KgKarKh

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Kara-Khanids ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Karakhanids ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1068 CE ♥

Under Ibrahim Tamghach Khan "We may assume that substantial sums flowed into the coffers of the central government. This was one of the factors underpinning the considerable building activity that took place."[1]

During the reign of Ibrahim "a single system of coinage with different denominations circulated throughout the Western Karakhanid Khanate, creating good, stable market conditions."[2]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 950-1212 CE ♥

"First period": until 1040 CE? when state divided into two separate Khanates.[3]

Karakhanids were Buddhist but "in the 950s the new rulers of Kashgar proclaimed their conversion to Islam."[4]

Rule of Masud Tamghach Khan ended 1170-1171 CE. He had successors. [5] -- by this time under Seljuk authority.

Last Kara-Khanid ruler in Samarkand was Uthman who was removed by Khwarazms 1212 CE.[6]

"Muhammad b. Tekish did not initially intend to destroy the Karakhanid dynasty but merely sought allies in his struggle with the Kara Khitay. He considered it normal that the title of the Karakhanid Uthman should be higher than his own and laid no claim to any of the insignia of power in the Karakhanid state. Subsequently, however, the Karakhanids were obliged to acknowledge themselves as vassals of Muhammad b. Tekish ... In the third and final act, the Karakhanids gradually surrendered their domains - and, in many cases, their lives - to Muhammad b. Tekish."[7]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ confederated state ♥

Confederated state

"The persistent tendency toward fragmentation within the Karakhanid clan was the Achilles heel of this first Turkic Muslim state, as it was to be for the many other Turkic dynasties that followed. In truth, it was no state at all but a loose confederation of appendages, the ruling houses of which were linked by blood ties."[8]

Ibrahim "did not set up a centralized state, but managed to reduce considerably the number of appanages and the rights of appanage-holders."[9]


♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance; nominal allegiance; vassalage ♥

Vassalage/Nominal allegiance

Nasr b. Ali, who held the Transoxania appanage "was in practice an independent ruler but formally recognized his brother, Ahmad b. Ali, as head of the dynasty. They both appear on most of the coins from Nasr’s appanage as suzerain and vassal (with the emphasis on Nasr’s independence, however)."[10]

Nominal allegiance to Abbasid caliphs

"The new rulers accepted the nominal authority of the Abbasid caliphs and directly or indirectly promoted the spread of Islam among the populace of Transoxania, Kashgar, and the Tarim basin."[11]

Vassalage to Seljuks

"The Western Karakhanids were more dependent on the Seljuqs, although nothing is known of the financial aspect of their dependence. (Did they pay tribute?) Their political dependence was considerable, however: the Seljuqs placed on the Karakhanid throne in Samarkand whichever members of the dynasty they required. The vassal status of the Western Karakhanids is also reflected in the coinage, some of which bears the names of Seljuq sultans." [12]

Alliance

Alliance with Kara-Khitai against Khwarazmians lead to end of Kara-Khanid rule in Samarkand.[13]


Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Samanid Empire ♥ "probable that the dynasty came from the Yaghma or Chigil tribes" of the Kara-Khanids.[14]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ elite migration ♥ "The immigrant Karakhanid population was not large, its leadership was divided, and the Karakhanids’ control always tenuous."[15]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Khwarezmid Empire ♥ First period: Seljuk Empire. Whole period: Khwarezmid Empire.
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Perso-Islamic ♥ Perso-Islamic?: "the synthesis that had been developed since the early Abbasid period, bringing ancient Iranian, pre-Islamic ideas of kingship into an Islamic context. The tenth century had witnessed the heyday of this synthesis, as under ethnically Iranian dynasties like the Buyids ancient titles like shahanshah (king of kings) were revived."[16] Karakhanids were Buddhist but "in the 950s the new rulers of Kashgar proclaimed their conversion to Islam."[17] Turco-Islamic? The Karakhanids themselves formed a Turkic elite and likely to have used Turkic for the military.
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [3,000,000-3,500,000] ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Samarkand; Kashgar; Bukhara; Balasagun; Suyab ♥ Kashgar; Bukhara; Balasagun; Suyab. [18] "On October 23, 999, a Karakhanid army entered Bukhara without opposition, took control of the Samanid treasury, rounded up the remaining Samanis, and settled into their palace."[19] At this time Gurjang was the capital of Khwarazm.[20]

♠ Language ♣ Arabic; Turkic ♥ After the Arab conquest of Central Asia in the eighth century Arabic became the "new language for official communication and intellectual interchange".[21] However, the Karakhanids themselves formed a Turkic elite and likely to have used Turkic for the military.

General Description

Karakhanids were a Buddhist nomadic tribe from Kashgar who converted to Islam sometime in the 950s CE[22] After their conversion, the Karakhanids "accepted the nominal authority of the Abbasid caliphs and directly or indirectly promoted the spread of Islam among the populace of Transoxania, Kashgar, and the Tarim basin."[23]

Starr (2013) describes their polity as "no state at all but a loose confederation of appendages, the ruling houses of which were linked by blood ties."[24] In the mid-11th century the state was formally divided into two separate Khanates, with Western and Eastern halves.[25]

Despite the decentralized system of government being the dominant characteristic of the Karakhanid Khanate, literature suggests there may have been a central government with a vizier[26], and during the reign of Ibrahim in the mid-11th century "a single system of coinage with different denominations circulated throughout the Western Karakhanid Khanate, creating good, stable market conditions."[27]

Never entirely an independent polity, after the regress of the Abbasid Caliphate the Western Karakhanids became "dependent on the Seljuqs" who "placed on the Karakhanid throne in Samarkand whichever members of the dynasty they required. The vassal status of the Western Karakhanids is also reflected in the coinage, some of which bears the names of Seljuq sultans." [28]

Central Asia is considered to have reached its 'golden age' in its civilizational achivement during the Karakhanid period. Davidovich describes the complexity of life in its populous cities, which may have exceeded 300,000 inhabitants:

"To the best of our knowledge, strenuous efforts were made to keep the towns clean. It was forbidden to throw rubbish into the streets and alleyways, which were considered to be public property. Deep wells for rubbish and sewage, covered by earthenware or wooden lids, were provided in private courtyards as well as in public places, houses and palaces, according to the archaeological evidence. Archaeologists have discovered ceramic water pipes and segments of paved streets and courtyards dating from the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Blown window glass was also in use at the time."[29]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 2,000,000: 1000 CE; [1,300,000-1,500,000]: 1200 CE ♥ in squared kilometers.

"Qarluq peoples, lead by the Qarakhanid dynasty, took Bukhara in 992 and Samarqand in 999."[30]

1000 CE

1200 CE

Region around Bukhara and Samarkand and the region of the Eastern Khanate.

♠ Polity Population ♣ 2,500,000: 1000 CE; [2,000,000-2,500,000]: 1200 CE ♥ People.

"Russian Turkestan" is a reasonable approximation of the territory held by the Kara-Khanids in 1000 CE, particularly with respect to the urban areas. Estimate 2.5 million for 1000 CE. The Kara-Khanids held slightly less territory in 1200 CE, however since McEvedy and Jones considered the overall population of the region was rising have kept the estimate almost the same for 1200 CE (perhaps minus population for lost territory in Khwarazm region).[31]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 200,000: 1000 CE; [200,000-400,000]: 1200 CE ♥ Inhabitants.

Samarkand 200,000 in 1000 CE.[32] Cities continued to grow in size under the Kara-Khanids.

Samarkand 200,000-400,000 in 1200 CE. "Barthold claims that 100,000 families lived there before Mongol invasion. Abu-Lughod (179,184) views this claim as exagerated. 1220 defended by 120,000 men; razed; 300-400,000 inhabitants killed or forced to flee; 1300, 100,000 left (Int.Dict.of Hist.Places, vol.5, 1996, 718-20)."[33]

"Balasagun had a densely built-up urban core (shahristan) with high walls that encompassed a rectangular area of fifty acres and were fully sixty-five feet thick at the base."[34]

Balkh: urban walls enclosed 1000 acres.[35] (Undated reference for Central Asia in Middle Ages)

Afrasiab: "Afrasiab, the predecessor to Samarkand ... covered over five hundred densely built acres."[36] (Undated reference for Central Asia in Middle Ages)

Termez: "the river port of Tirmidh (Termez), which covered a thousand acres on the Uzbek side of the Amu Darya".[37] (Undated reference for Central Asia in Middle Ages)

Merv: "an enormous urban complex."[38] (Undated reference for Central Asia in Middle Ages)

"Central Asian cities were densely populated - one expert estimates that 230-270 persons per acre was typical - and the footprint of four-fifths of the houses was as small as 380 square feet, even though they typically housed up to six people on two or three floors."[39] Expert cited: K. M. Baybakov (1986). Also recommends "O. G. Bolshakov’s estimates of population densities in Merv, Bukhara, Termez, etc." [40] [41]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

1. Metropolitan centre

2. Town
3. Village

"Satellite towns and villages like those that surrounded Merv were to be found at all the other metropolitan centers."[42]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 6 ♥ levels. Central government may have had 6 levels as it was based on Samanid/Abbasid administrations.


-- from 999 CE

Early Kara-Khanid state: appanages.

"Typical of nomadic families, all the sons of the founder demanded their share of his patrimony. After they settled into urban life, this meant that each one appropriated for himself a capital city and a territory to go with it. By the time Mahmud Kashgari set out for Baghdad, there were no fewer than four Karakhanid capitals: the oldest at Kashgar; a second at the ancient city of Samarkand; and two others at Uzgend and Balasagun, both in present-day Kyrgyzstan."[43]
"Ibrahim waged a successful struggle against the appanage system, which had been the cause of endless fratricidal strife, and the reassignment of towns and regions."[44]


-- from c1040 CE

"the east ... has connotations of seniority in Turkic culture: with both the Gok turks and the Qarakhanids, the rulers of the eastern divisions of the empire, considering it to be superior."[45]

1. Western Khanate ruled by Alid dynasty[46]

"In Inner Asian fashion, the new rulers divided their domains into a western khanate that ruled Transoxania until 1211 and an eastern khanate for Farghana and Kashgaria."[47]

1. Eastern Khanate ruled by Hasanid dynasty[48]


_Central government_

2. Vizier
In Balasaguni's "Wisdom of Royal Glory" the Khan has a vizier.[49]
3. Diwans?
4.
5.
6

Continuity with Samanids: "Certain leading representatives of the military and bureaucratic class assisted the Karakhanids, and the dihqans (major landowners) also took their side."[50]


_Vassals_

2. dihqans ruled Ilaq directly under the Kara-Khanids[51]

-- Late 12th Century

2. Ra'is of Bukhara (headman of Bukhara)
Thus Bukhara was held on a hereditary basis by members of a clerical line, the Al-i Burhan, upon whom was conferred the title of sadr-i jahan (Pillar of the World) and the office of ra'is

(headman) of Bukhara. They themselves collected the taxes, and the Kara Khitay sent a special envoy to receive the town’s tribute. The local rulers did not issue coins in their own names (we know only of Karakhanid coins in Bukhara during this time), but were otherwise independent."[52]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

3 was the code for Abbasid Caliphate. "The new rulers accepted the nominal authority of the Abbasid caliphs and directly or indirectly promoted the spread of Islam among the populace of Transoxania, Kashgar, and the Tarim basin."[53]

1. Caliph as head of the Sunni Muslim umma.

2. Imams, successors of the prophet and leaders of the muslim world.
3. The Umma, i.e all Muslims.


♠ Military levels ♣ 6 ♥ levels. Based on likely Abbasid or Samanid structure - about six levels. If structure nomadic, based on cavalry, then could be decimal 10, 100, 1000, 10000 which would be six levels including individual soldier.

"A common image of Islamic armies consisting almost entirely of cavalry is very misleading. In reality these forces reflected their places of origin, patterns of recruitment and the military heritage of their ruling elite. None relied soley on horse-archers..."[54]

However, the military heritage of the Kara-Khanids was nomadic so one might suspect that cavalry was the main force. Did the Karakhanids maintain a standing army of slave forces?

There was some continuity with the Samanids: "Certain leading representatives of the military and bureaucratic class assisted the Karakhanids, and the dihqans (major landowners) also took their side."[55]

{the following infers continuity with Abbasid hierarchy):

1. Amir al-mu' minin (official title of the Caliph)
2. Amir (commander or governor of a province or army)
3. Qa-id (military officer)
4. Arif (leader of a militay unit of ten to fifteen soldiers)
5. Muquatila(Muslim soldiers paid a salary); Malwa(rank and file Turkish soldier)
6. Arrarun (irregular volunteers) [56]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥

"We can also deduce from inscriptions on the coins that the system of rewards and ownership had developed and acquired features 'in the upper echelons of power' that clearly demonstrate the inappropriateness of applying the term iqta to it."[57]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present ♥

"The inscriptions on the coins cannot tell us whether, under the Karakhanids, small grants were made to ordinary soldiers and to minor and middle-ranking members of the army and the civilian bureaucracy; consequently, there are simply no data available for the purposes of comparison with the Seljuq system. On the other hand, we may confidently conclude that there are no similarities between the Ghaznavid and Karakhanid systems during the first period."[58]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ The Karakhanids had the bureaucratic position of Vizier.

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ this was the code for the Samanid bureaucracy.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred present ♥ this was the code for the Samanid bureaucracy.

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ "Numismatists have identified no fewer than thirty Karakhanid mints".[59]


Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥

"Under the Qarakhanids, the Hanafi school of law and Maturidi school of theology were established in Transoxania".[60]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ qadi. "The purchase of milk [private property] was registered in the offices of the qadi (judge) through the issue of a wathiqa (legal deed) and was a secure form of property protected by the law."[61]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred present ♥ "The purchase of milk [private property] was registered in the offices of the qadi (judge) through the issue of a wathiqa (legal deed) and was a secure form of property protected by the law."[62]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred present ♥

Legal scholars. "Under the Qarakhanids, the Hanafi school of law and Maturidi school of theology were established in Transoxania".[63]

Legal documents."The purchase of milk [private property] was registered in the offices of the qadi (judge) through the issue of a wathiqa (legal deed) and was a secure form of property protected by the law."[64]


Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Present in Central Asia from about 800 BCE - 1200 CE: "the major Central Asian hydraulic systems appear to have been maintained with few serious interruptions for over two millenniums, extending down to the Mongol invasion in the thirteenth century."[65]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ Residents of Central Asian cities "including slaves, had good access to running water"[66] "Within the cities the maze of underground pipes of baked clay that served public baths and private homes became yet more complex, for they included valves, catch basins, and access points for cleaning, as well as exceedingly complex changes of gradients. ... intricate underground pipe systems that provided urban dwellings with potable water."[67] In one of the Kara-Khanid capitals, Balasagun: "In the area of this outer ring stood at least five semi-urban estates, large walled compounds with dozens of rooms and broad central corridors up to a hundred feet in length. Running water, baths, and under-the-floor heating systems rendered these multistoried estates very comfortable, even by modern standards."[68] "Archaeologists have discovered ceramic water pipes"[69]
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ Karakhanids took an active interest in the success of trade: "The Karakhanids built caravanserais to foster trade along heretofore neglected routes. Notable among these was the monumental Ribat-i-Malik on the road between Bukhara and Samarkand and Bukhara."[70] "It may be concluded from indirect evidence that state control of market prices existed during Ibrahim's reign."[71] "Every town had its bazaars and caravanserai."[72]
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Achaeologists have found "segments of paved streets and courtyards dating from the eleventh and twelfth centuries."[73]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ "In the course of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, baked brick came to be used more widely, especially in major construction projects such as palaces, mosques, madrasas, mausoleums and bridges."[74]
♠ Canals ♣suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ absent ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Compendium of the Turkic Dialects.[75]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Turkic.[76] Arabic.
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ e.g. Arabic.

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Advanced, literate, scientific culture.
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ "what do the highly sophisticated calendar systems that were in use in Khwarazm, Bactria, Parthia, Tokharistan, and Sogdiana tell us about the state of Central Asian science in the pre-Islamic centuries? It is surely worth noting that Biruni’s research on calendar systems, which he undertook in the early years of the eleventh century, took as its point of departure the Khwarazian calendar." [77]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Koran.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Maturidi school of theology. [78]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Mahmud al-Kashgari: "Eleventh-century author of A Compendium of the Turkic Dialects, a comprehensive guide to the Turkic languages and their oral literature."[79]
♠ History ♣ inferred present ♥ Abolfazi Beyhaqi (995-1077 CE): "Independent-minded court historian at Ghazni, Afghanistan. Author of a thirty-volume study of the reigns of Mahmud and Masud of Ghazni, only three volumes of which survive."[80] "History of Turkestan and a volume entitled Turkish Peoples and the Marvels of Turkestan."[81]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ Yusuf Balasaguni(Yusuf of Balasagun): "Author in 1069 of the Wisdom of Royal Glory, a guide for rulers and an essay on ethics. ... Yusuf’s volume for the first time brought a Turkic language into the mainstream of Mediterranean civilization and thought. A native of Balasagun in present-day Kyrgyzstan, he died near Kashgar in Xinjiang, China."[82] "Examples of Diplomacy in the Aims of Government by a Samarkand writer named Muhammad bin Ali al-Katib". [83]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ "no great astronomer, mathematician, chemist, or doctor appeared in the Karakhanid lands or found support from their rulers."[84] However, this was the age of Ibn Sina and Al-Biruni and text of this sort must have existed even if the great minds to read or build on them did not.
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred present ♥ Abu Mansur Ali Asadi: "Eleventh-century poet from Tus ... Working at a court in Azerbaijan, Asadi versified The Epic of Garshasp (Garshaspnameh), which ranks second only to Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh among Persian epic poems."[85]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥ Great trading region.
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥ Great trading region.
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ During the reign of Ibrahim "a single system of coinage with different denominations circulated throughout the Western Karakhanid Khanate, creating good, stable market conditions."[86] -- presumably present before Ibrahim, if Ibrahim created the single monetary system (if that is what "a single system of coinage" means).
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ "The dirhams struck with the name and title of Ibrahim Tamghach Khan were known as mu’ayyadi. They were made of low-grade silver, but the addition of copper was not a fraud carried out in secret. The population knew the official standard of purity of the mu’ayyadi dirhams; their value, which tallied with that standard, fluctuated slightly and was fixed in terms of pure gold. Greater purchasing power was attached to the Bukhar Khudat dirhams, which were struck on the model of the Sasanian coinage"[87]
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥ Had paper. need to check whether paper formed the basis of any financial instruments within the banking system that could be called money.

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred present ♥ Were the Samanid era barid and the postal stations maintained?
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥ need to check whether postal station network was used only by government officials

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ 'The mass spread of iron in Central Asia is an event of the 6th-4th centuries BC. Hence it is reasonable to begin the Iron Age in Central Asia only from the second quarter of the 1st millennium BC'. [88]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ 'The mass spread of iron in Central Asia is an event of the 6th-4th centuries BC. Hence it is reasonable to begin the Iron Age in Central Asia only from the second quarter of the 1st millennium BC'. [89]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ 'The mass spread of iron in Central Asia is an event of the 6th-4th centuries BC. Hence it is reasonable to begin the Iron Age in Central Asia only from the second quarter of the 1st millennium BC'. [90]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Reference for high quality of the steel (no beginning date provided): “In the context of this work, it is important to note that crucible steel of fine quality was made at Herat, in Bukhara and in northern India.”[91] Reference for high quality of the steel (this one dates from 900 CE): "Further east from Merv along the Silk Road is a region praised for its iron and steel production by Greek, Islamic, and Chinese writers. The Sogdian state of Ustrushana, a mountainous region east of Samarkand, and the Ferghana basin ... material related to the medieval iron and steel industry has been uncovered here. Most relevant ... is a workshop excavated at a city-site of the +9th-13th centuries in Feghana, at Eski Achsy, Uzbekistan. ..” Crucible fragments ”The excavators consider that the process used here was direct production of steel from ore, just as He Tangkun argues for the Luoyang crucibles. It is quite possible, however, that they were (also) used in co-fusion steel production as suggested by the Merv excavators."[92] Fine steel swords may have been produced at an earlier time than 900 CE with the technology coming from northern India or from this region via Persia: In Tibet c700 CE "steel swords were certainly available through trade with Sogdia and Fergana ... and many steel blades are known from Central Asia from the late first millennium until the arrival of Genghis Khan in the early thirteenth century."[93] "The Sogdian cities of Samarqand and Bukhara probably also manufactured iron and steel weapons that were exported to Tibet. We know that by the early eighth century, the Sogdians, having probably borrowed the technology from the Sasanians, were manufacturing mail armor and offered suits of the material as gifts to the Tang court in 718. ... The Sasasnians may themselves have developed knowledge of steelmaking from contacts with northern India."[94] "The principal centres for the manufacture of steel weapons in Central Asia were Khwarazm, Ferghana and northern India.”[95]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ Under the Seljuks, later period, ghulams or mamluks had javelins. [96] "Turkish weapons, 10th-12th centuries. An assortment of typical Turco-Mongol or Central Asian weapons fragments were found during archaeological excavations at the Citadel of Kuva. This area, close to the frontier with China, became the heartland of the Kara-Khanid Sultanate which rivalled the Seljuks for the domination of the north-eastern provinces of the Islamic world ... The weapons themselves, including parts of daggers, arrowheads and spearheads, would have been identical to those used by Seljuk warriors both here in Transoxania, in Iran and in Syria".[97]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Weapon of the Americas, extremely unlikely to be present here
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred absent if the more powerful composite bow was available.
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Nomadic horsemen used the composite bow.
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ First use of the counter-weight trebuchet 1165 CE at Byzantine siege of Zevgminon.[98]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ absent before the gunpowder era
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ absent before the gunpowder era

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [99] "Turkish weapons, 10th-12th centuries. An assortment of typical Turco-Mongol or Central Asian weapons fragments were found during archaeological excavations at the Citadel of Kuva. This area, close to the frontier with China, became the heartland of the Kara-Khanid Sultanate which rivalled the Seljuks for the domination of the north-eastern provinces of the Islamic world ... The weapons themselves, including parts of daggers, arrowheads and spearheads, would have been identical to those used by Seljuk warriors both here in Transoxania, in Iran and in Syria".[100]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [101] "Turkish weapons, 10th-12th centuries. An assortment of typical Turco-Mongol or Central Asian weapons fragments were found during archaeological excavations at the Citadel of Kuva. This area, close to the frontier with China, became the heartland of the Kara-Khanid Sultanate which rivalled the Seljuks for the domination of the north-eastern provinces of the Islamic world ... The weapons themselves, including parts of daggers, arrowheads and spearheads, would have been identical to those used by Seljuk warriors both here in Transoxania, in Iran and in Syria".[102]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [103] "Turkish weapons, 10th-12th centuries. An assortment of typical Turco-Mongol or Central Asian weapons fragments were found during archaeological excavations at the Citadel of Kuva. This area, close to the frontier with China, became the heartland of the Kara-Khanid Sultanate which rivalled the Seljuks for the domination of the north-eastern provinces of the Islamic world ... The weapons themselves, including parts of daggers, arrowheads and spearheads, would have been identical to those used by Seljuk warriors both here in Transoxania, in Iran and in Syria".[104] "Among the steppe riders a dagger was typically carried in all periods, and a number of dagger designs are encountered in the archaeological and artistic record." [105]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [106] "Turkish weapons, 10th-12th centuries. An assortment of typical Turco-Mongol or Central Asian weapons fragments were found during archaeological excavations at the Citadel of Kuva. This area, close to the frontier with China, became the heartland of the Kara-Khanid Sultanate which rivalled the Seljuks for the domination of the north-eastern provinces of the Islamic world ... The weapons themselves, including parts of daggers, arrowheads and spearheads, would have been identical to those used by Seljuk warriors both here in Transoxania, in Iran and in Syria".[107]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [108] "Turkish weapons, 10th-12th centuries. An assortment of typical Turco-Mongol or Central Asian weapons fragments were found during archaeological excavations at the Citadel of Kuva. This area, close to the frontier with China, became the heartland of the Kara-Khanid Sultanate which rivalled the Seljuks for the domination of the north-eastern provinces of the Islamic world ... The weapons themselves, including parts of daggers, arrowheads and spearheads, would have been identical to those used by Seljuk warriors both here in Transoxania, in Iran and in Syria".[109]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the sources so far consulted. "Turkish weapons, 10th-12th centuries. An assortment of typical Turco-Mongol or Central Asian weapons fragments were found during archaeological excavations at the Citadel of Kuva. This area, close to the frontier with China, became the heartland of the Kara-Khanid Sultanate which rivalled the Seljuks for the domination of the north-eastern provinces of the Islamic world ... The weapons themselves, including parts of daggers, arrowheads and spearheads, would have been identical to those used by Seljuk warriors both here in Transoxania, in Iran and in Syria".[110]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ "Donkeys were among the key pack animals used to carry silk from the Pacific Ocean to the Mediterranean" [111]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Nomadic Kara-Khanids were horse archers.
♠ Camels ♣ inferred absent ♥ Nomadic Kara-Khanids would have had no tradition using camels in warfare.
♠ Elephants ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not available.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[112]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ "Many of the early Persian miniatures, particularly those under Mongol influence of the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, seldom illustrate shields. When they do the shields would seem to be of stout hide—small, circular, and convex, with applied metal bosses."[113]
♠ Shields ♣ inferred present ♥ "Many of the early Persian miniatures, particularly those under Mongol influence of the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, seldom illustrate shields. When they do the shields would seem to be of stout hide—small, circular, and convex, with applied metal bosses."[114]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[115]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[116]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[117]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[118] The Sassanid Persians had mail armour. [119]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred present ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[120] The Sassanid Persians had scale armour. [121]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred present ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[122]
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[123]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ "Central Asia’s traders ... moved their goods by large, solidly built boats on the region’s three main rivers."[124]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ Landlocked.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ defensive forts mentioned below, but no information on whether the locations were decided for defensive reasons
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ "Krasnaya Rechka. Site in northern Kyrgyzstan, c. 36 km east of Bishkek. ... identified with either Sarigh or Navakat ... Located along the Silk Route, the settlement developed in the 6th century and explanded in the 7th. ... The city was fortified with a pise and mud-brick wall (h. 15m; w. 12.3 m) with protuding bastions, fortified gates and a large moat. In the center of the site was an extensive area (20 sq. km) with traces of an irrigation system, sections of inner walls ... Excavation of a palace (10th-12th century), manor houses, craft workshops, pottery kilns and vineyards suggest that this became the city center during the period of Karakhanid (r. 940-1211) rule."[125] The pise and mud-brick wall mentioned here.
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ "Krasnaya Rechka. Site in northern Kyrgyzstan, c. 36 km east of Bishkek. ... identified with either Sarigh or Navakat ... Located along the Silk Route, the settlement developed in the 6th century and explanded in the 7th. ... The city was fortified with a pise and mud-brick wall (h. 15m; w. 12.3 m) with protuding bastions, fortified gates and a large moat. In the center of the site was an extensive area (20 sq. km) with traces of an irrigation system, sections of inner walls ... Excavation of a palace (10th-12th century), manor houses, craft workshops, pottery kilns and vineyards suggest that this became the city center during the period of Karakhanid (r. 940-1211) rule."[126]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Walls of Central Asian cities generally constructed with "sun-dried bricks faced with fired bricks".[127]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Walls of Central Asian cities generally constructed with "sun-dried bricks faced with fired bricks".[128]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ "Unlike Chinese cities, Central Asian cities had several rings of walls, the outermost to keep out invading nomads and the encroaching sand. At the Merv oasis the outermost rampart ran for more than 155 miles, three times the length of Hadrian’s Wall separating England from Scotland."[129] "Krasnaya Rechka. Site in northern Kyrgyzstan, c. 36 km east of Bishkek. ... identified with either Sarigh or Navakat ... Located along the Silk Route, the settlement developed in the 6th century and explanded in the 7th. ... The city was fortified with a pise and mud-brick wall (h. 15m; w. 12.3 m) with protuding bastions, fortified gates and a large moat. In the center of the site was an extensive area (20 sq. km) with traces of an irrigation system, sections of inner walls ... Excavation of a palace (10th-12th century), manor houses, craft workshops, pottery kilns and vineyards suggest that this became the city center during the period of Karakhanid (r. 940-1211) rule."[130] Inner walls mentioned here.
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ cannon forts were not available at this time


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Western Khanate ruled by Alid dynasty. Eastern Khanate ruled by Hasanid dynasty.[131]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawhid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [132]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [133]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[134]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[135]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[136]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [137] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [138]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [139]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [140] [141] [142]

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Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia's Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.