MaSaadi

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Saadi Sultanate ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Saadi Dynasty ♥ [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1578-1603 CE ♥ Morocco conquered the Niger Inland Delta in 1591[2] The reign of Ahmad Al-Mansur was characterised by internal stability, greater prosperity (due to the revival of the sugar industry), lack of external threat (due to Morocco's decisive victory against Portugal in the Battle of the Three Kings in 1578), and territorial expansion (most notably, in the Niger Inland Delta)[3]. Moreover, at this time a number of prominent Islamic scholars produced important works--most notably, Ahmad Baba wrote a collection of biographies on medieval Islamic scholars, and a seminal legal treaty on legal issues surrounding slavery[4].


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1554-1659 CE ♥ 1554 is the year that the whole of Morocco was united under the rule of the Saadi--previously, it had been divided between the latter and the Wattasid-Marinid dynasty--while 1659 is the year the last Saadi ruler was assassinated[5].

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥ [6]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Principality of Saadi ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ In core region, Morocco, preceding polity was the Principality of Saadi.
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Alaouite Dynasty ♥ In core region, Morocco, were succeeded by Alaouite Dynasty.
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Arabic; Islamic ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [4,500,000-5,000,000] ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Marrakesh ♥ [7]


♠ Language ♣ Arabic; Berber; Spanish; Portuguese ♥ [8]

General Description

This polity represents the period in which Morocco was ruled by the Saadi dynasty. Although the dynasty itself was founded in 1511 CE, we date the beginning of the polity to 1554, when the Saadis took Fez from their dynastic rivals, the Wattasids, and united Morocco under their rule. As for the polity's end, it seems most appropriate to date it to 1659, the year the last Saadi monarch was assassinated. Between 1554 and 1591, the boundaries of the Saadi Sultanate coincided with those of modern-day Morocco. Between 1591 and 1618, the Saadi also ruled over the Niger Inland Delta, though their control over this area seems to have been nominal. After the death of Sultan Ahmad Al-Mansur in 1603, the polity entered a period of instability that ultimately led to the loss of their Niger colony.[9]

Population and political organization

In the 16th and 17th centuries CE, the Saadis ruled through an Ottoman-style hierarchical regime.[10] Atop this hierarchy stood the sultan, followed by the wazir or vizier, usually the crown prince. Then came the sultan's council, headed by the First Secretary, who fulfilled the roles of secretary of state, majordomo and treasurer. The vice-vizier was in charge of the army and the qadi al-qudat (chief religious judge) headed the judiciary and appointed regional qadis.
The Saadi Sultanate is likely to have had a population of no more than 3 million at its peak. This is based on the earliest available population estimate for Morocco, which dates to the 20th century. According to García-Arenal, '[t]he figure can hardly have been higher in the late sixteenth century or during the seventeenth, given that the country was subject to regular and devastating epidemics of plague'.[11] However, it is worth noting that this estimate does not take into account the population of the Niger Inland Delta.



Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 447,000: 1554-1591 CE; 476,000: 1591-1618 CE; 447,000: 1618-1659 CE ♥ in squared kilometers. 446,550: 1554-1591 CE; 476,000: 1591-1618 CE; 446,500: 1618-1659 CE. For the period before the conquest of the Niger Inland Delta, the Sultanate's limits "coincide[d] with the borders of the present-day Morocco"[12]. For the period between 1591 and 1618, the area of the Niger Inland Delta is added. Once the Sultanate lost control of the Delta, it is inferred that it returned to covering more or less the same area of modern-day Morocco.

♠ Polity Population ♣ [2,000,000-3,000,000] ♥ People. 1591-1618: no data. [2,000,000-3,000,000]: 1554-1591 CE; [2,000,000-3,000,000]: 1618-1659 CE. The figure of 3 million inhabitants corresponds to the earliest available population estimate for Morocco: this estimate dates to the early twentieth century, but "[t]he figure can hardly have been higher in the late sixteenth century or during the seventeenth, given that the country was subject to regular and devastating epidemics of plague"[13]. The population must have risen with the annexation of the Niger Inland Delta, but no demographic data could be found regarding the latter.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 125,000 ♥ Inhabitants. Estimate for Marrakesh in 1600 CE[14]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ levels.

1. Capital city

2. Provincial cities?
3. Towns?
4. Villages/hamlets?

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels.

1. Sultan

The Saadis had an Ottoman-style palace government ruled by a Sultan.[15]

_Central government_

2. Wazir
Also known as the viceroy, governor of Fez, crown prince, or vizir[16].
2. Sultan's council
Comprising the chancellor of the seal, the chancellor in charge of protocol and ceremony, one in charge of the Sultan's horses and camels, and one in charge of administration and division of rents and taxes[17]
3. bureaucrat in charge of rents inferred level
4. Scribe or sub-manager
3. bureaucrat in charge of taxes inferred level
4. Scribe or sub-manager inferred level
5. Tax collector[18]
2. First secretary
Head of Sultan's council, secretary of state, majordomo, treasurer[19]
2. Qadi al-qudat
The main qadi, head of the judiciary, whose task it was to assign qadis to different cities and regions[20].

Petty bureaucrats

Tax collectors, clerics, secretaries, and qadis[21].

_Regional government_

2.
3.
4.


♠ Religious levels ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

There were, apparently, three hierarchical levels in Sufi brotherhoods[22]:

1. Sheikh

2. Marabout
3. Novice

However, Sufi brotherhoods were only one aspect of Islamic practice in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Morocco[23], and indeed Islam does not technically have a priestly hierarchy[24].

♠ Military levels ♣ 6 ♥ levels.

1. Sultan

2. Sultan's personal guard
Mostly made up of Renegades[25]
2. Wazir
Also known as the viceroy, governor of Fez, crown prince, or vizir[26].
3. Vice-wazir
Directly supervised higher officers[27].
4. Higher officers
The sultan's other sons, brothers and relatives with command over the cavalry, firearm forces and the Sultan's personal guard[28].
5. Lesser officers
Not mentioned by sources but implied by the sources' mention of "higher officers"[29].
6. Regular soldiers

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ [30]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ [31]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Full-time specialists

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ Secretaries and clerics educated at state-funded Muslim madrassas[32].

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥ unknown

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥ unknown

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥


Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ Islamic law[33].

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Informal (Islamic scholars or 'ulama) and formal (qadi)[34].

♠ Courts ♣ inferred present ♥ Islamic courts?

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Islamic lawyers?

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Inferred from García-Arenal's[35] reference to the "irrigable lands of the Sous river".
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ For example, at Fez and Marrakesh[36].
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ For example, Agadir[37].

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ Silver and copper mines in the Saharan valleys[38].

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ For example, a copious epistolary literature[39].
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred present ♥ State bureaucracy.
♠ Calendar ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Koran, not mentioned by sources but inferred from the fact that the Saadi were Muslim[40].
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ "Muley Ahmad was a ‘modern’ monarch with an interest in novelties, from whatever source. In both European and Moroccan chronicles, he emerges as a man with an interest in knowledge, intellectually curious and with a well-trained memory. He received an extensive education in Islamic religious and secular sciences, including theology, law, poetry, grammar, lexicography, exegesis, geometry, arithmetics and algebra, and astronomy. "[41]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Ahmad Baba's treatises on Arabic grammar and the legality of slavery[42].
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Ahmad Baba's manuscript collecting biographical information on prominent medieval Islamic scholars[43].
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ There was an intellectual culture.
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ "Muley Ahmad was a ‘modern’ monarch with an interest in novelties, from whatever source. In both European and Moroccan chronicles, he emerges as a man with an interest in knowledge, intellectually curious and with a well-trained memory. He received an extensive education in Islamic religious and secular sciences, including theology, law, poetry, grammar, lexicography, exegesis, geometry, arithmetics and algebra, and astronomy. "[44]
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred present ♥ Al-Mansur secluded himself within his palace, even concealing himself behind a curtain when giving an audience. To placate religious leaders and maintain his standing as a sharif, he hosted large official ceremonies on the feast of Muhammad's birthday. These would include the recitation of poetry in honor of the prophet - and the sultan- along with generous gift-giving by the sultan. Al-Mansur was famous for his love of poetry and books. Though Marrakech was a Berber city, the Sa'adians welcomed Arab poetry and scholarship."[45]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥ After the conquest of Sudan, Elmansour decided to pay his administrators in metal (inferred gold) and dinars. Golden coins were minted everyday in front of his palace.[46]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ inferred present ♥ After the conquest of Sudan, Elmansour decided to pay his administrators in metal (inferred gold) and dinars. Golden coins were minted everyday in front of his palace.[47]
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Iron ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Steel ♣ inferred present ♥ Islamic polities in the West Mediterranean seem to have been well acquainted with fine steel: Al-Zuhri, writing in the 12th century CE, "said that Seville produces 'Indian steel'."[48]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Egypt at this time - the regime in the Morocco probably used weapons similar to those of its neighbours. We could also check - as yet unconsulted - references for Christians in contemporary Iberia who may have been used as mercenaries.
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred present ♥ Reference for 1456 CE siege of Ceuta (Marinid Sultanate): "Crossbowmen served with the crews to fire on the walls, forcing the Portuguese to shelter their own gun emplacements so that they could not target Moroccan positions as well."[49]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ present ♥ Low-calibre cannon.[50]. Reference for earlier polity in the region: "The battle of Ma'mura, in which the Portuguese naval and land forces were dealt a severe defeat, indicated that the Moroccan state was modernizing its military forces."[51] By the time of the 1456 CE siege of Ceuta the Marinids (earlier polity) "possessed a distinct, fulltime artillery corps."[52] "Morocco’s first foundry did not appear until the 1530s."[53]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ present ♥ Rifles and harquebuses.[54]. Sultanate of Banu Wattas (Wattasid Sultanate) in Morocco between 1465-1554 CE: "Then, in the 1490s, despite the belittling comments of European observers, we again get glimpses of Moroccan gunpowder weapons in action, starting with a mention by Africanus that the Wattasid Sultan installed 100 makhzan arquebusiers at Larache after the Graciosa campaign. ... Also, in Morocco’s deep south, beyond the reach of both Portuguese imperial order and Wattasid makhzan, Leo found a new development - the proliferation of firearms among tribes and polities who would submit to neither Lisbon nor Fez nor any other aspiring outside dominator."[55]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Egypt at this time[56] - the regime in the Morocco probably used weapons similar to those of its neighbours. We could also check - as yet unconsulted - references for Christians in contemporary Iberia who may have been used as mercenaries.
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Egypt at this time[57] - the regime in the Morocco probably used weapons similar to those of its neighbours. We could also check - as yet unconsulted - references for Christians in contemporary Iberia who may have been used as mercenaries.
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Egypt at this time[58] - the regime in the Morocco probably used weapons similar to those of its neighbours. We could also check - as yet unconsulted - references for Christians in contemporary Iberia who may have been used as mercenaries.
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Sabres[59].
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ 5 metres long[60].
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ [61]
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ [62]
♠ Elephants ♣ inferred absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Egypt at this time - the regime in the Morocco probably used weapons similar to those of its neighbours. We could also check - as yet unconsulted - references for Christians in contemporary Iberia who may have been used as mercenaries.
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ [63]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ [64]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Egypt at this time - the regime in the Morocco probably used weapons similar to those of its neighbours. We could also check - as yet unconsulted - references for Christians in contemporary Iberia who may have been used as mercenaries.
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ [65] 1000-1650 CE period: "Mail was common in North Africa among the Berbers and Moors."[66]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Egypt at this time - the regime in the Morocco probably used weapons similar to those of its neighbours. We could also check - as yet unconsulted - references for Christians in contemporary Iberia who may have been used as mercenaries.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Egypt at this time - the regime in the Morocco probably used weapons similar to those of its neighbours. We could also check - as yet unconsulted - references for Christians in contemporary Iberia who may have been used as mercenaries.
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in Egypt at this time - the regime in the Morocco probably used weapons similar to those of its neighbours. We could also check - as yet unconsulted - references for Christians in contemporary Iberia who may have been used as mercenaries.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ present ♥ "The state budgets of the 16th century were not designed to sustain the expense of the continuous upkeep of large professional navies. Use was therefore made of the private profit motive. Individual adventurers, known as privateers or corsairs, were authorised to equip and man armed vessels. These might then attack the shipping of states with which the government of their owners was at war and make a profit from disposing of the booty taken. The proceeds were divided in legally fixed proportions between the owner, the government, the officers, and the crew; in this way war was made to pay for itself. In national emergencies this shipping and the crews formed a reserve for enlarging such regular forces as the state might possess. Captured privateers enjoyed the rights of prisoners of war. The finance might be provided by the monarch himself, by individuals, or by a syndicate. Officially such activities could only be carried on with previous permission of some national authority, against shipping belonging to enemies of the state and in accordance with internationally recognised conventions, modified or amplified by bilateral treaties between the states concerned."[67]
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ Present.[68] Did this reference provide any more detail? Reference for earlier polity in the region: "The battle of Ma'mura, in which the Portuguese naval and land forces were dealt a severe defeat, indicated that the Moroccan state was modernizing its military forces."[69]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ A parapet walk corresponding to the ramparts is mentioned by Sagir al-Ifrani. A squad of qabdjiya walked along it every night. "Chaque nuit, une escouade de qabdjiya montait la garde et parcourait le chemin de ronde des remparts qui entouraient la ville."[70]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ Permanent garrisons near key river port.s[71].
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ The Saadi were a royal dynasty.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ The head of this polity was believed to be a Mahdi, "a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad, who will come at the End of Time to restore the purity of the early faith and establish justice on earth until the Final Hour", and who is "an avatar of Muhammad and therefore the only and true imam of the community, the legitimate caliph, God's lieutenant on earth, divinely inspired and guided by God." [72]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [73]. The head of this polity was believed to be a Mahdi, "a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad, who will come at the End of Time to restore the purity of the early faith and establish justice on earth until the Final Hour", and who is "an avatar of Muhammad and therefore the only and true imam of the community, the legitimate caliph, God's lieutenant on earth, divinely inspired and guided by God." [74]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ [present; absent] ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[75] However, the head of this polity was believed to be a Mahdi, "a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad, who will come at the End of Time to restore the purity of the early faith and establish justice on earth until the Final Hour", and who is "an avatar of Muhammad and therefore the only and true imam of the community, the legitimate caliph, God's lieutenant on earth, divinely inspired and guided by God." [76]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ [present; absent] ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[77] However, the head of this polity was believed to be a Mahdi, "a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad, who will come at the End of Time to restore the purity of the early faith and establish justice on earth until the Final Hour", and who is "an avatar of Muhammad and therefore the only and true imam of the community, the legitimate caliph, God's lieutenant on earth, divinely inspired and guided by God." [78]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[79]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [80] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [81]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [82]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [83] [84] [85]

References

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  10. (García-Arenal 2009, 57-58) Mercedes García-Arenal. 2009. Ahmad Al-Mansur: The Beginnings of Modern Morocco. Oxford: OneWorld.
  11. (García-Arenal 2009, 41) Mercedes García-Arenal. 2009. Ahmad Al-Mansur: The Beginnings of Modern Morocco. Oxford: OneWorld.
  12. M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 40
  13. M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 41
  14. Chase-Dunn spreadsheet (2011), available at Chase-Dunn Spreadsheet
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  17. M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), pp. 57-58
  18. M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), pp. 48-58
  19. M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), pp. 57-58
  20. M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), pp. 57-58
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  23. M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), pp. 50-54
  24. J. Hunwick, Timbuktu and the Songhay Empire (2003), p. lv
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  26. M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), pp. 57-58
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  28. M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), pp. 57-58
  29. M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), pp. 57-58
  30. M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 58
  31. M. García-Arenal, Ahmad Al-Mansur: The beginnings of modern Morocco (2009), p. 55
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