KhMekIA

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Samantha Holder ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Iron Age Cambodia ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

The next three coding positions define the temporal bounds of the polity. These codes take into account that such temporal bounds may be fuzzy and allow us to capture this 'fuzziness.' For example, some polities such as the Medieval German Empire or China under the Zhou Dynasty began as reasonably coherent states, but with time gradually lost cohesion, the degree to which the center exercized control over regional subpolities. Because this process was gradual, there was no sharp temporal boundary. The 'Degree of centralization' variable allows to capture these transitions (by coding time periods when the polity transitions, for example, from a 'confederated state' to 'loose' and finally to 'nominal' degree of centralization. Similarly, polities may have a fuzzy starting date, if they originate as subpolities under a disintegrating overarching polity. These transitions are captured by the variable 'Supra-polity relations'.

♠ Duration ♣ 500 BCE-224 CE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

Below code cultural relations between the coded (quasi)polity and the preceding one, as well as those nearby. These codes are particularly useful for archaeologically known polities.

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥

Language List the language(s) used polity-wide for administration, religion, and military affairs. Also list the language spoken by the majority of the population, if different from the above. The names of the language, family, and genus should be adapted from the World Atlas of Language Structures project, accessible here: http://wals.info/languoid. An example of a coded language tree for the Roman Principate (ItRomRg) would be ♠ Language ♣ Latin ♥ | ♠ Language Genus ♣ Romance ♥ | ♠ Language-Family ♣ Indo-European ♥

♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

Provide a descriptive paragraph detailing the key features of the polity, which will help understanding the codes below.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Samantha Holder ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [100-200] ♥ "[O]ccupied between the early third millennium to early first millennium bce… artifacts are not very dense, suggesting that the number of inhabitants was not large, perhaps around 100 to 200."[1]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [1-3] ♥ levels. Acording to Miksic and Goh, "there was a change from a two-tier to a three-tier settlement hierarchy in the south Mekong in the Preclassic and Protoclassic," but they do not specify what this was. 1. Villages "Archaeologists have found permanent village communities [in Cambodia]...there is little variation in size or evidence that a hierarchy of sites developed."[2]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ ♥

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥

♠ Judges ♣ ♥

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

'Polity-owned' includes owned by the community, or the state

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

built and/or maintained by the polity (that is, code 'present' even if the polity did not build a road, but devotes resources to maintaining it).

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥
♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

Code the variables below as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Script ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

Code the variables below as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥

Note for the next Codebook version: we will separate "Fiction" into two separate codes: "Poetry" and "Fictional Prose Narrative"


Money

Code the variables below as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown (we are mainly interested to know which is the most sophisticated form of money)

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

Code the variables below as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Samantha Holder ♥

Military Technologies

Military Technologies A military technology should be coded 'present' if there is concrete evidence that it was used in warfare (e.g. metal in armor or weapons, spears used in warfare and not only in hunting, etc) and 'inferred present' if there is evidence that the polity used the technology (e.g. for hunting, as an ornamental or ceremonial item, in jewelry), but no concrete evidence that the metal was specifically used in warfare (explain in comment).

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Evidence of bronze, gold, silver and iron.[3]
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ Evidence of bronze, gold, silver and iron.[4]
♠ Iron ♣ inferred present ♥ Evidence of bronze, gold, silver and iron.[5]
♠ Steel ♣ inferred absent ♥

Projectiles

Code the variables below as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ No evidence for bows and arrows in Cambodia but others have been found in mainland SEA: "at Noen U-Loke [Thailand], for instance, Higham found remains of a young man whose spine had been severed by an arrowhead."[6] However projectile points found at the Phum Snay site could be arrow heads.[7]
♠ Composite bow ♣ ♥
♠ Crossbow ♣ ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ ♥

Handheld weapons

Code the variables below as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown. Materials is not important for coding (but mention materials in notes). For example, daggers and swords can be wooden. Nonmilitary implements used in warfare (e.g., pitchforks, scythes) should be coded in the “other” category.

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No evidence for axes in Cambodia but many have been found in mainland SEA: "In Vietnam these include a spearhead from Cuong Ha in Quang Binh Province, and a socketed axe from Go Ma Voi in Quang Nam Province. Locally made iron objects produced at the same period as Dongson bronzes include swords, axes, hoes, sickles, knives, and tweezers." (300 BC)[8]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "The excavation of Phum Snay also yielded evidence of military paraphernalia (swords, daggers, spearheads, projectile points, epaulettes) in the prehistoric graves" dating c. 500 BC - 200 AD.[9]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ "The excavation of Phum Snay also yielded evidence of military paraphernalia (swords, daggers, spearheads, projectile points, epaulettes) in the prehistoric graves" dating c. 500 BC - 200 AD.[10]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ "The excavation of Phum Snay also yielded evidence of military paraphernalia (swords, daggers, spearheads, projectile points, epaulettes) in the prehistoric graves" dating c. 500 BC - 200 AD.[11]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

Code the variables below as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown If an animal is used as a supply animal for war then it should be coded as present (but clearly state in notes that it is used as a pack animal).

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Not native to region.

Armor

Code the variables below as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown Materials for shields, helmets, breastplate, and limb protection can be made of any material, as long as they provide protection. For example, a soft cloth cap would not be a helmet, but a tough leather cap would be a helmet.

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ ♥
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ "At Phum Snay looters reported finding skulls with bronze helmets; however, our excavations and subsequent excavations have not encountered such evidence."[12]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ ♥

Naval technology

Code the variables below as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ ♥

Fortifications

Code the variables below as absent/present/inferred present/inferred absent/uncoded/unknown With defensive fortifications, what matters is not what is inherited but what techniques are used for building in the current period, so be careful not to use fortifications from earlier periods - focus on new fortifications (but mention that old fortifications in notes if you're coding absent because there aren't any new fortifications).

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The term “Memotian” culture is now used to refer to 40 circular ramparted and moated sites (banteay kou in Khmer) in a hilly area of east Cambodia and a corner of southwest Vietnam measuring 85 kilometers east-west and 35 kilometers north-south, occupied between the early third millennium to early first millennium bce; about 15 have been intensively studied. The oldest sites seem to cluster in the west of this area, from whence they spread gradually east. Their components include an outer rampart, interior depression or “moat”, and a gap in the rampart, probably an entrance/exit."[13]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ "The term “Memotian” culture is now used to refer to 40 circular ramparted and moated sites (banteay kou in Khmer) in a hilly area of east Cambodia and a corner of southwest Vietnam measuring 85 kilometers east-west and 35 kilometers north-south, occupied between the early third millennium to early first millennium bce; about 15 have been intensively studied. The oldest sites seem to cluster in the west of this area, from whence they spread gradually east. Their components include an outer rampart, interior depression or “moat”, and a gap in the rampart, probably an entrance/exit."[14]
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The term “Memotian” culture is now used to refer to 40 circular ramparted and moated sites (banteay kou in Khmer) in a hilly area of east Cambodia and a corner of southwest Vietnam measuring 85 kilometers east-west and 35 kilometers north-south, occupied between the early third millennium to early first millennium bce; about 15 have been intensively studied. The oldest sites seem to cluster in the west of this area, from whence they spread gradually east. Their components include an outer rampart, interior depression or “moat”, and a gap in the rampart, probably an entrance/exit."[15]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ "The term “Memotian” culture is now used to refer to 40 circular ramparted and moated sites (banteay kou in Khmer) in a hilly area of east Cambodia and a corner of southwest Vietnam measuring 85 kilometers east-west and 35 kilometers north-south, occupied between the early third millennium to early first millennium bce; about 15 have been intensively studied. The oldest sites seem to cluster in the west of this area, from whence they spread gradually east. Their components include an outer rampart, interior depression or “moat”, and a gap in the rampart, probably an entrance/exit."[16]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The term “Memotian” culture is now used to refer to 40 circular ramparted and moated sites (banteay kou in Khmer) in a hilly area of east Cambodia and a corner of southwest Vietnam measuring 85 kilometers east-west and 35 kilometers north-south, occupied between the early third millennium to early first millennium bce; about 15 have been intensively studied. The oldest sites seem to cluster in the west of this area, from whence they spread gradually east. Their components include an outer rampart, interior depression or “moat”, and a gap in the rampart, probably an entrance/exit."[17]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The term “Memotian” culture is now used to refer to 40 circular ramparted and moated sites (banteay kou in Khmer) in a hilly area of east Cambodia and a corner of southwest Vietnam measuring 85 kilometers east-west and 35 kilometers north-south, occupied between the early third millennium to early first millennium bce; about 15 have been intensively studied. The oldest sites seem to cluster in the west of this area, from whence they spread gradually east. Their components include an outer rampart, interior depression or “moat”, and a gap in the rampart, probably an entrance/exit."[18]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Governmental officials (i.e. judiciary/legislature) can veto or overturn executive decision (including removing a political appointment), or withhold cooperation (e.g., refuse to provide funds or allow raising troops), regardless of whether or not these limits were actually practiced. Explain in paragraph
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Non-governmental organization (elite, social group, community organization, economic group, etc.) can veto or overturn executive decision (including removing a political appointment), or withhold cooperation (e.g., refuse to provide funds or allow raising troops), regardless of whether or not these limits were actually practiced. Explain in paragraph. Note: this does not include religious groups (Church leaders, Buddhist monks, etc.), since that is coded elsewhere)
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. There is a legal mechanism for removing and replacing the head of state

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Members of the ‘elite’ inherit their status and positions. If the ruler position is inherited most of the time, then these are sufficient grounds to code this variable as present

Religion and Normative Ideology

Deification of Rulers

(‘gods’ is a shorthand for ‘supernatural agents’)

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. For example, rulers are blessed by gods; the institution of kingship is ordained by heaven

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown.

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

These codes refer to acts undertaken without direct compulsion from or out of adherence to a religious system (religious aspects of prosociality are coded below)

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Religious doctrine, philosophical statements, or practice makes claims about equality. For instance, explicit statements by religious groups or influential philosophers that all humans are equal

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Religious doctrine, philosophical statements, or practice makes claims about engaging in activity for the benefit of a wider community, for instance Christian traditions of alms-giving or Islamic sadaqah

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Public Goods refer to anything that incurs cost to an individual or group of individuals, but that can be used or enjoyed by others who did not incur any of the cost, namely the public at large. They are non-excludable and non-rivalrous goods. Examples are roads, public drinking fountains, public parks or theatres, temples open to the public, etc.

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Moralizing religion is described as ‘primary’ when the principal moral concerns of supernatural agents or forces pertain to cooperation in human affairs. It is coded as absent when the primary concern is the behavior of humans towards the supernatural realm, e.g. by discharging ritual obligations such as performing sacrifices, laying out offerings, etc.
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. This variable reflects the predictability of supernatural punishment for transgression or reward for ethical behavior. A code of absence here could result from a variety of characteristics of supernatural agents: if they are fickle or capricious, if they can be bought off or tricked, or, alternatively, if they are not independently concerned about human morality and need to be persuaded or induced to punish transgressions.
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. This reflects how many aspects of morality deities care about and enforce. It is coded as absent when moralizing supernatural punishment/reward pertains to only very narrowly circumscribed domains, for example, kin-based moral precepts punishing incest or rewarding hospitality rather than enforcing moral norms across a broad range of social situations.
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. This reflects whether punishment and rewards are targeted specifically at culpable individuals. It is coded as absent when the whole group is punished rather than just the individual transgressor. This reflects whether punishment and rewards are targeted specifically at culpable individuals. It is coded as absent when the whole group is punished rather than just the individual transgressor.
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. This reflects whether supernatural forces or agents punish/reward rulers for their antisocial/prosocial behavior. It can be absent where such punishment is present generally, but rulers remain exempt.
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. This reflects whether elites of the polity subscribe to a religion with moralizing elements. In some cases, only a vocal segment of the elites advocated a particular moralizing religion (for example, early Buddhists, some Christians, Confucians) but not entire elite populations.
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. This reflects the extent to which beliefs in a moralizing religion are adopted by the masses. A typical situation in which this variable is coded absent is when the state religion professed by rulers and elites, and endorsing beliefs in supernatural punishments and rewards, is different from the popular religion which lacks or professes only much weaker beliefs in supernatural enforcement. On the other hand, this variable might be coded as present, even while the Elites variable is coded absent, for example when popular religion emphasizes supernatural enforcement, but the religion of rulers and elites does not.
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Reflects whether punishment is delayed until after the death of the transgressor
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Reflects whether punishment occurs during transgressor's lifetime
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ ♥ absent/present/unknown. Reflects whether punishment/reward is administered by a supernatural agent, such as a deity or spirit (as opposed to being administered by an impersonal supernatural force, such as karma).

References

  1. (Miksic and Goh 2016: 114) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2EZ3CBBS.
  2. (Miksic and Goh 2016: 114) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2EZ3CBBS.
  3. (Miksic and Goh 2016: 106) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2EZ3CBBS.
  4. (Miksic and Goh 2016: 106) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2EZ3CBBS.
  5. (Miksic and Goh 2016: 106) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2EZ3CBBS.
  6. (Miksic and Goh 2016: 111) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2EZ3CBBS.
  7. (Domett et al. 2011: 452) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RJH39GGM.
  8. (Miksic and Goh 2016: 111) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2EZ3CBBS.
  9. (Domett et al. 2011: 452) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RJH39GGM.
  10. (Domett et al. 2011: 452) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RJH39GGM.
  11. (Domett et al. 2011: 452) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RJH39GGM.
  12. (Domett et al. 2011: 452) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/RJH39GGM.
  13. (Miksic and Goh 2016: 113) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2EZ3CBBS.
  14. (Miksic and Goh 2016: 113) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2EZ3CBBS.
  15. (Miksic and Goh 2016: 113) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2EZ3CBBS.
  16. (Miksic and Goh 2016: 113) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2EZ3CBBS.
  17. (Miksic and Goh 2016: 113) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2EZ3CBBS.
  18. (Miksic and Goh 2016: 113) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/2EZ3CBBS.