MlBaman

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Bamana kingdom ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Segou kingdom; Segou state ♥ [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1800 CE ♥ 1712-1755; 1766-1790; 1792-1808 Biton Coulibaly (1712-1755), Ngolo Diarra (1766-1790) are both described as "strong figures", exceptions in a sequence of weak rulers; and Monson Diarra (1792-1808), too, "made the power of Segu felt from San to Timbuktu and from the land of the Dogon to Kaarta"[2].


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1712-1861 CE ♥ The polity was founded by Biton Coulibaly in 1712[3], and was engulfed by the Toucouleur kingdom in 1861[4].

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥ [5]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Segou Kingdom ♥ [6]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ Biton Coulibaly, founder of the Bamana kingdom, is traditionally believed to have descended from the Segu kingdom's rulers, and, even if this were not true, he belonged to their same ethnic group, the Bamana or Bambara[7].
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Toucouleur Kingdom ♥ [8]
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Kaarta ♥ "The Bambara established two major military kingdoms at Segou and Kaarta".[9]

1712-1766: Segu-Koro; 1766-1861: Segu-Si-Koro. Ngolo Diarra, who ruled between 1766 and 1790, moved the capital from Segu-Koro to Segu-Si-Koro, though the source does not provide an exact year[10].

♠ Language ♣ Bambara ♥ Inferred from the name (Bambara and Bamana mean the same thing)[11].

General Description

The Bamana Kingdom was founded in 1712 by Biton Kulibali[12] and became part of the Tukulor (or Toucouleur) empire in 1861, when El Hajj Umar Tall seized the capital, Segu.[13] This polity derives its name from its dominant ethnic group,[14] and because an alternative name for this group is 'Bambara', some sources will refer to the 'Bambara kingdom'.[15] Because this was not the only Bambara kingdom at the time, it is often known as the Bambara Kingdom of Segu, from the name of its capital. French spellings of some of these names are also commonly found in the literature ‒ for example, Kulibali is sometimes spelled Coulibaly and Segu is sometimes spelled Segou.[16]
The kingdom was located in the Niger Bend, in West Africa. Between 1725 and 1751, under Biton's leadership, the Bamana of Segu conquered the whole of Bamana territory (including the Beledugu region, Jenne, and Timbuktu), and took Niani, the capital of the Mali Empire.[17] After a series of weak successors, Ngolo Diarra (1766‒1790) strengthened the kingdom's hold over Timbuktu and Macina and conquered part of Dogon country.[18] The Bamana Kingdom reached its greatest size under the rule of Monson Diarra (1792‒1808), who extended Segu power from San to Timbuktu, and from the Land of the Dogons to Kaarta.[19]

Population and Political Organization

The Bamana kingdom was ruled by single leader, known as the faama, who also led the army and was advised by an assembly of 40 men, including warriors and holy men. This assembly was based on a pre-existing Bamana institution known as fla-n-ton or ton, that is, an association of young men who had undergone circumcision together. With exceptions like Biton Kulibali and Ngolo Diarra, it seems that most faama were weak and ineffectual, at the mercy of the assembly. Stronger rulers, however, were able to govern with few constraints.[20]
It is also worth noting that slavery was an important institution in the Bamana kingdom: the trade in slaves for guns and horses lay at the heart of the power of this nascent 'warrior-state'.[21]
No official population estimates could be found for the Bamana Kingdom. However, the kingdom covered about half the territory of modern Mali, Guinea and Senegal, and the total population of these three countries in 1960 was around 12 million.[22][23][24] No reference could be found to a population crash between 1800 and 1960, but demographic growth was probably slower in the 19th century than in the 20th century. The population of the Bamana Kingdom in 1800 may have numbered three or four million people.


Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [350,000-450,000] ♥ in squared kilometers

Spread between parts of modern day Mali, Guinea and Senegal in that order only just reaching the inland delta region.


♠ Polity Population ♣ [3,000,000-4,000,000] ♥ People.

Landlocked territory split between modern day Mali, Guinea and Senegal in that order only just reaching inland delta region.

We can place an upper limit at 11.5 million which was the population of Mali, Guinea and Senegal in 1960 (no reference to a population crash between 1800 and 1960). However, Bamana kingdom covered less than 50% territory of these countries, so we can halve this to 5.5 million upper limit. It is likely the population of this region grew between 1800 and 1960 but at a much slower rate than that achieved in modern times. A reasonable estimate could be between 3-4 million for 1800 CE.

Google data for population by country:

Mali population in 1960: 5 million
Senegal population in 1960: 3 million
Guinea population in 1960: 3.5 million.


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 30,000: 1796 CE ♥ Inhabitants. Scottish explorer Mungo Park estimated this to be the population of the capital when he visited it in 1796 [25].


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ levels. Lack of data. Estimate as with earlier polities.

1. Capital

2.
3.
4.


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels. No good data. However, administrative levels usually correlates with military levels so have used the military levels as an estimate.

1. Fama[26]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

Islam. Earlier polities coded 3.


♠ Military levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels. [27]

1. Fama

The polity leader.
2. Kèlè tigi
General, appointed by the Fama to lead the army when he could not lead it himself.
3. Tònjòn Kuntigi
One for each of the army's two "arms".
3. Other Tònjòn
The army's elite, which formed its "chest" and "feet" (the latter being a special reserve).
4. Other Tònjòn
The army's elite, which formed its "chest" and "feet" (the latter being a special reserve).
5. Kèlèbolow
The army's "arms", apparently made up entirely of simple soldiers.


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ [28]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ [29]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Islamic clergy [30].

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred present ♥ Islamic

♠ Judges ♣ inferred present ♥ Islamic

♠ Courts ♣ inferred present ♥ Islamic

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ At least one road, connecting Timbuktu and the port of Kabara on the Niger [31].
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Script ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ Used by government.
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Qur'an
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Islamic.
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred present ♥ Poetry.

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ present ♥ Cowrie shells [32].
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥ Gold.
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Military leaders wielded battle axes made of special metals, including copper [33].
♠ Bronze ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Iron ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Steel ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ Reference for pre-colonial West Africa: "conventional weapons (as opposed to firearms) continued to play an effective role in West African warfare until as late as the middle of the last century." (i.e. 19th century).[34] Reference for pre-colonial West Africa: throwing spears or javelin.[35]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ Reference for pre-colonial West African warfare: projectile weapons included the sling.[36]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Arrows.[37] Reference for pre-colonial West Africa: "conventional weapons (as opposed to firearms) continued to play an effective role in West African warfare until as late as the middle of the last century." (i.e. 19th century).[38] Reference for pre-colonial West Africa: self bows.[39] "The self or simple bow consists essentially of a bent stave of pliant wood and a bowstring of a sufficient elasticity. Most West African types may be characterized as shortbows, being from about two and a half to five feet in height ... however, Wilhelm Muller describes the war-bows which he saw in the Fetu country (near Elmina) in the mid-seventeenth century as being ... nearly six feet."[40] "Their effective range was some 50 to 75 yards, compared with some 250 yards for the longbow".[41] Present. Bow type not specified.[42]
♠ Composite bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Reference for pre-colonial West Africa: "conventional weapons (as opposed to firearms) continued to play an effective role in West African warfare until as late as the middle of the last century." (i.e. 19th century).[43] "In warfare bows and other missiles were mainly infantry weapons, as in Europe and the Middle East, but some cavalry - for example, that of the Oyo and of the nineteenth-century Adamawa - seem to have used bows, presumably shorter and more compact than those used by the infantry. Barth mentions seeing (to his surprise) a Borno archer on horseback, and both Benin and Yoruba sculpture show mounted archers."[44]
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred present ♥ Present but rarely used? Crossbow "was apparently in use among only a few of the forest peoples and seems to have been unknown in the savannah. No descriptions of this weapon have been found in the accounts of West African armament given by the early European and North African travellers, but a missionary report of a military review at Ijaye in 1861 refers to the carrying of 'great crossbows' by some of the troops".[45]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not in this period: "By the end of the eighteenth century, Mande blacksmiths were repairing imported firearms ... and in the nineteenth century Samory's smiths were able to copy the main types of weapons ... Modern breech-loading rifles reached West African markets during the 1870s".[46]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ present ♥ Blunderbusses.[47], flintlock muskets [48] On a very small scale in this period: "By the end of the eighteenth century, Mande blacksmiths were repairing imported firearms ... and in the nineteenth century Samory's smiths were able to copy the main types of weapons ... Modern breech-loading rifles reached West African markets during the 1870s".[49] "By the end of the eighteenth century, Mande blacksmiths were repairing imported firearms".[50] According to the Kano Chronicle muskets introduced in the early eighteenth century.[51] Firearms first introduced into West Africa "on a very small scale" in the 15th century.[52] By the end of the 17th century firearms "had been widely adopted on the Gold and Slave Coasts, were beginning to penetrate the forest states, and had reached Borno, Hausaland and elsewhere in the Sudan."[53]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Reference for pre-colonial West Africa: "conventional weapons (as opposed to firearms) continued to play an effective role in West African warfare until as late as the middle of the last century." (i.e. 19th century).[54] Reference for pre-colonial West African warfare: "Among shock weapons, those decisive instruments in war, were the sword, club, lance, dagger, and fighting bracelet."[55]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ Reference for pre-colonial West Africa: "conventional weapons (as opposed to firearms) continued to play an effective role in West African warfare until as late as the middle of the last century." (i.e. 19th century).[56] Present.[57] Is there any more detail for this reference - for example, is it specific for this polity?
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Reference for pre-colonial West Africa: "conventional weapons (as opposed to firearms) continued to play an effective role in West African warfare until as late as the middle of the last century." (i.e. 19th century).[58] "Apart from swords, the warriors of West Africa carried a variety of similar but shorter weapons for stabbing, including European-style daggers."[59]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Swords.[60] Reference for pre-colonial West African warfare: "Among shock weapons, those decisive instruments in war, were the sword, club, lance, dagger, and fighting bracelet."[61] Carried by military leaders.[62]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Reference for pre-colonial West Africa: "conventional weapons (as opposed to firearms) continued to play an effective role in West African warfare until as late as the middle of the last century." (i.e. 19th century).[63] "the lance was an integral and in some cases the major part of the weaponry of West African cavalry."[64] Carried by military leaders.[65] Carried by military leaders [66]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Reference for pre-colonial West Africa: "conventional weapons (as opposed to firearms) continued to play an effective role in West African warfare until as late as the middle of the last century." (i.e. 19th century).[67]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in discussion of "Horses and other animals used in war" for pre-colonial West Africa.[68]
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ "As well as horses, there was some use of camels by the armies of the West and Central Sudan. ... They supplanted, or more probably supplemented, the droves of oxen, ponies, mules, and donkeys previously used for transport in Borno ..."[69]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Horses.[70] "After the Moroccans defeated Songhay, others, for example, the Bambara, began to adopt Moroccan fighting methods (Abitbol 1992, 312)." This included making greater use of cavalry.[71] "In warfare bows and other missiles were mainly infantry weapons, as in Europe and the Middle East, but some cavalry - for example, that of the Oyo and of the nineteenth-century Adamawa - seem to have used bows, presumably shorter and more compact than those used by the infantry. Barth mentions seeing (to his surprise) a Borno archer on horseback, and both Benin and Yoruba sculpture show mounted archers."[72]
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "As well as horses, there was some use of camels by the armies of the West and Central Sudan. ... They supplanted, or more probably supplemented, the droves of oxen, ponies, mules, and donkeys previously used for transport in Borno ... Camels were also well-adapted to scouting and skirmishing in the desert and semi-desert parts of the region as well as to carrying baggage ..."[73] Mercenaries?: "the desert Taureg were sought-after allies in the wars of the Sudan."[74] Seems unlikely, unless used as mercenaries.
♠ Elephants ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in discussion of "Horses and other animals used in war" for pre-colonial West Africa.[75]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ Reference for pre-colonial West Africa: at least until the introduction of firearms cavalry and infantry used shields which could be made from "hide, wood, and basketwork" and sometimes also covered in copper plate (Gold Coast region).[76]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ "Armour was apparently little used in the Western Sudan, though the Mossi cavalry for protective purposes assumed as much clothing as possible and provided leather and copper shields for the vulnerable parts of their mounts."[77] "In the late sixteenth century the Wolof cavalry were described as wearing a form of armour made from twisted cotton cloth which was resistant to arrows and spear thrusts."[78] Padded clothing.[79]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ "Armour was apparently little used in the Western Sudan, though the Mossi cavalry for protective purposes assumed as much clothing as possible and provided leather and copper shields for the vulnerable parts of their mounts."[80] Reference for pre-colonial West Africa: at least until the introduction of firearms cavalry and infantry used shields.[81]
♠ Helmets ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Armour was apparently little used in the Western Sudan".[82]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Armour was apparently little used in the Western Sudan".[83]
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Armour was apparently little used in the Western Sudan".[84]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥ "No reliable tradition of the manufacture or systematic repair of mail seems to be preserved in West Africa, and it can be assumed that the whole supply came from outside the region."[85] Imported by Kanem during the 13th CE (Dunama Dibalemi) and by Mali in the 14th CE (Mansa Musa). According to tradition quilted and mail armour was first introduced by Sarki Kanajeji (c.1390-1410)."[86]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Armour was apparently little used in the Western Sudan".[87]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Armour was apparently little used in the Western Sudan".[88]
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Armour was apparently little used in the Western Sudan".[89]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ Founder of the Bambara Empire, Mamary Coulibaly, used war canoes to fight and patrol the Niger River.[90] Reference for pre-colonial West African warfare: "Mobility was provided by the horse and other animals and by the canoe".[91] Reference for pre-colonial West Africa: The largest dug-out canoes could carry 100 men as well as their provisions. Others carried a few men, or a couple of dozen.[92]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred absent ♥ Landlocked state.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ Reference for pre-colonial African warfare: some towns were strategically sited.[93]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ Reference for pre-colonial African warfare: in the 16th century the Kano people used stockades. There are other/later examples of palisades.[94] Reference for pre-colonial African warfare: "stockades (or palisades) were perhaps nearly as common, sometimes combined with walls, sometimes as the main defence."[95]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ Reference for pre-colonial African warfare: mud walls often surrounded towns.[96] Reference for pre-colonial African warfare: "The formation of a fortified camp, distinct from the parent town or towns, was usually the first step taken by a West African army when it advanced into the field. ... the leaders were sheltered by tents or by walls of matting while the soldiers slept under such shelter as they could find... But on arrival at the point chosen by the commander as the base of operations, the practice was to throw up an earthern wall surrounded by a ditch (the excavation from which the wall had been built)."[97]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ Reference for pre-colonial African warfare: "The formation of a fortified camp, distinct from the parent town or towns, was usually the first step taken by a West African army when it advanced into the field. ... the leaders were sheltered by tents or by walls of matting while the soldiers slept under such shelter as they could find... But on arrival at the point chosen by the commander as the base of operations, the practice was to throw up an earthern wall surrounded by a ditch (the excavation from which the wall had been built)."[98]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Closest relevant data: in the 19th century the Yoruba capital Ketu had double walls and a moat.[99]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Closest relevant data: the capital of the Hausa kingdom of Kebbi, Surame, had "substantial" stone walls.[100]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Closest relevant data: the capital of the Hausa kingdom of Kebbi, Surame, had "substantial" stone walls.[101]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred present ♥ Reference for pre-colonial African warfare: "The formation of a fortified camp, distinct from the parent town or towns, was usually the first step taken by a West African army when it advanced into the field. ... the leaders were sheltered by tents or by walls of matting while the soldiers slept under such shelter as they could find... But on arrival at the point chosen by the commander as the base of operations, the practice was to throw up an earthern wall surrounded by a ditch (the excavation from which the wall had been built)."[102] Present.[103]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Closest relevant data: in the 19th century the Yoruba capital Ketu had double walls and a moat.[104]
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ inferred absent ♥ Siege cannon not established in this period.

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred present: 1712-1766 CE; suspected unknown: 1767-1861 CE ♥ Coulibaly dynasty (relatives of the founder) until 1766 when a slave took the throne.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred present ♥ "[T]he Bamana Fama, as Person explains, was connected to supernatural forces which assured the order of the world. The great leaders of Segu had divine intervention, protecting them so that they could attain their destinies." [105] "A Segou faama could not govern without control of the four great boliw, which were critical to the acquisition and maintenance of political power." [106] Boliw were "portable altars used in ritual sacrifice" [107].

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ inferred absent ♥ In the mythology surrounding the origin of the Bamana empire, Biton, the polity's founder, is born from mortals - the spirits merely choose him to be a leader among humans [108].

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Bamana society is organized into a rigidly hierarchical system of endogamous groups often called 'castes.' Bamana nobles are the highest ranking of these siw, or 'races,' which consist of nobles, blacksmith/sculptors, bards, leatherworkers, and satirical comics, in descending order. Traditionally, the nobles considered that they were different from numuw (blacksmith/sculptors) or jeliw (bards) because these groups never touched the hoe or engaged in the 'pure' task of cultivating the land, but relied on donations of grain for survival." [109] "Social stratification is a characteristic of all Manding groups including the Bambara, though the distinctions between classes are not as clear now as they were precolonially. One way of describing the hierarchy in its most traditional form is to say it consisted of a large base of slaves (jonw), above which were the occupationally defined, endogamous groups (nyamakalaw) which included bards or griots (/e/nú), blacksmiths (numuw) and other artisans. Above the artisans, though rarely mentioned by writers as part of the hierarchy, were two categories of Muslim clerics or marabouts (moriw).Standing outside the lineage structure of the highest classes but not restricted to endogamy like the nyamakalaw, the marabouts filled a specialized role analogous to the artisanal specialties of the latter.//The upper levels of society were comprised of lineages and sublineages of those who were proprietors of the land and leaders of the people. Some of these families traced their descent from the traditional ancestor and were thereby eligible to become chiefs, while others could not ordinarily make any such claim. Examples of the latter include families with an ancestor of unknown origin adopted into the lineage, or with a slave ancestor who had been gradually assimilated into the lineage over many generations." [110]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Bamana society is organized into a rigidly hierarchical system of endogamous groups often called 'castes.' Bamana nobles are the highest ranking of these siw, or 'races,' which consist of nobles, blacksmith/sculptors, bards, leatherworkers, and satirical comics, in descending order. Traditionally, the nobles considered that they were different from numuw (blacksmith/sculptors) or jeliw (bards) because these groups never touched the hoe or engaged in the 'pure' task of cultivating the land, but relied on donations of grain for survival." [111] "Social stratification is a characteristic of all Manding groups including the Bambara, though the distinctions between classes are not as clear now as they were precolonially. One way of describing the hierarchy in its most traditional form is to say it consisted of a large base of slaves (jonw), above which were the occupationally defined, endogamous groups (nyamakalaw) which included bards or griots (/e/nú), blacksmiths (numuw) and other artisans. Above the artisans, though rarely mentioned by writers as part of the hierarchy, were two categories of Muslim clerics or marabouts (moriw).Standing outside the lineage structure of the highest classes but not restricted to endogamy like the nyamakalaw, the marabouts filled a specialized role analogous to the artisanal specialties of the latter.//The upper levels of society were comprised of lineages and sublineages of those who were proprietors of the land and leaders of the people. Some of these families traced their descent from the traditional ancestor and were thereby eligible to become chiefs, while others could not ordinarily make any such claim. Examples of the latter include families with an ancestor of unknown origin adopted into the lineage, or with a slave ancestor who had been gradually assimilated into the lineage over many generations." [112]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Bamana society is organized into a rigidly hierarchical system of endogamous groups often called 'castes.' Bamana nobles are the highest ranking of these siw, or 'races,' which consist of nobles, blacksmith/sculptors, bards, leatherworkers, and satirical comics, in descending order. Traditionally, the nobles considered that they were different from numuw (blacksmith/sculptors) or jeliw (bards) because these groups never touched the hoe or engaged in the 'pure' task of cultivating the land, but relied on donations of grain for survival." [113] "Social stratification is a characteristic of all Manding groups including the Bambara, though the distinctions between classes are not as clear now as they were precolonially. One way of describing the hierarchy in its most traditional form is to say it consisted of a large base of slaves (jonw), above which were the occupationally defined, endogamous groups (nyamakalaw) which included bards or griots (/e/nú), blacksmiths (numuw) and other artisans. Above the artisans, though rarely mentioned by writers as part of the hierarchy, were two categories of Muslim clerics or marabouts (moriw).Standing outside the lineage structure of the highest classes but not restricted to endogamy like the nyamakalaw, the marabouts filled a specialized role analogous to the artisanal specialties of the latter.//The upper levels of society were comprised of lineages and sublineages of those who were proprietors of the land and leaders of the people. Some of these families traced their descent from the traditional ancestor and were thereby eligible to become chiefs, while others could not ordinarily make any such claim. Examples of the latter include families with an ancestor of unknown origin adopted into the lineage, or with a slave ancestor who had been gradually assimilated into the lineage over many generations." [114]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ "Among the Bamana of Segou, the colonial administrator and author Louis Tauxier informs us that Ramadhan and Tabaski consisted of rituals and sacrifices devoted to the ancestors and were performed at the entryway to family compounds. The offerings, made in the name of Allah and/or the ancestors, were then distributed to children and the poor. For Tauxier, this was evidence that traditional Bamana sacrifice, where an offering was shared and consumed by the petitioner or priest and a spiritual entity, was being transformed into the Islamic act of almsgiving or saraka (from the Arabic, sadaqa), a religious obligation incumbent upon all Muslims during Ramadhan and Tabaski (Tauxier 1927:188-193, 459)." [115]

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [116] [117] [118]

References

  1. S.C. Brett-Smith, Bamana Identity, State Formation, and the Sources of Bamana Art (2002), in american Anthropologist 104(3): 939-952
  2. M. Izard and J. Ki-Zerbo, From the Niger to the Volta, in B.A. Ogot (ed), General History of Africa, vol. 5: Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries (1992), pp. 327-367
  3. S.C. Brett-Smith, Bamana Identity, State Formation, and the Sources of Bamana Art (2002), in american Anthropologist 104(3): 939-952
  4. (Oloruntimehin 1972, 141) B. Olofunmilayo Oloruntimehin. 1972. The Segu Tukulor Empire. London: Longman.
  5. M. Izard and J. Ki-Zerbo, From the Niger to the Volta, in B.A. Ogot (ed), General History of Africa, vol. 5: Africa from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries (1992), pp. 327-367
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