JpSengk

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Japan - Sengoku Jidai ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Sengoku Period; Warring States Period ♥ "The Onin War ... ushered in a time of such unparalleled strife that future historians, puzzling over what to call a century and a half of war in Japan, threw up their hands in despair and settled for an analogy with the most warlike period in ancient Chinese history: the Age of Warring States. Translated into Japanese this became the Sengoku jidai or Sengoku Period ..." [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1568 CE ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1467-1568 CE ♥

This period starts at the Onin War 1467 CE: "The Onin War ... ushered in a time of such unparalleled strife that future historians, puzzling over what to call a century and a half of war in Japan, threw up their hands in despair and settled for an analogy with the most warlike period in ancient Chinese history: the Age of Warring States. Translated into Japanese this became the Sengoku jidai or Sengoku Period ..." [2]

This period ends in 1568 CE at the beginning of the Unification Period. The Azuchi-Momoyama Period is distinct from the Sengoku because during this latter period central government was reestablished under a number of successive rulers.

However, the Age of Warring States or Sengoku Period traditionally can extend all the way to the seventeenth century, for example to 1615 CE: "With the final defeat of his rivals at Osaka in 1615, the Tokugawa shoguns took over where the Ashikaga had left off, and the Age of Warring States gave way to the long Tokugawa Peace, out of which, two and a half centuries later, was born modern Japan."[3]


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥

"It was an age when rival warlords, called daimyo (literally ‘the great names’) fought one another with armies of samurai - for land, for survival and, in some cases, even for that seemingly most empty of prizes, the control of the shogun himself and his devastated capital." [4]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

daimyo made alliances.[5]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Ashikaga Shogunate ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuation ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Japan - Azuchi-Momoyama ♥ or Tokogawa Shogunate, depending on whether the more centralized 1568-c1600 CE period is considered a separate quasi-polity from this one.
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Japanese ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Kyoto ♥ "During the Sengoku Period Kyoto was the capital, but was supplanted in influence by the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate in Edo (now Tokyo) in 1603."[6]

♠ Language ♣ Middle Japanese ♥ Middle Japanese 12th-16th century.

General Description

During the Sengoku Period Japan was fought over by armies of samurau their nobles called the daimyo ('the great names'). The shogun became a prize to control and the capital at Kyoto was devastated by war. The period is also known as the Onin War and the Age of the Warring States (which translated into Japanese becomes the Sengoku jidai or Sengoku Period).[7]

There was no central government. The daimyo, supported by their close kinsmen and vassals, often had an inner council to decide on matters of administration and military policy. Military administrators known as bugyo are known to have been employed in a non-fighting capacity.

The dominant territory (kokka) was not defined by the borders of the traditional kuni (province) and was split into fiefs which the daiymo either directly maintained or controlled through a vassal. At times the daimyo made alliances with each other in the quest for more power.[8]

Despite the turmoil the population during this period probably increased by five million over 100 years to about 20 million in 1568 CE.


Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 15,000 ♥ in squared kilometers. Typical maximum size of kokka territory of a daimyo.

♠ Polity Population ♣ 15,000,000: 1467 CE; 17,000,000: 1500 CE; 20,000,000: 1568 CE ♥ People. Approximation for Japan based on McEvedy and Jones (1978). [9]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 40,000: 1500 CE; 100,000: 1550 CE ♥ Inhabitants. Kyoto.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [4-6] ♥ levels.

Coded 6 for previous period. Should we assume loss of at least one level for this period?

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [4-5] ♥ levels.

"... these structures were not rigid systems. Retainers might be killed in battle or just died of old age. New followers were often acquired, prompting changes both in structure and function. As a result any diagram showing a vassal structure represents only a snapshot in time of a dynamic entity."[10]

Example

"The Kashindan of Oda Nobunaga c.1570" had at most 4 levels. 1. Oda Nobunaga. 2. Shukuro (Shibota Katsuie (1530-1583 CE) 3. Roshin (senior retainers) 4. Bugyo (commissioners). [11]

1. Daimyo (ruler) of a kokka

"No longer was a shugo merely the shogun’s ‘deputy for such-and-such province’; he was now, simply, the province’s daimyo - its ruler." [12]
"a few shugo were even murdered and had their places taken by opportunists" [13]
"The word used for the territory a daimyō controlled as a mini-state was kokka, a contiguous geographical unit that often bore no relationship to the traditional borders of the Japanese kuni (provinces), and was defined simply by what could be defended."[14]
2. Relatives
"Closest of all to the daimyō were his blood relatives, identified by the expressions ichimon, kamon, ichizoku or shōke, all of which can be translated as ‘kinsmen’."[15]
2. Vassal of a fief
a kokka "consisted of a composite of separate fiefs either held directly by the daimyō or indirectly by his followers, for whom the European term ‘vassal’ is customarily employed"[16]
3. Roshin (senior retainers)
"We usually find an elite group called variously karō, rōshin or shukurō (elders or senior vassals) who were drawn from the daimyō’s family or from his most powerful vassals and used as an inner council for administration and military policy." [17]
4. Bugyo (commissioners)
5. Scribe?


1. Emperor

2. Central government
As a result of the Onin war 1467-1476 CE "Most of the centre of the ancient capital was reduced to a charred wasteland"[18]
3. : ?. Provinces (Shugo)
"Some of the provincial shugo tried loyally and vainly to assert the shogun’s authority, but they were pushed aside."[19]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 2 ♥ levels.

Buddhist religion

"Many daimyō took along Buddhist priests as army chaplains. They would perform religious services and could also be counted on to perform funerary nembutsu, the ritual of calling on the name of Amida Buddha. They might even advance at great risk to their own lives during the midst of battle to offer nembutsu to the spirits of those who had just died. They also provided memorial services, and would perform the useful act of visiting relatives of the slain and reporting deeds back to the home temple."[20]

Based on previous periods:

1. Master

2. Disciple

♠ Military levels ♣ 6 ♥ levels.

1. Daimyo

the daimyo was the sōtaishō (commander-in-chief)[21]
"The taishō, bugyō and metsuke came under the direct command of the daimyō himself as members of his hatamoto (‘those who stand beneath the flag’)"[22]
2. ikusa bugyo
"The various bugyō (military administrators) act as the general staff under the overall direction of the ikusa bugyō, who may take the daimyō’s place on the field of battle."[23]
3. bugyo
2. Taisho (of a division)
"The taishō (generals) command the fighting divisions ‘of the line’ in the form of samurai (mounted and on foot) and the three specialized ashigaru divisions of bow, spear and arquebus."[24]
3. Samuraitaishō of a ???
"command of the ‘troops of the line’ is delegated through the subordinate generals who may be named samuraitaishō or ashigaru-taishō according to their particular command."[25]
3. Ashigaru-taishō of a Samurai unit
"commanders of purely samurai units"[26]
4. Samurai
"Every samurai would also be accompanied by a number of personal followers, ranging from a sizeable ‘platoon’ down to a single spear bearer." [27]
5.
6. Individual footsoldier
4. Mounted Samurai (same as above?)
5. Kogashira of a footsoldier squad
"The footsoldier squads, under the control of an individual kogashira, come under the overall command of the mounted samurai." [28]
6. Individual footsoldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ absent ♥

absent: 1467-1476 CE

"At the time of the Onin War the samurai were still the elite troops, the officer corps, the aristocracy, while the foot soldiers were lower class warriors recruited from the daimyo’s estate workers." [29]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ absent ♥

absent: 1467-1476 CE

"At the time of the Onin War the samurai were still the elite troops, the officer corps, the aristocracy, while the foot soldiers were lower class warriors recruited from the daimyo’s estate workers." [30]

[absent; present]: 1476-1568 CE

Later: "men casually recruited into an army, enticed by the prospect of loot. These men were called ashigaru (light feet)." [31] Some daimyo disciplined and trained their ashigaru and organised them into squads.[32]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Buddhist priests in temples.

"Many daimyō took along Buddhist priests as army chaplains."[33]


Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ daimyo had bugyo, military administrators, who worked in non-fighting capacity. [34]

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥ Significant appointments usually made on hereditary basis. "Closest of all to the daimyō were his blood relatives, identified by the expressions ichimon, kamon, ichizoku or shōke, all of which can be translated as ‘kinsmen’."[35]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ daimyo could mint coins.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ Confucian-based with differences between kokka territories.

"the legal system was based on status considerations, and separate legal codes were issued for each status group." [36]

"As the governmental structure fell into disarray, the legal system again became fragmented as local daimyo rose to power, enacting individual laws for their personal domains."[37]

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥ professional lawyers were not present until the Meiji Restoration. [38]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥ They existed in previous period, but sources do not say whether they still did at this time. Frequent warfare likely caused major disruptions, so continuity with preceding periods is more difficult to infer.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥ present for preceding period but is the kind of costly infrastructure that could be quickly lost in difficult times.
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ e.g. Rice storehouses [39]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥ They existed in previous period, but sources do not say whether they still did at this time. Frequent warfare likely caused major disruptions, so continuity with preceding periods is more difficult to infer.
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥ They existed in previous period, but sources do not say whether they still did at this time. Frequent warfare likely caused major disruptions, so continuity with preceding periods is more difficult to infer.
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ The earliest known written Japanese texts date to the eight century. Although the spoken languages have no relationship Chinese characters were borrowed to enable Japanese to be written ‘Over time the Japanese writing system developed into a complex use of Chinese characters along with two different phonetic scripts to represent the sounds of spoken Japanese. The two phonetic scripts—hiragana and katakana—represented the same sounds but were used in different contexts reflecting, among other things, class and gender.’[40]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ The earliest known written Japanese texts date to the eight century. Although the spoken languages have no relationship Chinese characters were borrowed to enable Japanese to be written ‘Over time the Japanese writing system developed into a complex use of Chinese characters along with two different phonetic scripts to represent the sounds of spoken Japanese. The two phonetic scripts—hiragana and katakana—represented the same sounds but were used in different contexts reflecting, among other things, class and gender.’[41]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ "Hōjō had been perfecting a standardized index for surveying both private and daimyō land."[42]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ History ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Sources consulted on the history of Japanese literature tend to gloss over this period. It seems reasonable to infer that authors did not simply cease to produce texts for the century or so of the Sengoku period. However, as noted for the previous polity, scientific literature had not yet emerged at this time.
♠ Fiction ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ "As the assessment of the land was expressed in cash terms it was first as hard cash that taxes were collected, until technical difficulties obliged the Hōjō to change the system. Being unable to mint sufficient coins within the domain, and being equally unable to control the entry of debased coinage into the domain, conversion standards were introduced to express the tax in terms of rice, lacquer or cotton." [43]
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ "As the assessment of the land was expressed in cash terms it was first as hard cash that taxes were collected, until technical difficulties obliged the Hōjō to change the system. Being unable to mint sufficient coins within the domain, and being equally unable to control the entry of debased coinage into the domain, conversion standards were introduced to express the tax in terms of rice, lacquer or cotton." [44]
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ "Messages from the scouts would be delivered to the daimyo at great personal risk to the messenger, and could be either verbal or written."[45] tsukai (couriers) [46]
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥ present for preceding period
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ required for bronze
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ [47]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ All ranks of samurai wore a suit of iron and leather armour "made from small scales of metal, lacquered for rust prevention and then laced together". [48]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ [49]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Could not find any evidence of use
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred absent ♥ Could not find any evidence of use
♠ Slings ♣ absent ♥ absent, although they had been present in the much earlier Yayoi period (c.300BCE-300CE).[50]
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ although single piece bows were used in earlier times, and could technically have been used, the composite bow had been standard military equipment since the 9th century.
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ The samurai was armed with "a longbow, shot from one-third of the way up its length" however this period saw the transition to mounted spearman so bow use primarily by "mobile sharpshooters"[51] "Foot soldiers were armed with either arquebuses, spears or bows, and all also carried a sword."[52] Archers known as yumigumi.[53]
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The bow staves of Chinese crossbows were composites of wood, bone, sinew and glue ... But, as we have observed, the Japanese lacked supplies of animal products, and fashioned their bows from wood and bamboo instead, which required that the weapons be long. Manufacturing crossbows with composite bow staves of wood and bamboo comparable in length to those of regular bows would have resulted in a weapon too unwieldy to be practical". However some crossbows were imported.[54]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ "The celebrated exploits of Kusunoki Masa-shige made the Nanbokucho Wars (the ‘Wars Between the Courts’), which lasted until 1392, into something of a golden age of siege warfare in Japan. Yet, once again, these operations were conducted against isolated fortresses rather than walled towns, and, although the sieges of Akasaka and Chihaya involved certain siege machines that are compared in the Taiheiki to devices of Chinese origin, there is no specific mention of either catapults or crossbows. There are, however, several references in war reports and casualty lists to samurai being killed or wounded by stones. ... It may well be that the stones were simply dropped from the castle walls, an impression strengthened by the fact that so many of the victims were flag bearers, who traditionally would be the first to approach the enemy defences. It is not until 1468 that we find an unambiguous reference to the use of traction trebuchets in Japan."[55] ‘sporadic accounts of stone-throwing catapults occur in the Japanese chronicals over the next two centuries [1400-1600s].’[56]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ traction trebuchets were powered by human muscle not gravity. "Japan appears never to have adopted the counterweight trebuchet, making the leap direct from traction trebuchets to cannon, although even these saw little use until the very end of the age of the samurai."[57]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ present ♥ Cannon [58]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ inferred absent: 1467-1542 CE ; present: 1543-1568 CE ♥ "Foot soldiers were armed with either arquebuses, spears or bows, and all also carried a sword."[59] Introduction dated to 1543 CE following Portuguese shipwreck. First recorded use 1549 CE. [60] Known as teppōgumi.[61]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Kanabou (金棒) is noted as being a club weapon in use: 'Sort of iron club used by warriors in ancient times, and a favorite weapon of some monk-warriors (Heisou) in the Heian and Kamakura periods' [62] Photographs exists as late as 1868 with samurai still being equipped with this [63]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ [64]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ the samurai wore a dagger [65]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ the samurai had a two-handed sword [66] "Foot soldiers were armed with either arquebuses, spears or bows, and all also carried a sword."[67]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ the spear was the main weapon used by the samurai [68] "Foot soldiers were armed with either arquebuses, spears or bows, and all also carried a sword."[69] Spearmen known as yarigumi. [70]
♠ Polearms ♣ present: 1467-1499 CE ; absent: 1500-1568 CE ♥ ‘First used by the early Kamakura period, the naginata is closest to a European glaive in form, with an elongated shaft, and a single-edged blade curved more than that of a Kamakura-period Japanese tachi. Most likely, the naginata was based upon similar weapons introduced from China by 300 C.E. which have been unearthed in graves.'[71] ‘From the 11th until the mid-15th century, the naginata was the primary weapon wielded by foot soldiers....From the end of the 15th century, most troops serving on foot were provided with a straight, thrusting spear (yari) that produced more effective results in destroying opposing forces.’[72]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ I could find no evidence of dogs - but no sources saying that they were not used either
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ I could not find references to Donkeys being used - this does seem odd so I would triple check
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ this period saw the development of the mounted samurai spearmen. Archaeology: "horse’s skeleton at Tsutsuji ga saki, the Takeda capital. Its height to the shoulder was 120cm, and its weight was estimated as 250kg, which compares to 160cm and 500kg for a modern thoroughbred, so the shock of a charge hitting the enemy ranks would have been much less." [73]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ I could find no evidence of camels - but no sources saying that they were not used either (although I think this is a very safe bet)
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ I could find no evidence of elephants - but no sources saying that they were not used either (although I think this is a very safe bet)

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ All ranks of samurai wore a suit of iron and leather armour "made from small scales of metal, lacquered for rust prevention and then laced together". [74]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ "A samurai’s helmet would be a substantial affair of lacquered iron, while the ashigaru wore simpler conical iron hats."[75]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ "When guns were introduced, breastplates were made out of solid iron plates."[76]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[77] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[78]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[79] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[80]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ All ranks of samurai wore a suit of iron and leather armour "made from small scales of metal, lacquered for rust prevention and then laced together". [81] "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[82] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[83]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[84] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[85]
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[86] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[87]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ [88] ‘The atake-bune was a type of naval warship that was used in battles during the Warring States period and into the early Edo period. These vessels were anywhere from about 20 to 65 feet in length. Atake-bune included a wooden tower from which arrows or matchlock guns could be fired at the enemy. Twenty to 25 oarsmen were needed to propel these large ships.’ [89] ‘Seki-bune was a type of Japanese warship used in the Warring States period and at the beginning of the early modern period. Unlike its contemporary, the atake-bune, the seki-bune was much smaller and faster’. [90]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ numerous castles attest to this
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ wooden stockades [91]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Yamajiro (Yamashiro): 'A squat Japanese mountain fortress common during the Sengoku jidai era. They were carved out of canyons and gullies and were usually girded by a wooden palisade and guarded by dry moats and earth ramparts. Some had watchtowers.' [92]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ at yamashiro castles [93]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ at yamashiro castles [94]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ Eventually, stone bases began to be used, encasing the hilltop in a layer of fine pebbles, and then a layer of larger rocks over that, with no mortar. [95] ‘He [Nobunaga] decided to build the castle completely of stone something, as I have said; quite unknown in Japan. As there was no stone available for the work, he ordered many stone idols to be pulled down, and the men tied ropes around the necks of these and dragged them to the site.’ [96] ET: also Nobunaga was Warring States period.
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Eventually, stone bases began to be used, encasing the hilltop in a layer of fine pebbles, and then a layer of larger rocks over that, with no mortar. [97]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ field fortifications "did not suit the fluid nature of most samurai warfare and make only rare appearances such as at Okita Nawate in 1584" [98]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ present ♥ 'Castle towns trace their origin to the Muromachi period and the construction of wooden defenses typically located on hills for reasons of protection and surveillance. These fortifications were the precursors to the castles and castle-building styles that grew more elaborate during the Warring States period. [99]‘the acquisition, possession and loss of a castle were common events during the Sengoku Period, but once the trend towards larder armies developed, the castle became not only a barracks for the troops, but a symbol of the daimyo’s authority. [100]
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred present ♥ The Shogunate was hereditary although in this period he had no power. The position of the warlords was likely hereditary.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ "The Kojiki, Japan’s earliest extant written text, recounts the story of the creation of the Japanese islands by Izanagi and Izanani (both brother and sister and husband and wife). It tells the story of the birth of the kami, especially the birth of Amaterasu, the sun goddess, from whom the Japanese imperial family - and by extension the Japanese people - are descended. The narrative tells of how Ninigi no Mikoto, grandson of Amaterasu Omikami, was sent to establish sovereignty over the Japanese islands. It was Ninigi’s great grandson, Jimmu, who became, according to the narrative, the first emperor of Japan. All Japanese emperors are said to descend from this sacred line beginning with Amaterasu. The three regalia - mirror, sword, and jewel - the symbols of imperial ruling authority, are said to have originated with Amaterasu who started the tradition of passing these symbols to each subsequent ruler. In the medieval and early modern periods (in fact, up until 1945), this Kojiki narrative was used to argue the legitimacy of the imperial family as rightful rulers." [101]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ “What remains constant throughout history is the emperor’s identity as a deity (‘’kami’’) in the Japanese sense.” [102] However, it is worth noting that “the fluid cosmology of the Japanese, humans, including shamans, and deities do not constitute clear-cut categories”, meaning that the kami have, or can have, human attributes [103]. And since “the ‘’kami’’ are like humans, emperors too have been human to most Japanese” and, throughout history, “there have been many folktales pointing to the humanness of the emperors”, for example ones centering on an eighteenth-century crown-prince’s love for soba noodles [104].

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ "The primordial Shinto ethos seems to have been essentially egalitarian." [105] Buddhism is also fundamentally egalitarian: every human being has a potential to achieve what Buddha achieved, regardless of class or ethnicity [106].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ The emperor was thought to be a god [107].
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥ absent/present/unknown

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ In the syncretic Shinto-Buddhist ideology that prevailed for many centuries in Japan, moral values mostly came from Buddhism: “Shinto was retained in the Japanese belief structure, even though it never developed the metaphysical worldview or system of ethics that characterize world religions. Perhaps this was because of its close connection with Japanese Buddhism, which had enough metaphysics and ethics to serve both.” [108] According to Buddhism: “The twofold benefit of living a morally good life is linked to a twofold motivation: ‘Protecting oneself, one protects others; protecting others, one protects oneself ’ - just as each acrobat in a balancing act protects his partner by concentrating on himself, and protects himself by concentrating on his partner (see SN 47:19). If we take care of our own spiritual development, we render a service to others; and if we develop love towards others, we thereby also help ourselves. Accordingly, it is explicitly stated, someone who pursues the path of salvation only for his or her own benefit is to be censured, while the one who follows the path for one’s own benefit and for the benefit of others is to be commended (see AN 7:64).” [109] “Three segments of the Noble Eightfold Path (3 - 5) are traditionally subsumed under the principle of morality (sila): ‘right speech’ (3), ‘right action’ (4) and ‘right livelihood’ (5). [...] ‘Right action’ is explained as abstaining from harming and killing sentient beings - including animals (!), and further as abstaining from ‘taking what is not given’ and from sexual misconduct, which means avoiding sexual relations with women who are still under the protection of their families, or with those who are married, betrothed, or celibate for religious reasons. From monks and nuns complete sexual abstention is demanded. ‘Right livelihood’ means abstaining from those sources of income which involve harming other beings: trading in weapons for instance, or trading in living beings, meat, intoxicants or poison; also included is the avoidance of fraud and avarice.” [110]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ In the syncretic Shinto-Buddhist ideology that prevailed for many centuries in Japan, moral values mostly came from Buddhism: “Shinto was retained in the Japanese belief structure, even though it never developed the metaphysical worldview or system of ethics that characterize world religions. Perhaps this was because of its close connection with Japanese Buddhism, which had enough metaphysics and ethics to serve both.” [111] According to Buddhism: “Leading a moral life is seen as having a wider social dimension as well. Establishing public parks, constructing bridges, digging wells and providing a residence for the homeless (see SN 1:1:47; similarly Jat 31) - all these are commended.” [112]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [113] [114]

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Turnbull, S. 2008. Samurai Armies 1467-1649. Osprey Publishing.