JpTokgw

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Gréine Jordan ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Tokugawa Shogunate ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ The Edo Period; Tokugawa bakufu ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1688-1704 CE ♥ Known as the Genroku period ‘with its burst of fiction, theatre, and art, is popularly viewed as the glorious heyday of the Tokugawa urban cultural.’[1]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1603-1868 CE ♥[2] The period begins with Tokugawa Ieyasu’s victory in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 which marked the start of his rise to power. Tokugawa Ieyasu reinstated the Shogunate when the title was conferred on him in 1603 by Emperor Go-Yozei (the title had been unused since 1588). Although the Emperor remained as official head of state the Tokugawa Shoguns ruled Japan. The period ends with fall of the Shogunate and the restoration of the Emperor.[3] 'This period is sometimes dated from 1600 to reflect the significance of the decisive victory of the Tokugawa at the Battle of Sekigahara. Alternately, the Edo period is sometimes dated from 1603, the year that Tokugawa Ieyasu became shogun. Finally, some date the Edo period from 1616, the year of Ieyasu’s death. The Edo period ended in 1867 with the resignation of the last Tokugawa shogun, or according to others, in 1868 when the imperial restoration (Meiji Restoration) was proclaimed and the city of Edo was renamed Tokyo (“Eastern Capital”), replacing Kyoto as the official capital of Japan.' [4]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ confederated state ♥ Tokugawa shogunate built on the work of the generals Oda Nobunaga (1534-82) and Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598) who between 1568 and 1590 succeeded in uniting all the daimyo (local military lords) ‘under a single military command, binding them together into a national confederation’. [5] The Tokugawa shogunate was capable of ‘exerting nationwide enforcement over military and fiscal institutions’, however, the daimyo still held considerable administrative authority and maintained their own armies. ‘although in theory they [daimyo] were allowed considerable autonomy in matters such as taxation rights and internal administration, including law enforcement, in practice they were expected to follow the examples and guidelines established by the shogunate. In effect, local government became their responsibility, and they had to carry out their responsibilities to the shogunates’s liking.’[6]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥


Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Japan - Azuchi-Momoyama ♥

♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ Regime change. The rise to power of the Tokugawa shogunate marked an end to the internal strife and warfare that characterized the preceding century. Tokugawa Ieyasu and his immediate successors set about limiting the power of their rivals and instituting new policies aimed at maintaining stability and centralising Japan’s government.
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Japan - Meiji Restoration ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Japanese ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥

♠ Capital ♣ Kyoto ♥ Kyoto was the official capital of the Japanese empire, and residence of the imperial family, from 794 until 1868. [7] For much of Japanese history, however,, the imperial family were figureheads and in practice did not control the country there were a number of other cities which were set up as administrative capitals which were inhabited by these wielding power. In the Tokugawa period Tokugawa Ieyasu established Edo [Tokyo] as his capital, Edo, however, only became the official capital after the Meiji Restoration.

♠ Language ♣ Early Modern Japanese ♥(17th-18th century) [8]

General Description

The Tokugawa period, also known as the Edo period, ran from 1603 to 1868 CE. Sometimes the slightly earlier start date of 1600 is chosen in recognition of Tokugawa Ieyasu's decisive victory at the Battle of Sekigahara; however, we have selected the 1603 date, which marks his official appointment as shogun. Although the emperor remained the official head of state, the Tokugawa shoguns ruled Japan. The rise to power of the Tokugawa Shogunate marked an end to the internal strife and warfare that had characterized the preceding century. Tokugawa Ieyasu and his immediate successors set about limiting the power of their rivals and instituting new policies aimed at maintaining stability and centralizing Japan's government.[9]
The 'peak' of the Tokugawa period corresponds to the years between 1688 and 1704 CE, known as the Genroku period, which saw the development of a distinct urban culture and the proliferation of art, theatre and fiction.[10] During the early modern period the Japanese polity consisted of three major islands: Honshu, Kyushu and Shikoku.[11]
Eventually, economic difficulties and the threat of Western encroachment helped to bring about the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate. The period came to an end with the resignation of the last Tokugawa shogun in 1867 and the imperial restoration in 1868.[12]

Population and political organization

The Tokugawa shogunate built on the work of the generals Oda Nobunaga (1534-1582 CE) and Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598 CE), who between 1568 and 1590 succeeded in uniting all the daimyō (local military lords) under the command of a military leader into a 'national confederation'.[13] Theoretically, the daimyō maintained administrative authority in their own territories, but in practice they were expected to follow the guidance of the shogunate.[14] Tokugawa Ieyasu and his successors pursued a policy of 'orthodoxy and stability',[15] aimed at consolidating their own power and limiting the ability of their rivals to amass enough power or wealth to enable them to challenge the shogunate. The success of these policies enabled the Tokugawa family to preside over a period of peace and prosperity and rule Japan for the next 268 years.[16] As well as peace, political stability and the centralization of power by the shoguns, the Tokugawa period was characterized by economic prosperity, rising urbanization and the closings of Japan's borders to the wider world in the 1630s.[17]
Theoretically, class was determined by birth and social mobility was prohibited. Influenced by Chinese models, the social order was formalized and essentially frozen in a hierarchy known as shi-nō-kō-shō, 'warrior-peasant-artisan-merchant'.[18] Despite the shogunate's concerted attempts to maintain a strict social orthodoxy, however, the stable and economically prosperous conditions led to a range of social changes, including increasing urbanization and the rise of the merchant class, who (although they were theoretically socially inferior) now held much of the country's wealth.[19] Now that there was no need for the majority of those of samurai rank to be actively engaged in military activities, the warrior class became bureaucratized, a development that went hand-in-hand with a romanticization of the warrior ideal and the codification of proper rules of behaviour.[20]
During the Tokugawa period, population censuses were carried out. However, they did not take all members of the population into account and various scholars have therefore used supplementary data to produce what they hope are more accurate estimates.[21] Estimates for the beginning of the period (1600 CE) range from around 15[22] to 22[23] million. The population rose to around 30 million by the end of the period.[24][25]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Gréine Jordan ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 295,000 ♥ KM2 gross land area. ‘during the early modern period, Japan consisted essentially of the three major islands of Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku.’[26]

♠ Polity Population ♣ 22,000,000: 1600 CE; 25,000,000: 1650 CE; 29,000,000: 1700 CE; 29,000,000: 1750 CE; 28,000,000: 1800 CE; 32,000,000: 1850 CE ♥ During this period population census were carried out ‘However, the accuracy of such statistics varies greatly, as the surveys often neglected different demographics like members of the samurai household, children, and others’.[27] A number of scholars have used various methods based on the census and other data to provide estimates that more accurately reflect the actual population. 22,000,000: 1600CE; 25,000,000: 1650CE; 29,000,000: 1700CE; 29,000,000: 1750CE; 28,000,000: 1800CE; 32,000,000: 1850; Population estimate by McEvedy and Jones based on census data chosen to code as it provides figures for the duration of the polity. [28] 26,065,425: 1721CE; 26,921,816: 1732CE; 26,153,450: 1744CE; 26,061,830: 1756CE; 26,010,600: 1780CE; 24,891,441: 1792CE; 25,517,729: 1804CE; 27,201,400: 1828CE; 27,063,907: 1834; 26,907,625: 1846; Based on census data summarized by (Totman 1993).[29] 15,000,000-17,000,000: 1600CE population estimate by Farris [30].

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 570,361: 1678 CE; 1,300,000: 1721 CE; 1,400,000: 1800 CE ♥[31] Edo (Tokyo) transformed from a small village when Tokugawa Ieyasu situated his military headquarters there, he himself taking up residence in 1590.[32] Ieyasu selected it as his capital after the battle of Sekigahara ‘by the end of the eighteenth century it had a population of around a million, making it the biggest city in the world at the time.’[33]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 6 ♥[34] ‘the urban population grew from about 1.4 million (7 or 8 per cent of the total) in the early Tokugawa period to about 5 million (about 16 per cent of the total) by the end of the century.’[35]

6. Metropolises (palace, monumental structures, theatre, market, central government buildings, military fortifications, transport hubs, shrines, temples)

Population: 200,000 -1,400,000[36]

Edo (Tokyo), Kyoto and Osaka ‘were commonly referred to as the santo (three metropolises), and were the three main pillars of the urban system.[37] ‘Between 1550 and 1700 Kyoto was the first city to surpass a population of 100,000 people. By 1700 the city was estimated to have approximately 350,000 individuals. Osaka had roughly 500,000 people in the mid 18th century, dropping to 375,000 in 1801 and 317,000 in 1854.’[38]

5. Castle Town /Market Town (market, theatre, regional government buildings, military fortifications)

Population:1,000-100,000[39]

Estimated about 200 Castle towns throughout the archipelago.[40] ‘During the 16th century, castle towns (joka machi) began their transformation into town and city complexes. This occurred in part because castle towns served as government administration centres. Many daimyo and almost all samurai lived within the castle town complexes. Merchants, traders, artisans, craftspeople, and others were eventually incorporated into these towns and cities to provide the labor and market activity needed to support the work conducted there and to further build and maintain the infrastructure. As a result of this dynamic, castle and market towns came to occupy the same location.’[41]

4. Post-Station Towns (accommodation, shops, entertainment, transport hubs)

Population: 500- 3,000

‘Post-station towns (shukuba machi or shukueki) grew up along the medieval and early modern road systems that connected cities and towns to each other.’[42] ‘...by the later Tokugawa period there were some 250 stations spotted irregularly at intervals of about 5-10kilometers... At each town a manager’s office supervised the station’s activities, while inns furnished lodgings and shop provided entertainment, footgear, meals, medicines, and other essentials. In addition, each town was supposed to maintain a specified number of porters and packhorses to move goods and people.[43]

3. Port Towns (accommodation, trade, transport hubs)

Population:???

Port towns grew up around sea ports that developed flourishing trading centers in the medieval and early modern periods... Even after restrictions on foreign trade were enacted by the shogunate in the 16th century, ports engaged in domestic trade continued to thrive.[44]

2. Temple/Shrine Towns (shrines, temples, accommodation)

Population:???

‘Temple and shrine towns (monzen machi) originated in the vicinity of Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines, usually along the roads leading to these religious sites. These towns served the needs of pilgrims visiting the temples and shrines. Establishments that developed along these routes provided food and lodging to pilgrims, and sold amulets and other religious items. As religious sites grew in size, so did the permanent infrastructure needed to support this activity.’[45]

1. Village (residential)

Population:10-100

‘Besides farm villages, fishing villages were a feature of medieval and early modern rural life, and mountain villages developed in the early modern period around lumber and other products that found flourishing markets in the expanding towns and cities of the Edo period.’[46]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [6-8] ♥

'For the nearly 700-year span of Japan’s medieval and early modern periods, warriors-with varying levels of effectiveness and hegemony-ruled the country. Although the fortunes of particular extended warrior families waxed and waned, only members of the warrior class could serve as shoguns, the military rulers. Their governments, known commonly as shogunates, were often challenged by the interests of other powerful warrior families in various parts of Japan and by the imperial family in Kyoto. Although the warrior bureaucracy largely controlled the affairs of the state, the emperor and the imperial court were still the formal head of government. Warrior governments typically sought out- or forced-the formal imperial decrees that gave legitimacy to the shoguns. Occasionally emperors would attempt to reassert direct imperial rule. They were, however, always suppressed in favor of warrior rule... Warrior governments functioned as a lord-vassal system of loyalty. This is reflected in the political structures of the different shogunates. Although they varied greatly in their organization, the notion of loyalty, whether earned or forced, always laid the foundation on which the warrior government was built.'[47] List derived from ‘Administrative Structure of the Tokugawa Shogunate’.[48] ‘The neat table of organization charts of the Edo bakufu, which list upwards of four hundred posts in chain-of-command order, mask the problems of competition for control of policy and enforcement authority that plagued Edo bakufu politics.’ [49]

1. Shogun

"The Shogun was a hereditary military leader, in this period a member of the Tokugawa family. ‘the shogunate maintained control over the court and aristocrats by enacting legal regulations that set strict limits on their activities. As in the medieval period, the emperor was largely a figurehead whose main function was to perform public rituals."[50]
2. Samurai retainers (Hatamoto)
"Edo city commissioners were selected from among those of hatamoto (“bannerman”: direct samurai retainers of the shogunate) rank."[51]
2. Envoys to the Court (Kinrizuki)
"Imperial palace inspectors."[52]
2. Masters Of Shogunal Ceremony (soshaban)
"protocol officials who reported directly to the shogun. The 20-some soshaban were responsible for such tasks as keeping the shogun’s schedule and organizing shogunal ceremonies." [53]
2. Grand Chamberlain (sobayonin)
"responsible for transmitting messages between the Tokugawa shogun and the roju, the shogun’s senior councillors. This position was created in 1681."


_Central government_

2. Great Elder (Tairo)
"Although the position of tairo ranked just below shogun in the Edo period’s administrative structure, it was in fact an office rarely filled."[54]
2. Senior Councillors (Roju)
‘Roju were senior officials of the Tokugawa shogunate who watched over the entire government structure and the functioning of its many offices. In short, they administered the affairs of state, both domestic and foreign, for the shogunate. Senior councillors—usually four or five in number—were appointed from among the fudai (hereditary vassals) daimyo.’[55]
3. Junior Councillors (wakadoshiyori)
"Junior councillors, or “young elders” assisted the roju and surveyed the hatamoto and gokenin. Additionally, they supervised artisans, artists, physicians, palace guards, and construction work. In case of a war, the wakadoshiyori led the hatamoto into battle. The position was created in 1633 and chosen from the fudai daimyo."[56]
4. Captains of the Bodyguard, Inner Guard, And New Guard (shoimban-gashira koshogumiban-gashira
The various bodyguards operated under the command of the junior councillors during war.
3. Chamberlains (sobashu)
"The office of sobashu was established in 1653 by the fourth shogun, Tokugawa Ietsuna. Chamberlains were in direct service to the shoguns and, bureaucratically, reported to the roju."[57]
3. Commissioners Of Finance (Kanjo bugyo)
"officials accountable for financial matters. Kanjo bugyo reported directly to the senior councillors (roju). These commissioners—usually only four in number but overseeing a large number of assistants—were appointed from those of hatamoto rank."[58]
3. Intendants (daikan)
"These local government officials supervised and managed the shogunate’s personal landholdings (tenryo)."[59]
3. Comptrollers (Kanjo gimmiyaku)
"This office, created in 1682, was charged with investigating, and otherwise overseeing, the operations of the kanjo bugyo (commissioners of finance). Although comptrollers were structurally lower than the commissioners of finance, they functioned as a control over the higher office’s activities. Kanjo gimmiyaku reported to the senior councillors (roju)."[60]
3. Inspectors General (ometsuke)
"This office originated in 1632 when the third shogun, Tokugawa Iemitsu, appointed four people of hatamoto (bannerman) rank to oversee activities and places of potential trouble to the shogunate. Those who served as ometsuke were often senior officials with extensive government service scrutinized by the ometsuke were the road system, daimyo activities, and groups troublesome to the shogunate such as Christian missionaries and their Japanese followers. Inspectors general reported to the senior councillors (roju)."[61]
4. official involved in road system inferred
5. manager of road maintenance works inferred
6. worker on road maintenance inferred
3. Masters of Court Ceremony (koke) -- how are these related to the Masters Of Shogunal Ceremony (soshaban)?
"Literally, “elevated families,” koke were hereditary government officials responsible for carrying out official ceremonies and rituals for the shogunate. In addition, masters of court ceremony were used as shogunal representatives at court, temple, and shrine functions."[62]
3. Commissioners of Temples and Shrines (jisha bugyo)
"usually four in number, supervised temple and shrine affairs, including matters involving religious hierarchies and the landholdings of these institutions. Among other responsibilities, they also held subsidiary duties involving legal matters in regions outside of the Edo area."[63]


_Provincial government_

2. Edo City Commissioners (Edo muchi bugyo)
"charged with overseeing matters of city life concerning the chonin (townspeople and merchants). Edo city commissioners were selected from among those of hatamoto (“bannerman”: direct samurai retainers of the shogunate) rank."[64]
2. Commissioners of Distant Provinces (ongoku bugyo)
"The post of ongoku bugyo was similar in duty to the Edo machi bugyo ... except that these commissioners served in localities other than Edo, including Kyoto and Osaka. Like the Edo machi bugyo, they were selected from among families of hatamoto (bannerman) rank."[65]
2. Kyoto Deputy (Kyoto shoshidai)
"The post of Kyoto deputy was first established by Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi, during the Azuchi-Momoyama period, to oversee the affairs of Kyoto, especially the activities of the imperial court and nearby territories. This office became formalized within the administrative structure of the Tokugawa shogunate.’[66]
2. Keeper of Osaka Castle (Osaka jodai)
"the senior military officer in central Japan. As the primary administrator in the region, the Osaka jodai maintained the military strength of Osaka Castle. During the Edo period, jodai, including the Osaka jodai, served as the proxy of the Tokugawa shogun in commanding the respective castle. This rank was reserved for middle ranking daimyo, and holders of this rank were frequently promoted to posts of Kyoto deputy (Kyoto shoshidai) and senior councillor (roju)."[67]


Posts not yet positioned:

- Chiefs of the Pages and Attendants (kosho todori/ konando todori)

- Inspectors (metsuke) "performed police and enforcement duties at numerous levels. Not only did they serve as high-level spies for their military rulers, but they also evaluated other shogunal officials and staff as well."[68]

- Magistrates, Accountants, Tax Collectors, Policemen[69]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 2 ♥ levels

levels. In Buddhism. Inferred continuity with previous polities.

1. Master

2. Disciple

and/or

1. Abbot

2. Monk


♠ Military levels ♣ 6 ♥ levels.[70]

1. Shogun

2. Captains of the Great Guard (Obangashira)
"responsible for security at the three castles—at Edo, Kyoto, and Osaka—associated with the shogunate."[71]
2. Keepers of Edo Castle
"supervised and when necessary, defended Edo Castle."[72]
2. Marshal (sotaisho)
3. Officers (usually mounted)
- divided into spear group magistrate (yari bugyo) and army magistrate (gun bugyo)
4. Lower ranking officers (usually not mounted) e.g. Division commander (monogashir)
- e.g. division commander (monogashir) and group commander (kumigashira).
5. Group commander (kumigashira)
6. Foot soldiers (ashigaru)
- archers (yumigumi), spearmen (yarigumi) and harquebusiers (teppogumi).

"by 1623, Ieyasu’s force consisted of 12 companies. The companies were headed by a single captain, four lieutenants, and 50 guards. There was extensive variation in the ways troops were structured for battle and the hierarchy of command that directed the troops."[73]

1. Shogun

2. Captain
3. Lieutenant
4. Guards
5. Individual soldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥[74] ‘First and foremost, the samurai was a professional soldier, and thus was expected to perform martial duties at the request of his lord in exchange for remuneration in the form of land, subvassals who worked samurai fields and served in his military unit, and other tangible rewards, such as protection.’[75]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ 'The generic term for a Shinto priest is kannushi. However, Shinto in the medieval and early modern periods was not a centrally organized tradition. Hence, there is great variation in terminology used to denote Shinto priests. Historically, the office of shrine priest was typically passed down through a priestly family from father to son.[76]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ 'most warriors served the Tokugawa shogunate as administrators or bureaucrats, not as military retainers.'[77]

♠ Examination system ♣ present ♥ ‘part of the importance of the Shoheiko [a government training school who’s origins date back to 1630] was that it trained students to pass exams that enabled them to assume government positions.’[78]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ present ♥ Although inherited status was the basis for most appointments and authority within the appropriate class there was some room for merit based promotion, encouraged by the popularity of Confucianism.‘Confucianism was not always good for the shogunate. One of its ironies was that it encouraged ideas of merit and learning. This was allowed for in concepts of hierarchy and rank in China, which permitted some mobility on the basis of learning and meritorious achievement, and in later centuries this was also to some extent to be allowed for in Japan. However, encouragement of merit and learning did not necessarily work in the best interests of the Tokugawa shogunate and its policy of unquestioning orthodoxy and stability.’[79] ‘Instruction also differed depending on the status of a student’s family. It was often the case that status was treated as more important than ability’.[80]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥[81]Mint[82]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ In 1615 Ieyasu Tokugawa issued laws aimed at controlling both the court and the military. ‘Though the court had legitimised Ieyasu’s own position...he made it clear that its authority was merely formal and ceremonial. It was made subject to the control of the shogunate, which reserved the right to approve all court appointments. Military houses were controlled by the enforcement of the status quo, down to the fine detail.’ The Tokugawa shogunate brought in strict codes of behaviour and enforced punishment for their breaking. Legal codes under the Tokugawa shogunate were a continuation of previous codes, however, ‘under the Tokugawa not only were they more detailed and explicit, but they were effective throughout Japan’[83] ‘The Tokugawa also created a new set of laws for the military houses that was reminiscent of the code put forth by the Kamakura shogunate. Known as the Buke Shohatto, these laws served to tighten the shogunate’s control over conquered daimyo and were intended to structure the Edo social hierarchy in a way that conformed to the Confucian ideals for the perfect society. This initial set of laws proved very successful as it became solidly woven into the fabric of the Japanese ethos by the mid-1700s.’[84]

♠ Judges ♣ present♥ ‘In addition to issuing travel passes and resolving civil disputes, the machi bugyô would sit in judgement for offences committed by townsmen. Several times a month, the Edo magistrates would form a sort of high court along with senior councillors to judge more serious cases...’[85]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ 'A supreme court (hydjosho) staffed by daimyo and bannermen members of the shogun's upper administration was established in Edo Castle in 1722.' [86]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥ ‘Traditional Japanese jurisprudence allowed legal representation only in exceptional circumstances, such as cases in which infancy, advanced age or illness were an issue. In 1854, the function of the lawyer was viewed as accompanying people to court and writing documents for them. Under Japanese law at the time, some form of relationship was required between legal representative and litigant. Innkeepers (kujishi) could provide such a relationship. They were the first class of legal representatives in Japan, although they had no legal training. While they had no official recognition, they were allowed to act as counselor for clients who had traveled to the Tokyo court and were staying in their inn. Court officials viewed the kujishi with suspicion, and their reputations were generally very poor.'[87]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥[88]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥[89] ‘early in the Tokugawa period, when Edo was growing rapidly, an elaborate water supply system was created that drew on rivers and ponds in the hinterland to the west... the water was distributed through a complex system of channels and ditches in the overland portion and then underground through a main conduit of stone and secondary lines of wooden planks with bamboo tubes which led to individual shallow wells where people could get buckets of water. These waterworks were initially built by the shogunate at its own expense, but later the coast of maintaining the system was almost entirely shifted onto the merchants and artisans who used it.’[90]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥[91]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ 'Yet two major crop failures of multiple-year duration (in the 1730s and 1780s) plus other poor harvest years did not decrease the population of this already-crowded country. The Japanese had sufficient surplus in normal or good years so that food could be stored. A single year of poor harvest thus could be weathered without the loss of life recorded for earlier centuries.' [92]
♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ The shogunate improved the communications systems and established ‘a five-road system (gokaido) directly maintained by the government. These roads were intended to serve the bureaucratic and military interests of the shogunate by linking the government’s base at Edo with the provinces’.[93]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥[94] In a bid to maintain control and limit potential uprisings ‘the government deliberately refrained from building bridges and otherwise facilitating communications on the main lines of approach to Yedo [Edo;Tokyo]’ enabling them to monitor all access routes to and from the city.[95]
♠ Canals ♣ present♥[96]
♠ Ports ♣ present♥ ‘maritime infrastructure - including docks, warehouses, and canals - was built or improved, and new coastal shipping routes were established to better link the provinces with major cities like Osaka and Edo’[97]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ 'Mining has been prevalent throughout Japanese history. In particular, during the 16th to the 18th centuries, a number of gold and silver mines were opened, including the famous Sado Island mines. These mines produced tremendous amounts of gold and silver, which aided the income of the Tokugawa shogunate.'[98]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present♥[99]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ The earliest known written Japanese texts date to the eight century. Although the spoken languages have no relationship Chinese characters were borrowed to enable Japanese to be written ‘Over time the Japanese writing system developed into a complex use of Chinese characters along with two different phonetic scripts to represent the sounds of spoken Japanese. The two phonetic scripts—hiragana and katakana—represented the same sounds but were used in different contexts reflecting, among other things, class and gender.’[100]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ The earliest known written Japanese texts date to the eight century. Although the spoken languages have no relationship Chinese characters were borrowed to enable Japanese to be written ‘Over time the Japanese writing system developed into a complex use of Chinese characters along with two different phonetic scripts to represent the sounds of spoken Japanese. The two phonetic scripts—hiragana and katakana—represented the same sounds but were used in different contexts reflecting, among other things, class and gender.’[101]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ The earliest known written Japanese texts date to the eight century. Although the spoken languages have no relationship Chinese characters were borrowed to enable Japanese to be written ‘Over time the Japanese writing system developed into a complex use of Chinese characters along with two different phonetic scripts to represent the sounds of spoken Japanese. The two phonetic scripts—hiragana and katakana—represented the same sounds but were used in different contexts reflecting, among other things, class and gender.’[102]


Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥[103] The high literacy rate in the Tokugawa period (calculated at around 40% of the population) aided the proliferation of written works.[104]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ ‘In the medieval and early modern periods, the Japanese utilized the traditional lunar calendar. Dates on this calendar represented the day, month, and year, the last of which could be determined by several methods. Two such methods included the 60-year time cycle and the use of the era name, or nengo. Nengo was a unit of time comparable to an era, commonly employed to date events or chronological periods. The use of this measure of time began in the seventh century. The change of emperor included a change in era name. However, in the early modern period, the nengo did not simply represent the duration of a governmental regime. New era names might be declared when auspicious events occurred or at certain points in the traditional 60- year (sexagenary) calendar cycle... Despite the official use of the lunar calendar, the solar calendar was also employed and was very important for farmers.’[105] ‘As the field of Western astronomy developed in Japan, the government appointed official astronomers (temmonkata) to serve and advise the shogunate. The first, Shibukawa Shunkai (or Harumi; 1639-1715), was a student of the theories of Copernicus. He utilized this knowledge to design a new calendar, the Jokyo calendar, based on a late 13thcentury Chinese calendar that was adopted as the official Japanese calendar in 1684.’[106]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ The high literacy rate in the Tokugawa period (calculated at around 40% of the population) aided the proliferation of written works.[107]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ ‘in the first decades of the early modern period, such as Buddhist sermons and Neo-Confucian ethical instruction.’ [108]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ travel guides; teaching books [109]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ There is a long tradition of historical recording in Japan. Japan’s oldest extant text is Kojiki (Record of ancient matters) written in 712 although it deals with what today would be considered mythological themes it was treated as a historic text [110]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ ‘Unless we make the claim that Buddhism is a philosophy, Japan did not have philosophical systems separate from explicit religious affiliations until the early modern period. The Edo period was a time of great intellectual change and development. New ways of thinking were derived from Neo-Confucian, Shinto, and Western sources. Within these three modes of thinking there was a great deal of variation between traditions and many instances of borrowing between traditions. It is Neo-Confucian thought, however, that framed much of the political, social, and moral discourse during the Edo period.’[111]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ ‘In medieval and early modern Japan, the natural sciences—including such disciplines as medicine, mathematics, and astronomy—were largely influenced by Chinese systems of science and classification of the natural world.’[112] ‘The seclusion policy only permitted contact with Dutch and Chinese traders, so it was largely through Dutch that the Japanese gained knowledge of Western science and medicine.’ [113] ‘the Ishimpo (Methods at the heart of medicine), composed in 982 by Tamba Yasuyori (912-995), is Japan’s oldest extant medical text and displays the influence of Chinese medicine and medical treatises on Japan’s understanding of medicine.’[114]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ One of the world’s oldest extant novels was written in Japan c.1000 in the Heian period. Genji monogatari (Tale of Genji) written by a noblewoman lady-in-waiting Murasaki Shikibu. ‘While aristocratic literature retained its importance throughout the medieval and early modern periods, it was also supplanted in many ways by literature that reflected the sensibilities of a much broader segment of Japanese society. Warriors, Buddhists, merchants, masterless samurai, and geisha were among those who became the subjects of this literature and those whose interests this literature sometimes expressed.’[115] ‘In similar fashion, the transition from the medieval to the early modern was accompanied by the gradual emergence of urban centers that were home to newly important social classes, such as merchants and other commoners. The social context of urban culture—in particular, the cities of Edo, Osaka, and Kyoto—was central to the development of early modern literary sensibilities and tastes. Warrior literature was not replaced, but early modern literature is notable for its articulation of the interests and concerns of merchants, artisans, and other nonelite members of early modern society.... Because of the contact with the Dutch, the Dutch language became the medium through which new Western scientific and medical knowledge were disseminated. Translations of Dutch scientific and medical books into Japanese led to the advancement of Japanese scientific thinking and opened up whole new ways to think about the natural world, including anatomy, astronomy, and geography.’[116]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥rice[117]
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources.
♠ Precious metals ♣ present♥ ‘Ieyasu also used precious metals in trade, gift giving, and decoration. But he went farther than his predecessors in establishing the credibility of money by suppressing inferior coins, setting up regulated mints, and issuing currency and bullion of reliable weight and fineness. In 1601 he commissioned trusted merchants to establish silver, gold, and copper mints (giza, kinza, and doza) in Fushimi and Sunpu (later moved to Kyoto and Edo) and to mint bullion from this mines into coins with specified values based on their metallic content.’[118]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥ previously Chinese coinage had been used but with the introduction of a new indigenous coinage this was no longer needed, although it is possible that some coinage remained in circulation. [119]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ ‘in the Tokugawa period (1600-1867), a nationally independent monetary system was created, as the shogunal government (Bakufu) issued its own bronze, silver, and gold coinages. Up to the 1770s, the Tokugawa coinage system functioned as a triple monetary standard. Each of the metallic coinages had its own system of denominations, despite Bakufu efforts to fix rates between them, the gold, silver, and copper coinages in effect floated against each other in the exchange markets.’ [120]
♠ Paper currency ♣ present ♥ ‘paper currency was used only on a limited basis in the early modern period. When paper money was issued, it was done by individual domains for use only within that region, despite the fact that the value of this paper money was pegged to the shogunate’s national currency system. The Fukui domain was the first to issue paper currency, doing so in 1661, and other domains followed this practice.’[121]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ ‘They were utilized by the shogunate in the conduct of government business. Domain lords used couriers to maintain communications between their domain and Edo residences. Merchants—especially those in Edo, Osaka, and Kyoto—relied on couriers for the conduct of business between cities.’[122]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ there were official postal stations which catered to the needs of couriers and other travelers.[123]
♠ General postal service ♣ present ♥[124]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Gréine Jordan ; Thomas Cressy ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ required for bronze
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Had long been in use in Japan
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ 'By the Yayoi Period (50-250 CE) iron tools became more plentiful, as is evidenced by advances in woodworking technologies. By the last century of the Yayoi, iron-working technologies spread quickly across the central region of Japan from west to east. Over the course of the next several hundred years, iron completely replaced stone as the mineral of choice. Iron swords, armor, and arrowheads came to occupy prominent places in the tombs of the Kofun period. From that time onward, iron and its alloy with carbon, steel, were Japan's pre-eminent proto-industrial metals.' [125]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ 'By the Yayoi Period (50-250 CE) iron tools became more plentiful, as is evidenced by advances in woodworking technologies. By the last century of the Yayoi, iron-working technologies spread quickly across the central region of Japan from west to east. Over the course of the next several hundred years, iron completely replaced stone as the mineral of choice. Iron swords, armor, and arrowheads came to occupy prominent places in the tombs of the Kofun period. From that time onward, iron and its alloy with carbon, steel, were Japan's pre-eminent proto-industrial metals.' [126]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Could not find any evidence of use
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred absent ♥ Could not find any evidence of use
♠ Slings ♣ absent ♥ although they had been present in the much earlier Yayoi period (c.300BCE-300CE).[127]
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ although single piece bows were used in earlier times, and could technically have been used, the composite bow had been standard military equipment since the 9th century.
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥‘From the Kamakura period, bows were constructed in layers utilizing bamboo slats for added strength and flexibility. The core of the bow was made of stiff wood and was combined with laminated pieces of bamboo. After the 15th century, the sides of the bow were laminated with bamboo slats, and the wooden core of the bow was thus completely encased in bamboo. For added strength, cane was wound around the stave of the bow. While in theory the cane bow was finished with lacquer for additional protection, this was not always the case in practice.’[128] "Japanese bows began as simple wooden staves and gradually gained laminates of bamboo first on the outside face, then the inside face (early thirteenth century), then on the two sides (fifteenth century)."[129] "The bow remained the primary combat weapon until the arquebus replaced it in the sixteenth century."[130]
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The bow staves of Chinese crossbows were composites of wood, bone, sinew and glue ... But, as we have observed, the Japanese lacked supplies of animal products, and fashioned their bows from wood and bamboo instead, which required that the weapons be long. Manufacturing crossbows with composite bow staves of wood and bamboo comparable in length to those of regular bows would have resulted in a weapon too unwieldy to be practical". However some crossbows were imported.[131]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The traction trebuchet thus continued to be used in Japan long after it had been abandoned in China and the West. A final reference to the use of catapults concerns the siege of Osaka castle in 1614 where, Sadler tells us in The Maker of Modern Japan, the defenders installed ‘fire-projecting mangonels’, for which traction trebuchets may best be understood. As it was during this action that the Tokugawa besiegers bombarded the castle from a long distance using European cannon...."[132]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ trebuchets used were not gravity powered counter-weight trebuchets. "Japan appears never to have adopted the counterweight trebuchet, making the leap direct from traction trebuchets to cannon, although even these saw little use until the very end of the age of the samurai."[133]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ present ♥ "A final reference to the use of catapults concerns the siege of Osaka castle in 1614 where, Sadler tells us in The Maker of Modern Japan, the defenders installed ‘fire-projecting mangonels’, for which traction trebuchets may best be understood. As it was during this action that the Tokugawa besiegers bombarded the castle from a long distance using European cannon..."[134] ‘explosive weapons were rarely used in Japan before the 19th century. Evidence indicates that samurai eschewed most forms of heavy artillery until the last major campaign of the Tokugawa shogunate, in which cannons were used against lingering Toyotomi loyalists at Osaka Castle between 1614 and 1615.’[135] Thunderclap Bombs the only account we have of thunderclap bombs in Japan concerns the exploding bombs thrown by traction trebuchets in 1468... similar bombs were probably used in Japan as late as in 1614 during the defence of Osaka castle.’[136] Land Mines ‘in an account of the siege of Osaka in 1615, Mori Katsunaga is described as leaving a landmine behind as he retreated.’[137]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ present ♥‘even if firearms (teppo) were already known in Japan, their use was not widespread in Japanese battles until after European guns were formally introduced to Tanegashima Tokitaka, daimyo of an island domain off the southern coast of Kyushu, in 1543.’[138] ‘early in the 16th century, firearms were introduced to Japan and quickly adapted for use in battle. By the end of the Warring States period in 1568, gunnery began to replace archery as the most prominent weapon in the military arsenal. Foot soldiers learned to use the newly acquired weapon to best advantage in various foot stances and on horseback.’[139] ‘With the founding of the Tokugawa shogunate, firearms production was reduced and further advances in technology and design were interrupted until the inception of the Meiji Restoration in 1868 and removal of trade restrictions. Regardless, there was no requirement for firearms during the security of Edo-period peace.’[140] "Portuguese introduced them in 1543 CE." [141]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ Kanabou (金棒) is noted as being a club weapon in use: 'Sort of iron club used by warriors in ancient times, and a favorite weapon of some monk-warriors (Heisou) in the Heian and Kamakura periods' [142] Photographs exists as late as 1868 with samurai still being equipped with this [143]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ [144]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥[145]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ ‘During this time of warrior-administrators and leisurely study of military arts, swordsmanship and sword drawing thrived as the most prized martial skill among the warrior classes, and the sword was heralded as embodying the “soul of the samurai.' [146] ‘In practice medieval warriors regarded the sword as one weapon among many—useful primarily in close combat, which was to be avoided if at all possible. Although many warriors carried swords in battle, they functioned primarily as a supplement to the more effective bow and arrow. Swords were more likely to figure in conflicts apart from battles, such as assassinations or brawls, and in the Edo period, these weapons were carried as a privilege conferred by socioeconomic rank.’[147] ‘The curved-profile Japanese sword originated in approximately the eighth century, coinciding with the earliest steel production in Japan and the emergence of the first professional military figures.' [148]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ ‘The yari [spear] was one of the most important weapons in the samurai arsenal, especially in infantry units during the Warring States period (1467-1568) and thereafter when the yari served as a means of tactical advancement to a higher position.’[149] ‘Spears (yari) have a long history in Japan, as the two earliest extant Japanese histories, the Kojiki (712 C.E.) and the Nihon shoki (720 C.E.) recount that the Japanese islands emerged from drops created when the gods Izanami and Izanagi used a jeweled spear to stir the cosmic brine mixture that constituted the universe.[150] ‘The yari is also sometimes called a lance to underscore that in Japan spears were not thrown as in other military traditions where these arms served as projectile weapons.’[151] ‘In the long peace of the Edo period (1600-1868), the yari earned a place as an emblem of samurai status and became standard ceremonial equipment borne by retainers of high-ranking warriors.’ [152]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ The mastery of polearm’s (naginata) was listed as a basic skill practiced by samurai in the Tokugawa period. ‘First used by the early Kamakura period, the naginata is closest to a European glaive in form, with an elongated shaft, and a single-edged blade curved more than that of a Kamakura-period Japanese tachi. Most likely, the naginata was based upon similar weapons introduced from China by 300 C.E. which have been unearthed in graves.'[153] ‘From the 11th until the mid-15th century, the naginata was the primary weapon wielded by foot soldier... In the Edo period, naginata techniques became an established martial art and schools of instruction emerged. Daughters of samurai were expected to learn naginata jutsu, and the polearm was regarded as a woman’s weapon from the 17th century on.’[154]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ could find no evidence of dogs - but no sources saying that they were not used either
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ could find no evidence of donkeys - but no sources saying that they were not used either
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Horses from the 8th century cavalry played an often vital part in Japanese . The importance place about cavalry shifted throughout time falling in and out of popularity but always remaining present.[155] ‘Equestrian samurai purportedly serving as guards were a familiar sight in daimyo entourages of the Edo period, and maintained a ceremonial presence that honored the mounted samurai tradition.’[156]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ could find no evidence of camels - but no sources saying that they were not used either (although I think this is a very safe bet)
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ could find no evidence of elephants - but no sources saying that they were not used either (although I think this is a very safe bet)

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥‘Japanese armorers did not confine themselves to metal, and instead incorporated lighter and more malleable materials such as leather and silk (or other fibers) along with iron or steel parts.’ [157] ‘The preferred type of leather was cowhide, and the preferred part of the hide was the animal’s back, as this was the thickest. But because it was uneconomical to waste the rest of the hide, craftsmen also made sane from the belly leather, which was thinner and softer. This meant that the lamellae in most armors were of uneven.’ [158]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Chinese dynastic histories include descriptions that indicate shields were in use by the third century in Japan...From the Nara period to the early medieval period, military shields were standing wooden barriers about eye-level in height and roughly the width of human shoulders... They were attached to poles, or feet, which were hinged so that the support could be collapsed and stored or transported flat. Approximately one and a half meters tall and less than half a meter wide, mostly such shields were made of several planks joined vertically. Although shields could withstand more force if each was made from a single board, this was the exception rather than the rule. Protective substances such as lacquer could also prolong the life of such standing shields; however, by the end of the Kamakura period, decoration usually consisted solely of a family crest.' [159]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ The basic form of helmet (kabuto) that dominated medieval and early modern armor was shaped generally like a skull cap with an opening at the front top and flaps at the sides intended to protect the neck and face. In addition, the neck was shielded by a series of three or five metal plates. By the end of the Muromachi period, most ordinary helmets were made from iron and/or steel. The helmet was formed from individual plates fastened with rivets or simply joined together. The top portion of the helmet, shaped like the pate of a human head, was called the hachi. In the early medieval period, from the 11th to 14th centuries, hachi were almost invariably rounded.' [160]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ ‘Such suits, called nambando gusoku in Japanese, often incorporated two single-ridged, hammered iron sheets which were hinged on one side and fastened with cord on the other.’ [161]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[162] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[163]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[164] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[165]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[166] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[167]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ ‘lames in English, or sane in Japanese, and remained a central component of the relatively flexible armor developed in Japan throughout the medieval period... Even armor made during the early feudal era in Japan typically consisted of modular steel scales called lames atop leather laced together with leather, various types of cord, and silk.’ [168] "Japanese armor was built up from small iron lamellae, 7-8 cm long by 3-4 cm wide, laced together into larger plates. These were combined together to form an extremely effective suit that offered good protection from arrows and swords."[169] "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[170] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[171]
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ ‘Such suits, called nambando gusoku in Japanese, often incorporated two single-ridged, hammered iron sheets which were hinged on one side and fastened with cord on the other.’ [172] "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[173] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[174]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ Thomas Cressy: Small boats were still in use for transport, fishing, and diplomacy. No reason to believe this technology disappeared here.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ ' The atake-bune was a type of naval warship that was used in battles during the Warring States period and into the early Edo period. These vessels were anywhere from about 20 to 65 feet in length. Atake-bune included a wooden tower from which arrows or matchlock guns could be fired at the enemy. Twenty to 25 oarsmen were needed to propel these large ships.’ [175] ‘Seki-bune was a type of Japanese warship used in the Warring States period and at the beginning of the early modern period. Unlike its contemporary, the atake-bune, the seki-bune was much smaller and faster’. [176]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ 'After the feudal system was reorganized by the Tokugawa shogunate, castles (shiro) were erected in the center of a daimyo’s domain, so they would be easily accessible. Without natural defenses such as hills and plateaus, these structures required additional protection compared with the elevated shiro built during the late Muromachi and Momoyama periods.’, however settlements in defensive positions would still have been in use.' [177] Castles continued to be important despite the long period of peace. [178]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ [179]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ 'Describing the fortifications at a fortified camp at Akaska in 1600 ‘a long curving ditch and embankment surrounds it, on top of which is a solid wooden palisade pierced by loopholes.’ [180]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ [181]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ [182]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ '‘these sculpted mounds then received a cladding of cyclopean [non-mortared] yet mathematically precise stone blocks’ [183]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ 'since no mortar was used to hold the stones in place, free drainage of water was permitted.’ [184]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ [185]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Palace at Edo? Cannot get enough detail from snippet read.
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent: 1603-1854CE ; present: 1855-1868CE ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Gréine Jordan ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ "The Shogun was a hereditary military leader, in this period a member of the Tokugawa family. ‘the shogunate maintained control over the court and aristocrats by enacting legal regulations that set strict limits on their activities. As in the medieval period, the emperor was largely a figurehead whose main function was to perform public rituals."[186]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ absent/present/unknown. For example, rulers are blessed by gods; the institution of kingship is ordained by heaven

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ "Toward the end of the Tokugawa period, with the rise of the demand to establish a unified state, the ideology of loyalty to the emperor was intensely promoted. In the loyalist statements, the term kōdō [i.e. the Way of the Emperor] assumed great importance. There, the terms kōdō and kōgaku became linked with the terms kan'nagara (embodying the gods) and akitsumikami (god incarnate), and their use became inseparable from the religious reverence of the divine emperor. Kōno asserts that the definition of kan'nagara contained the meaning that the position of the emperor, as the embodiment of Amaterasu Ōmikami, and his government, was absolutely sacred and reflected the will of the goddess." [187]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ "From the perspective of the ideal society, the Tokugawa shogunate articulated a rigid fourfold social hierarchy based on notions derived from Neo-Confucian moral philosophy. This was intended, in part, to organize society in accord with the produc tive value of each social class to the larger society. The so-called shi-no-ko-sho structure - warrior (shi), farmer (no), artisan (ko), and merchant (sho) - was viewed as the ideal arrangement ofsociety that pro duced order and harmony. The warrior class was the head ofthe hierarchy because ofthe warriors’ role as government administrators. Farmers followed next because of the importance of their work in nourish ing and sustaining the nation. Artisans comprised the next most valuable group because they were responsible for manufacturing items of utilitarian worth. Merchants followed last. They were little esteemed by the Neo-Confucian value system that animated the social hierarchy because they were viewed as producing nothing yet making a profit off the labor of others. Finally, there were groups of people who were not placed within this system, including aristocrats, monastics, and outcastes." [188]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ "From the perspective of the ideal society, the Tokugawa shogunate articulated a rigid fourfold social hierarchy based on notions derived from Neo-Confucian moral philosophy. This was intended, in part, to organize society in accord with the produc tive value of each social class to the larger society. The so-called shi-no-ko-sho structure - warrior (shi), farmer (no), artisan (ko), and merchant (sho) - was viewed as the ideal arrangement ofsociety that pro duced order and harmony. The warrior class was the head ofthe hierarchy because ofthe warriors’ role as government administrators. Farmers followed next because of the importance of their work in nourish ing and sustaining the nation. Artisans comprised the next most valuable group because they were responsible for manufacturing items of utilitarian worth. Merchants followed last. They were little esteemed by the Neo-Confucian value system that animated the social hierarchy because they were viewed as producing nothing yet making a profit off the labor of others. Finally, there were groups of people who were not placed within this system, including aristocrats, monastics, and outcastes." [189]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ "From the perspective of the ideal society, the Tokugawa shogunate articulated a rigid fourfold social hierarchy based on notions derived from Neo-Confucian moral philosophy. This was intended, in part, to organize society in accord with the produc tive value of each social class to the larger society. The so-called shi-no-ko-sho structure - warrior (shi), farmer (no), artisan (ko), and merchant (sho) - was viewed as the ideal arrangement ofsociety that pro duced order and harmony. The warrior class was the head ofthe hierarchy because ofthe warriors’ role as government administrators. Farmers followed next because of the importance of their work in nourish ing and sustaining the nation. Artisans comprised the next most valuable group because they were responsible for manufacturing items of utilitarian worth. Merchants followed last. They were little esteemed by the Neo-Confucian value system that animated the social hierarchy because they were viewed as producing nothing yet making a profit off the labor of others. Finally, there were groups of people who were not placed within this system, including aristocrats, monastics, and outcastes." [190]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ According to Buddhism: "The twofold benefit of living a morally good life is linked to a twofold motivation: ‘Protecting oneself, one protects others; protecting others, one protects oneself ’ - just as each acrobat in a balancing act protects his partner by concentrating on himself, and protects himself by concentrating on his partner (see SN 47:19). If we take care of our own spiritual development, we render a service to others; and if we develop love towards others, we thereby also help ourselves. Accordingly, it is explicitly stated, someone who pursues the path of salvation only for his or her own benefit is to be censured, while the one who follows the path for one’s own benefit and for the benefit of others is to be commended (see AN 7:64)." [191] "Three segments of the Noble Eightfold Path (3 - 5) are traditionally subsumed under the principle of morality (sila): ‘right speech’ (3), ‘right action’ (4) and ‘right livelihood’ (5). [...] ‘Right action’ is explained as abstaining from harming and killing sentient beings - including animals (!), and further as abstaining from ‘taking what is not given’ and from sexual misconduct, which means avoiding sexual relations with women who are still under the protection of their families, or with those who are married, betrothed, or celibate for religious reasons. From monks and nuns complete sexual abstention is demanded. ‘Right livelihood’ means abstaining from those sources of income which involve harming other beings: trading in weapons for instance, or trading in living beings, meat, intoxicants or poison; also included is the avoidance of fraud and avarice." [192] As for Neo-Confucianism: "There are a number of terms and concepts that regularly appear in the writings of Edo-period Neo-Confucians. [...] Benevolence (jin) is a fundamental Confucian virtue that is concerned with the fundamentally relational and social nature of Confucian ethics and notions of government. Those who have cultivated benevolence express humanity and compassion through the way they treat other people. A person who has cultivated benevolence is able to act toward others in an altruistic way. The attainment of the virtue of benevolence is also considered transformative in the sense that one cannot be truly moral without it." [193] Because it syncretised with both Buddhism and Neo-Confucianism [194][195], it seems reasonable to infer that Buddhist and Neo-Confucian stances on certain issues applied to Shinto as well.

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ According to Buddhism: "Leading a moral life is seen as having a wider social dimension as well. Establishing public parks, constructing bridges, digging wells and providing a residence for the homeless (see SN 1:1:47; similarly Jat 31) - all these are commended." [196]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [197] [198]

Religion and Normative Ideology

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

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