase is also likely.[12]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [800-1200] ♥ in squared kilometers

Al Sa'di's describes the territory of Jenne as "from Lake Debo in the north to the Volta Bend in the south, and borders on the Bandiagara highlands to the east. It is not clear whether Jenne's territory was defined by political suzerainty, economic domination, or some other means entirely."[13]

1,100 square kilometer hinterland [14]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [2000-3000] ♥ People. No evidence for hierarchical levels so the average quasi-polity unlikely to be more than one or two settlements. If largest settlement had a population about 1500 (150 per ha for 10 hectares) and we allow for some coordination with this settlement and some smaller outlying settlements then the largest quasi-polity may have been 2000-3000 people.

Sahel states = Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad. "Before the introduction of agriculture and animal husbandry the population of the area of the present-day Sahel states is unlikely to have exceeded 50,000: once pastoralism and agriculture had become well-established the population can hardly have been less than half a million. The chronology of the transition is as yet totally obscure, but there is no reason to postulate anything above the 50,000 line before 3000 BC or place the achievement of the half million later than 1000 BC. From this latter point a low rate of increase is all that is needed to bring the total to 1m by AD 1 and 2m by AD 1000." [15]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [500-2000] ♥ Inhabitants. An estimated 2000 inhabitants at 200 per ha for 10 hectares.

Estimate hectare size phase II:

settlement size "possibly exceeding 10 hectares" [16]
1977 archaeological investigation established the 3rd century BCE date and showed that by the eighth-ninth century it had become "an urban center of considerable proportions" [17]

Estimated hectare size early phase III:

"by 450 C.E., the settlement had expanded to at least 25 hectares (over 60 acres)."[18]

Estimate size at height phase III/phase IV:

"The total surface area of Jenne-jeno and its satellites was 69 hectares; the total population when most densely occupied approached 27,000."[19]
"At its most densely populated (around AD 800) Jenne-jeno housed up to 27,000 people.[20]
33 hectares. 9 hectare Hambarketolo connects to Jenne-jeno via an earthern dike. [21] this maximum area extent by 900-1000 CE[22]
"During this time, the settlement continued to grow, reaching its maximum area of 33 hectares by 850 C.E. We know that this is so because sherds of the distinctive painted pottery that was produced at Jenne-jeno only between 450-850 C.E. are present in all our excavation units, even those near the edge of the mound. And we find them at the neighboring mound of Hambarketolo, too, suggesting that these two connected sites totaling 41 hectares (100 acres) functioned as part of a single town complex (Pl. 4). [23]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 2 ♥ levels.

1. Larger village (perhaps exceeding 10 ha, or up to 2000 people)

2. Smaller village

"people were kept apart by virtue of their occupations and their ethnic identities. Sedentary communities, though clustered were dispersed."[24]

"Sudanic societies were built on small agricultural villages or herding communities, sometimes but not always integrated into larger tribal and linguistic groups." [25]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels.

There is no evidence of a hierarchical social system[26] Jenne-jeno was "a large, complex, but non-coercive urban settlement."[27] "the demands of specialization pushed groups apart while the requirements of a generalized economy pulled them together ... created a dynamism that ensured growth and the establishment of urban settlements. And they were non-coercive settlements. Groups congregated by choice. This is an instance of transformation from a rural to an urban society that did not establish a hierarchical society and coercive centralized control... The process in the delta and at Jenne-jeno in particular, was one of 'complexification' rather than centralization."[28]

Clan

(General reference for West African states) "the basic social and political unit appears in the past to have been the small local group, bound together by ties of kinship. When a number of groups came together they formed a clan. The heads of local clans were usually responsible for certain religious rites connected with the land." [29]

Kinship group

(General reference for West African states) "the basic social and political unit appears in the past to have been the small local group, bound together by ties of kinship. When a number of groups came together they formed a clan. The heads of local clans were usually responsible for certain religious rites connected with the land." [30]


In West Africa "Early states were simple in their government ... Some were ruled by a single chief or king and his counsellors. Others were governed by a council of chiefs or elders. Others again were formed by several neighbouring peoples whose chiefs were bound in loyalty to one another. Elsewhere, at the same time, there were people who found it better to get along without any chiefs."[31]

"Traditional groups such as clans ... or age-sets of people born at about the same time, had influence in these early states, as in later times, because they could underpin a system of law and order."[32]

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

At Jenne-jeno no evidence of "social ranking or authoritarian institutions such as a 'temple elite' has been found.[33]

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ suspected unknown ♥ At Jenne-jeno no evidence of "social ranking or authoritarian institutions such as a 'temple elite' has been found.[34]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ suspected unknown ♥ At Jenne-jeno no evidence of "social ranking or authoritarian institutions such as a 'temple elite' has been found.[35]

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ suspected unknown♥

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ absent ♥ 50-400 CE West African rice (Oryza glaberrima) domesticated. [36] While, "Archaeological evidence affirms that the building of terraces and irrigation canals in sub-Saharan Africa pre-dates external influence..." [37] in this time period they are unlikely, and in the Inland Delta region unnecessary due to the annual inundation of the Niger river. Domesticated rice planted before the flood grows high enough to sprout above the flood waters.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥ iron mining[38] stone quarries, copper mines [39] Iron Age from 600 BCE in West Africa (e.g. Benue valley in Nigeria and upper Niger River) "the development and spread of the basic technologies of metal production and the forging and smithing of metal tools, notably in iron."[40]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ oral tradition sources. [41]
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ "There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [42] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events."[43] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao.[44]
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥ "There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [45] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events."[46] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao.[47]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ "There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [48] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events."[49] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao.[50]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ "There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [51] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events."[52] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao.[53]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥ "There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [54] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events."[55] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao.[56]
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥ "There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [57] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events."[58] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao.[59]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥ "There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [60] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events."[61] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao.[62]
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥ "There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [63] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events."[64] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao.[65]
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥ "There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [66] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events."[67] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao.[68]
♠ History ♣ absent ♥ "There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [69] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events."[70] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao.[71]
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥ "There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [72] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events."[73] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao.[74]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥ "There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [75] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events."[76] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao.[77]
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred absent ♥ "There are no written records of any description to throw light on the history of West Africa before 900 A.D." [78] "The West Africans who laid the foundations of their medieval empires during the centuries before 900 C.E. did not develop a written language they could use to record historical events."[79] Oldest example of writing in West Africa c1100 CE tomb inscription at Gao.[80]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥ barter economy and no professional merchants. "The non-essential items and foreign durables found at sites remote from their point of origin were traded from village to village, in relays, as part of what was certainly a vigorous trade in essential goods between local centres." [81]
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥ These codes were developed at Seshat archaeological Workshops in Oxford, 2014 and 2017

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥
♠ Iron ♣ [absent; present] ♥ Iron Age from 600 BCE in West Africa (e.g. Benue valley in Nigeria and upper Niger River) "the development and spread of the basic technologies of metal production and the forging and smithing of metal tools, notably in iron."[82] "Iron-headed hoes, probably invented some time after iron-pointed spears."[83] "Iron also brought, from about 600 BC onwards, a new source of military power."[84]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ [absent; present] ♥ weapons: "clubs, bows and arrows, and spears" however they were most often used to acquire food [85]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥
♠ Slings ♣ absent ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ [absent; present] ♥ weapons: "clubs, bows and arrows, and spears" however they were most often used to acquire food [86]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ weapons: "clubs, bows and arrows, and spears" however they were most often used to acquire food [87]
♠ Battle axes ♣ absent ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ absent ♥
♠ Swords ♣ absent ♥
♠ Spears ♣ absent ♥
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ absent ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ absent ♥
♠ Shields ♣ absent ♥
♠ Helmets ♣ absent ♥
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ absent ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥


Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ absent ♥ no evidence of "external threats to Jenne-jeno" [88]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ absent ♥ no evidence of "external threats to Jenne-jeno" [89]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ absent ♥ no evidence of "external threats to Jenne-jeno" [90]
♠ Ditch ♣ absent ♥ no evidence of "external threats to Jenne-jeno" [91]
♠ Moat ♣ absent ♥ no evidence of "external threats to Jenne-jeno" [92]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ no evidence of "external threats to Jenne-jeno" [93]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ no citadel[94]
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ inferred absent ♥ Jenne-Jeno in its most developed phase after 900 CE probably had authority "shared amongst many corporate groups rather than being the monopoly of a charismatic individual (in Weber's sense) or of one bureaucratic lineage"[95] so before 900 CE any administrative organization would unlikely have been more developed than this. At this early time it appears there may have been virtually no executive (no kingship), but since formal government institutions are not reflected in the archaeology we can say that whatever did exist was not held back by government.
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ inferred present ♥ Jenne-Jeno in its most developed phase after 900 CE probably had authority "shared amongst many corporate groups rather than being the monopoly of a charismatic individual (in Weber's sense) or of one bureaucratic lineage"[96] so before 900 CE any administrative organization would unlikely have been more developed than this. At this early time it appears there may have been virtually no executive (no kingship), and since formal government institutions are not reflected in the archaeology we can say that whatever did exist was not held back by government. Therefore we can infer that the lack of executive was due to constraint by non-government.
♠ Impeachment ♣ absent ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Agathe Dupreyon; Edward A L Turner ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ NOTE: The following quote, previously used to justify an "inferred present" code, does not clearly and explicitly refer to the exact time period in question, and is written by a non-specialist (EC). In West Africa "What emerges from the records of research, centrally, is that all these peoples awarded supreme power to an idea of God as controlling everything and everyone, but doing this indirectly through subordinate spiritual powers. From this governing concept they derived ... a ruling morality for everyday life: the power of God, they held, would always reward right behaviour and punish wrong behaviour."[97] "Like the Europeans of the Middle Ages (AD 600-1350), Africans lived in an 'age of faith'. They believed, in short, that political authority came not from men or women but from God and the spirits. Those who exercised power on earth could do so, in other words, only if they were accepted as speaking and acting with the good will of their departed ancestors, who, in turn, were their protectors and helpers in the world of the spirits. Rulers could only rule if they were spiritually appointed to do so; and their subjects obeyed them not simply from respect for the king's power and law, but also for reasons of religion."[98]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ NOTE: The following quote, previously used to justify an "inferred present" code, does not clearly and explicitly refer to the exact time period in question, and is written by a non-specialist (EC). In West Africa "What emerges from the records of research, centrally, is that all these peoples awarded supreme power to an idea of God as controlling everything and everyone, but doing this indirectly through subordinate spiritual powers. From this governing concept they derived ... a ruling morality for everyday life: the power of God, they held, would always reward right behaviour and punish wrong behaviour."[99]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥ NOTE: The following quote, previously used to justify an "[absent; present]" code, does not clearly and explicitly refer to the exact time period in question, and is written by a non-specialist (EC). In West Africa "What emerges from the records of research, centrally, is that all these peoples awarded supreme power to an idea of God as controlling everything and everyone, but doing this indirectly through subordinate spiritual powers. From this governing concept they derived ... a ruling morality for everyday life: the power of God, they held, would always reward right behaviour and punish wrong behaviour."[100]

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [101] [102] [103]

References

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  4. (Susan Keech McIntosh and Roderick J. McIntosh "Jenne-jeno, an ancient African city" http://anthropology.rice.edu/Content.aspx?id=500)
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