JpKamak

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Gréine Jordan ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Kamakura Shogunate ♥ 'As in other Japanese periods, the designated center of political power has been adopted as the name for this historical era.' [1]

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1225 CE ♥ 'Kamakura's golden age, which began now, owed much of its luster to the efforts of this extraordinary man.'[2] 'In 1224, Hojo Yoshitoki died and was followed in death by Masakb a year later. The new leader of the bakufu was Yoshitoki's son, Yasutoki, by consensus the greatest of the Hojo regents. Born after the founding of the bakufu and educated in classical Confucianism, Yasutoki left a stamp on the regime's operations that survived until the end of the period. It was under Yasutoki that the bakufu's capacity for mediating disputes achieved new heights and under him also that Kamakura's reputation for good government became a fixture of the historical memory.'[3]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1185-1333 CE ♥ 'While most scholars of Japanese history agree upon names used to identify various periods, the dates specified for each era can vary a great deal. Generally, the years 1185-1615 are designated Japan’s medieval era, identified as such due to the advent of rule by the warrior class, feudal system of land allocation and administration, and characteristic political unrest.' [4] The Kamakura period is dated here from the Minamoto families victory in the Gempei War and ends with the over throw of the shogunate and the restoration of the Emperor.

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ confederated state ♥ 'the core of the government was now a single lord-vassal group, spread rather thinly throughout the nation. Yoritomo rewarded his loyal vassals with estates and offices such as jito¯(steward) and shugo (protector or constable)... They also collected dues for the bakufu, and were entitled to retain a portion of the produce of the land for themselves. Through this system Yoritomo exercised a relatively direct control over much of Japan, and also further eroded the revenue of the noble court families and central government.' [5]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Kansai - Heian Period ♥ (794CE-1185CE)
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ internal power shift The Kamakura period is considered the start of the Medieval period of Japanese history and marks the rise of the warrior class. The Kamakura period begins with the rise to power of Minamoto no Yoritomo who was granted the title of Shogun by the Emperor in 1192 legitimizing his role as de facto ruler of Japan. 'Mainly because of this need for legitimacy - but also partly because it has long been a practice in Japan to maintain some degree of continuity with the past amidst change - his government was a mixture of old and new. It became known as the bakufu (tent headquarters), a term used of the headquarters of commanders in the field, and in theory was merely the military arm of the imperial central government. The old central institutions were left largely intact, though weakened... Recent research has suggested that the court retained a greater vitality than previously believed, especially with regard to bureaucratic matters, and that religious institutions also played a significant role in the political world. In that sense, rather than simple warrior rule such as characterised the succeeding Muromachi period, it was perhaps more a case of cooperative rule during the Kamakura period.[6]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Japan - Kemmu Restoration ♥ (1333CE-1336CE)
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ none ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 0 ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Kyoto ♥ Kyoto was the official capital of the Japanese empire, and residence of the imperial family, from 794 until 1868. [7] For much of Japanese history, however, the imperial family were figureheads and in practice did not control the country there were a number of other cities which were set up as administrative capitals which were inhabited by these wielding power. In this era the shogunate's seat of power was Kamakura near present-day Tokyo.' [8] Kamakura 'was Yoritomo’s traditional support-base, and he was moreover suspicious of the intrigues and undesirable influences in Kyoto.' [9]

♠ Language ♣ Middle Japanese ♥ (12th-16th century)[10]

General Description

The Kamakura period (1185-1333 CE) begins with the victory of the Minamoto family over the Taira clan in the Gempei War. In 1192 CE, Minamoto military victory received official recognition when Minatomo no Yoritomo was appointed shogun (great general) by the emperor.[11] Although the emperor in Kyoto remained the nominal ruler, as the first shogun, Yoritomo managed to avoid court influence and intrigues by locating his base of operations close to his traditional support base in Kamakura, near present day Tokyo, from which the period takes its name.[12][13] The Kamakura Shogunate marks the beginning of Japan's medieval era, which saw the rise of warrior rule combined with a feudal system of landholding and administration.[14] While the borders to the east, west and south remained roughly constant, the exact extent of the polity's territory to the north was not rigidly defined.[15]
The 'peak' of the Kamakura Shogunate could be considered to coincide with the reign of the Hōjō regent Hōjō Yasutoki (r. 1224-1242 CE), who was responsible for institutionalizing the way the bakufu (military government) mediated disputes and governed.[16] The period ends in 1333 CE with the overthrow of the shogunate and the restoration of the Emperor Go-Daigo.[17]

Population and political organization

The shogunate, also known as the bakufu (literally 'tent headquarters'), issued in a new period of military governance. However, many of the older institutions inherited from the Heian period persisted, albeit in weakened form.[18] The degree to which the imperial court lost its power is still somewhat uncertain, and some scholars have argued that there was more cooperation between the court and shogunate than previously thought.[19] The central political relationship now became that between the lord and his vassals: loyalty, either willing or enforced, formed the basis of governance.[20] The shogun rewarded loyalty with grants of estates and offices. Vassals collected taxes but retained a portion, depleting the revenue of the central government. Warriors became the political, social and economic elite, drawing their economic power from their landholdings.[21]
Echoing developments in the preceding Heian period, when imperial power was tempered by that of powerful regents, the shogun became functionally subordinate to hereditary regents from the Hōjō family (who lacked the necessary social rank to become shoguns in their own right) after the death of Yoritomo in 1199.[22] In 1274 and 1281 CE, there were two failed Mongol invasions; this external threat may have helped to mute any internal dissent until the restoration of Emperor Go-Daigo.[23]
The historian William Wayne Farris gives an estimate of between five and six million for the population of the Kamakura Shogunate.[24]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Gréine Jordan ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 295,000 ♥ KM2

I have provided the gross land figure for Japan’s three main islands Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku.[25] 'The western and southern borders remained more or less constant, while in the north there may have been some limited expansion into southern Hokkaido. Beyond this is it difficult to be specific. The problem is that in the medieval period we no longer have any convenient yardstick for measuring the extent of Japanese ‘territory’. The old provinces and districts continued to exist, at least in name, but the state ceased to play an active role in defining or maintaining territorial units of local administration. On a smaller scale, the government was involved in defining the boundaries of private landholdings, both by conducting land-surveys such as the ōtabumi of the Kamakura period, and by resolving land disputes through the judicial system. However these activities had merely local significance and did not result in any clarification of Japan’s borders as a whole. As a consequence it is very difficult to say where the frontiers of the medieval Japanese state lay; we know the locations of individual landholdings, and we know the general spheres of activity of the various public officials, but we do not know the outer limits of the system itself—precisely because no attempt was made to define these limits at the time. [26]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [5,500,000-6,300,000]: 1200 CE; [5,700,000-6,200,000]: 1300 CE ♥

[5,500,000-6,300,000]: 1150 CE; [5,700,000-6,200,000]: 1280 CE

There are a number of different population estimates for this period I have coded 5,500,000-6,300,000: 1150CE; 5,700,000-6,200,000: 1280CE population estimate by Farris as it is the most recent [27] 5,750,000: 1100CE; 7,500,000: 1200CE; 9,750,00: 1300CE Population estimate by McEvedy and Jones. [28]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [100,000-175,000]: 1200 CE; [100,000-200,000]: 1250 CE; [100,000-200,000]: 1300 CE ♥ Kamakura. Estimate by Chandler although probably too high. [29] -- have made high end of a range.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 5 ♥

5. Cities (palace, monumental structures, market, central government buildings, military fortifications, transport hubs, shrines, temples)

Population:

'cities such as Kyoto and Kamakura that developed into flourishing cities due to their position as either imperial or shogunal capitals.'[30]

4. Market Town (market)

Population:

'Market towns (ichiba machi) originated in the Kamakura period as areas the government authorized to sell produce and other goods on certain days of the month.[31]

3. Port Towns (accommodation, trade, transport hubs)

Population:???

Port towns grew up around sea ports that developed flourishing trading centers in the medieval and early modern periods. [32]

2. Temple/Shrine Towns (shrines, temples, accommodation)

Population:???

‘Temple and shrine towns (monzen machi) originated in the vicinity of Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines, usually along the roads leading to these religious sites. These towns served the needs of pilgrims visiting the temples and shrines. Establishments that developed along these routes provided food and lodging to pilgrims, and sold amulets and other religious items. As religious sites grew in size, so did the permanent infrastructure needed to support this activity.’[33]

1. Village (residential)

Population:10-100

‘Besides farm villages, fishing villages were a feature of medieval and early modern rural life.’[34]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [6-7] ♥ 'For the nearly 700-year span of Japan’s medieval and early modern periods, warriors - with varying levels of effectiveness and hegemony—ruled the country. Although the fortunes of particular extended warrior families waxed and waned, only members of the warrior class could serve as shoguns, the military rulers. Their governments, known commonly as shogunates, were often challenged by the interests of other powerful warrior families in various parts of Japan and by the imperial family in Kyoto. Although the warrior bureaucracy largely controlled the affairs of the state, the emperor and the imperial court were still the formal head of government. Warrior governments typically sought out- or forced-the formal imperial decrees that gave legitimacy to the shoguns. Occasionally emperors would attempt to reassert direct imperial rule. They were, however, always suppressed in favor of warrior rule. During the first part of the Kamakura period, the shogunate and the court more or less shared governmental authority.Warrior governments functioned as a lord-vassal system of loyalty. This is reflected in the political structures of the different shogunates. Although they varied greatly in their organization, the notion of loyalty, whether earned or forced, always laid the foundation on which the warrior government was built.[35] 'The shogunal regent (shikken) system put into effect by the Hojo family further transformed the relationship between court and shogunate. At court, the imperial government was run, in fact, not by the emperor but by an imperial regent from the aristocratic Fujiwara family. The Hojo family was now in control of the shogunate via the shogunal regency. Both forms of authority were thus controlled by regents, with the Hojo regent regulating most aspects of government. The Hojo regents also increasingly involved themselves in matters of imperial succession, thereby lending additional complications to the already divisive process of choosing emperors.' [36]


1. Hojo regents

_Central Administration_

6. Shogun

5. Shogunal regent (shikken)
"The office of shogunal regent was held by members of the Hojo family between 1203, when Hojo Tokimasa assumed the title, until the end of the Kamakura period in 1333. Lacking the necessary social rank to hold the title of shogun, it was through the office of shikken that the Hojo family was able to run the government behind the scene. As shogunal regents, the Hojo family not only controlled the affairs of state, they eventually came to decide who would be appointed shogun in the first place."[37]
5. Cosigner (rensho)
"The office of rensho was established by the shogunal regent Hojo Yasutoki in 1225 as a way to share power and government administration with competing branches of the Hojo family. This position created, in effect, an associate regent. Official documents required the signatures of both the regent and the cosigner."[38]
4. Members of the Council of State (Hyojoshu)
"The Hyojoshu was established in 1225 by Hojo Yasutoki as a way to share the responsibility for governance. The council included the most important statesmen, warriors, and scholars. Matters were decided by a simple majority vote. It was the highest decision-making body in the Kamakura government."[39]
3. Public Documents Office (Kumonjo)
"The Kumonjo was established by Minamoto no Yoritomo in 1184 as the main executive and general administrative office of his government. After the establishment of the Kamakura shogunate, this office was renamed the Mandokoro."[40]
3. Administrative Board (Mandokoro)
"Established in 1191 by Minamoto no Yoritomo, the Mandokoro took over the functions of the Kumonjo as the main executive and general administrative office of the Kamakura shogunate. After Hojo family regents assumed real control over the shogunate, they transformed the Mandokoro into an office whose sole responsibility was to oversee the government’s finances."[41]
3. Board of Inquiry (Monchujo)
"In 1184 Minamoto no Yoritomo established the Monchujo to be responsible for legal matters, especially dealing with lawsuits and appeals. Most cases concerned disputed land rights, but over time they included such things as business matters and loans."[42]
3. Board of Retainers (Samurai-dokoro)
"This office was established by Minamoto no Yoritomo in 1180. It functioned as a disciplinary board to regulate the activities of Yoritomo’s expanding network of warrior vassals (gokenin). Its main responsibility was overseeing the police and the land stewards (jito). In the Muromachi period, added duties included security for the capital at Kyoto, and administration of shogunal and other property."[43]
3. High Court (Hikitsukeshu)
"The Hikitsuke was established as a judicial court by shogunal regent Hojo Tokiyori in 1249. It was intended to supplement the responsibilities of the Hyojoshu (Council of State). Among the legal issues dealt with by this body were land claims and taxation."[44]
2. Department head, e.g. head of department dealing with tax law
1. Department staff e.g. worker in department dealing with taxa law


_Local Administration_

3. Kyoto Military Governor (Kyoto Shugo) -- who did the governor directly report to? who appointed him?
"The position of Kyoto military governor was established at the beginning of the Kamakura shogunate. The governor’s role was to oversee the affairs of the imperial court on behalf of the shogunate. This position was replaced by the Rokuhara tandai in 1221."[45]
2. Rokuhara Deputies (Rokuhara Tandai)
"The office of Rokuhara tandai (shogunal deputies located in the Rokuhara district of Kyoto) was established in 1221 to replace the office of Kyoto shugo as supervisors of political, military, and legal matters. The Rokuhara tandai were responsible not only for overseeing Kyoto, but also affairs in the southwestern part of Japan. This position was created as the direct effect of Emperor Go-Toba’s attempt, known as the Jokyu Disturbance, to overthrow the shogunate and reestablish direct imperial rule. After Go-Toba’s defeat, the Rokuhara tandai was set up in part to ensure that such threats to shogunal power did not occur again." [46]
3. Kyushu Commissioner (Chinzei Bugyo)
"This position was established by the Kamakura shogunate. The shogunate appointed two commissioners to oversee local Kyushu matters, especially the activities of Minamoto vassals." [47]
3. Oshu General Commissioner (Oshu Sobugyo)
"This office was established by the Kamakura shogunate at the beginning of the medieval period in an area of northeastern Japan known as Oshu (island of Honshu). This region was the domain of a warrior branch of the Fujiwara family known as the Oshu Fujiwara who ruled the area with little intervention from the imperial court during the Heian period. In 1189, Minamoto no Yoritomo, fearing the power of this domain, attacked and conquered the Oshu Fujiwara. The position of Oshu general commissioner was founded to manage affairs in this region for the shogunate."[48]
3. Military Governors (Shugo)
"The shugo rank was established by Minamoto no Yoritomo to maintain control over the provinces. The position became a formal part of the administrative structure of the Kamakura shogunate. Although Yoritomo handselected the first shugo, this title became hereditary over time. Duties of this office included general police and peacekeeping activities and administrative responsibilities such as investigating crimes and judging legal cases." [49]
3. Jito (Land Stewards)
"Land stewards, or jito, were officials appointed by the Kamakura shogunate from among its most trusted vassals to serve as estate (shoen) supervisors. Jito were responsible for overseeing the shogunate’s tax interests on these private estates. As such, jito handled the collection of taxes and ensured correct distribution. The jito system, however, was also a means whereby the Kamakura shogunate could reward its loyal vassals (gokenin) for their service to the military government. Over time, jito became an inherited office." [50]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 2 ♥

1. Master

2. Disciple

‘Honen and, especially, Shinran present interesting cases in the problems of institutional development in the Kamakura schools. Both of them preached a form of salvation requiring total reliance on the power of Amida Buddha and complete denial of self. Implicit in that view is the repudiation of any qualitative difference between teacher and follower and, by logical extension, the rejection of the hierarchy necessary for setting up a religious organization. This attitude is exhibited in its purest form in Shinran's assertion, preserved in the Tannisho, that he was on the same plane with other believers and that he shared with them the same faith. The resistance to formal religious organization intimated in Shinran's statement was one of Kamakura Buddhism's revolutionary characteristics. Notwithstanding these antiorganizational inclinations, religious bodies did take shape, with the Kamakura originators at their center. This process of formation is seen in the examples of Honen and Shinran alike. They themselves functioned as guides and advisers in matters of religious faith but around them revolved a great number of organizers and proselytizers.'

'Because specialized training and understanding are part of Zen, it is impossible for ordinary members of the organization to stand above the teacher or master.'[51]

The following is also worth noting: 'With the exception of Zen in the early period, particularly the Soto Zen school of Dogen, all the schools of Kamakura Buddhism actively proselytized among lay people. Hence, as the religious organizations gained greater structure, groups of believers had considerable say in the school's operation. The clerical organizers of the schools functioned primarily as leaders of ritual and religious practice, but the people who oversaw the organization's economic affairs were often lay adherents. Through their combined efforts the Kamakura schools gained a high degree of institutional stability, though the power and vitality of their teachings were sometimes diluted by institutional concerns.'[52]

'Shinran taught that all people are equal in the sight of Amida Buddha. He was critical of the clerical ideal that existed in the established Buddhist schools, and he described himself as neither priest nor layman. Because of this outlook, the Shinshu religious organization, during its formative period at least, consisted of nothing more than individual congregations. In congregational dojo there was no great difference between dojo leaders and ordinary believers, in either intellectual capacity or economic means. But this idyllic period of Shinran's school did not last long, for a master-disciple relationship gradually evolved between the dojo head and the average adherent.'[53]

'˜Details of the early gozan network are unclear, but the surviving records indicate that the Hojo regents in Kamakura took the initiative in honoring and regulating the new Zen monasteries that they were building, by adopting the Southern Sung practice of organizing an official three-tiered hierarchy of Zen monasteries.'[54]

♠ Military levels ♣ [4-5] ♥

--Early Kamakura Military Structure-- [55]

4. Shogun
3. Battle commanders
2. Gokenin
1. Provincial warriors

See chart in Friday 2004.p.50. ‘The organization of early Kamakura armies is manifest in Azuma kagami’s description of the forces deployed at the battle of Ichinotani, in the second month of 1184. Command of the main host was entrusted to Yoritomo’s brother Noriyori, whose “accompanying troops” consisted of thirty-two named vassals and “more than 56,000 horsemen under them,” while a second division,commanded by Yoshitsune, included seventeen named vassals and “more than 20,000 horsemen under them.” Three points stand out from this account. First, the text assigns no formal titles to Noriyori and Yoshitsune, describing them only as the “commanding officer for the main force” (ōte no taishōgun) and “commanding officer for the flanking force” (karamete no taishō gun). Second, the identification of only three levels of warriors - divisional commanders, named vassals and “horsemen under them” - and the ratio of officers to other warriors (the improbable overall numbers notwithstanding) testifies to the lack of articulation in the army. And third, the assignment of vassals to the divisions betrays no logical pattern, beyond grouping warriors of the same surname together. Both forces included men of Taira, Minamoto and Fujiwara descent; both included men from various provinces;and men from the same provinces were split between the divisions. [56]

below are two alternate and concurrent command chains

--Chains of command in the late Kamakura military 1 —

5. Council of State
4. Shogunate
3. Shugo
2. Gokenin
1. Provincial warriors

--Chains of command in the late Kamakura military 2—

4. Council of State
3. Provincial government
2. non-gokenin warrior leaders
1. Provincial warriors

‘Kamakura continued, on occasion, to make use of the older provincial government mechanisms for mustering warriors, or to mobilize important vassals directly. ... Gokenin and their followers, moreover, made up but a small percentage of the total warrior population of the time; substantial numbers of bushi remained under the jurisdiction of estate proprietors or provincial governors. Thus the organizational structure under which late thirteenth- and early fourteenth-century warriors served looked something like the system depicted in Figure 2.3. The command structures of the Kemmu regime and the Muromachi shogunate (during the Nambokuchō era) remained essentially the same, at least in theory.[57] ‘Warrior allegiances were further circumscribed by the multi-tiered, hierarchical structure of the military networks to which they belonged. Most of the provincial warriors in the organizations of prominent bushi had vassals of their own, and many of the members of these, in turn, had followers.’ [58]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ ‘by the middle of the medieval era in the 14th century, armies grew increasingly privatized and professionalized, in part due to this effective system of reciprocal values.’ [59]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ [60]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ ‘The generic term for a Shinto priest is kannushi. However, Shinto in the medieval and early modern periods was not a centrally organized tradition. Hence, there is great variation in terminology used to denote Shinto priests. Historically, the office of shrine priest was typically passed down through a priestly family from father to son.’ [61]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present♥ ‘The Kamakura Bakufu used the services of educated, professional officials or bureaucrats to regularize administrative and judicial processes. The transference of power from aristocratic to military hands was gradual and did not eliminate rational procedures and precedent from government. At both the national and local levels, control was, within obvious limits, systematic. Insofar as possible, it was also consistent. Bureacratic elements were included in the Bakufu from the Kamakura through the Tokugawa era.’[62]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ I have found no evidence of an examination system in the Kamakura period and as bureaucratic posts tended to be granted on a hereditary basis its existence at this time is not likely, there is also a source stating the absence of an examination system in the following Muromachi period. [63]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥ within the confines of the elites who were eligible to hold office there does appear to be a certain amount of recognition of merit, however this operated in a very limited sense and cannot be said to be a meritocracy. the granting of positions was not always based on the merits of the applicants as can be seen from the numerous complaints against officials detailing incompetence. [64]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ ‘This court was housed in a building in Hakata,21 and this office served as the governmental organ responsible for enforcing tokusei measures as well as delivering judicial decisions.’ [65] While specialized government buildings were numerous in the Heian (794-1185CE) period it appears harder to find evidence of as extensive buildings in the Kamakura, however, it is possible that the sources I have consulted simply do not see the need to distinguish between ‘offices’ as physical structures and ‘offices’ as organizations. It is also possible that governmental functions were moved to the houses of the post holders.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ 'With the rise of the warrior class and the unification of Japan under the Kamakura shogunate, the Japanese legal system acquired the form of the traditional samurai code of ethics focused on maintenance of the hierarchy and familial honor and obligation. Thus most of the early laws set forth by the shogunate were aimed at solidifying the power of the ruling class by delineating the privileges of the samurai warlords and the obligations of their vassals. This warrior class law, known as bukeho, was quickly disseminated throughout the land... The first official codification of the warrior-class laws, called the Joei Shikimoku, was issued in 1232 by the Kamakura shogunate, and it would set the tone for all the edicts issued by the military government for essentially the next 700 years. This code served to clearly define the roles of samurai lords and their vassals and was based on a combination of many of the local legal codes that antedated the shogunate. Thus, it was the first centralized national legal code compiled from all of the minor regulations that had been in existence on local estates, in military regimens, in monasteries, and in regional government offices. The last, and most important, function of this new law code was to clarify the now limited authority of the imperial court at Kyoto from which the warrior class had assumed power. [66]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ During the era of Yoritorno[1192-1199CE], justice, it may be said, remained the prerogative of the chieftain. Though he assigned trusted followers to cases and allowed them some leeway, he did not have professional investigators, much less a class of judges. A "judiciary" in the sense of a separate organ did not appear until later.' [67] 'A case in 1187 demonstrates the enormous potential of a system of justice whose principal objective was equity for the litigants rather than aggrandizement by their judges.' [68] 'the post-shikimoku era carried Kamakura justice to a new plateau of excellence. From about 1230 the Rokuhara deputyship in Kyoto became an adjunct to the system, fully empowered to judge suits independently of Kamakura.'[69]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ 'In 1232, the Council of State promulgated the Joei Code (Joei shikimoku), a 51-article legal code that articulated Hojo judicial and legislative practices and the conduct of the military government in administering the country. In 1249, a judicial court (hikitsuke) was established to further refine the legal process.' [70] ‘Thus, the three tokusei agents, together with the Muto and Otomo families and Adachi Morimune, came to form a three-unit judicial structure in which each unit was responsible for judging cases from three provinces each. This court was housed in a building in Hakata,21 and this office served as the governmental organ responsible for enforcing tokusei measures as well as delivering judicial decisions.’ [71]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥ professional lawyers were not present until the Meiji Restoration. [72]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ 'Military architects familiar with agricultural irrigation principles constructed ditches and moats to deter mounted troops.'[73]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ ‘There is no doubt that the number of markets - most of them having only three market days per month (sansai-ichi) - steadily increased across the nation during the second half of the Kamakura period. When we count the number of local markets mentioned in historical records, we find that there were only six between 1200 and 1250, increasing to nineteen between 1250 and 1300, and to twenty-one between 1300 and 1331.38 Such data, though limited, are a useful indicator of the rise in the number of local markets. These markets frequently sprang up at or near the nodes of transportation - ports and the more important crossroads - and in such places as provincial capitals and the larger local temples.’ [74]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present♥ ‘in the Kamakura Period, commercial warehouses were developed to store trade goods...where the stable temperature and humidity provided by the thick walls made them suitable for making and storing fermented products such as miso paste and soy sauce.’[75]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ ‘Another threat to shoen profits came from taxes levied to support road building, the reconstruction of state buildings, and the coasts of imperial family journeys and ceremonies.’[76]
♠ Bridges ♣ present♥ ‘In 1212, a meeting was held between the regent Yoshitoki, Oe Hiromoto, and monchujo director Miyoshi Yasunobu over the repair of a bridge in Kamakura (AK1212/2/18).’[77]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ 'the opening of the Asahina canal between Kamakura and Musashi Matsura in 1241, for example - the warrior government at Kamakura increased in prosperity, supported by wealth acquired through trade.[78]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ 'When we consider the growth of the cities during the Kamakura period in the light of Japan's relations with East Asia, we must take special note of the prosperity of the port cities along the Inland Sea, such as Hakata, Kamakura, and Kusado Sengen' [79] ‘Reflecting the importance of sea transportation in commerce, port towns continued to proliferate. The most important among them were those located on the Seto Inland Sea and Lake Biwa. These port towns developed as the entrepots for goods bound for the capital region. For example, Otsu and Sakamoto in Omi Province grew in importance as the transshipping centers of such products as rice, lumber, salt, paper, and fish brought from the eastern provinces in the Togoku and Tokaido regions. Hyogo, Sakai, and Yodo on the Yodo River were active ports for many goods shipped to the capital region from Kyoto and several ports on the Inland Sea. Most of the products coming from San'in and Hokuriku passed through Wakasa to ports around Lake Biwa and then to the capital region. By the end of the Kamakura period, the capital region, the local markets, and these port towns constituted a commercial network.’ [80]


Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ ‘Gold was an important Japanese export to China during the Kamakura era and much of the Muromachi era (via Ryukyu).During the second half of the sixteenth century, however, these gold mines were depleted and this metal was the first whose export was prohibited.[81]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ [82]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ The earliest known written Japanese texts date to the eight century. Although the spoken languages have no relationship Chinese characters were borrowed to enable Japanese to be written ‘Over time the Japanese writing system developed into a complex use of Chinese characters along with two different phonetic scripts to represent the sounds of spoken Japanese. The two phonetic scripts—hiragana and katakana—represented the same sounds but were used in different contexts reflecting, among other things, class and gender.’[83]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ The earliest known written Japanese texts date to the eight century. Although the spoken languages have no relationship Chinese characters were borrowed to enable Japanese to be written ‘Over time the Japanese writing system developed into a complex use of Chinese characters along with two different phonetic scripts to represent the sounds of spoken Japanese. The two phonetic scripts—hiragana and katakana—represented the same sounds but were used in different contexts reflecting, among other things, class and gender.’[84]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ The earliest known written Japanese texts date to the eight century. Although the spoken languages have no relationship Chinese characters were borrowed to enable Japanese to be written ‘Over time the Japanese writing system developed into a complex use of Chinese characters along with two different phonetic scripts to represent the sounds of spoken Japanese. The two phonetic scripts—hiragana and katakana—represented the same sounds but were used in different contexts reflecting, among other things, class and gender.’[85]


Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ 'In the medieval and early modern periods, the Japanese utilized the traditional lunar calendar. Dates on this calendar represented the day, month, and year, the last of which could be determined by several methods. Two such methods included the 60-year time cycle and the use of the era name, or nengo. Nengo was a unit of time comparable to an era, commonly employed to date events or chronological periods. The use of this measure of time began in the seventh century. The change of emperor included a change in era name.'[86]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ [87]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ [88] the following refers events just before the start of the Kamakura period but such texts would certanly have been available in the Kamakura periods itself. 'Under Eiku, Honen studied the Buddhist scriptures and doctrinal treatises. For a time he concentrated on the Vinaya, containing the rules of conduct for Buddhist clergy, and he began to reflect on what it meant to be a priest. He also read the Ojoyoshu by Genshin (942-1017), which exposed him to the Pure Land teachings that the Tendai school had integrated into its religious system. In addition, Honen traveled to Nara and received instruction in the doctrines of Hosso and the other philosophies of Nara Buddhism.[89]
♠ Practical literature ♣ ♥
♠ History ♣ present ♥ There is a long tradition of historical recording in Japan. Japan’s oldest extant text is Kojiki (Record of ancient matters) written in 712CE although it deals with what today would be considered mythological themes it was treated as a historic text.[90]
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred absent ♥ 'Unless we make the claim that Buddhism is a philosophy, Japan did not have philosophical systems separate from explicit religious affiliations until the early modern period.'[91]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ ‘In medieval and early modern Japan, the natural sciences—including such disciplines as medicine, mathematics, and astronomy—were largely influenced by Chinese systems of science and classification of the natural world.’[92]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ One of the world’s oldest extant novels was written in Japan c.1000 in the Heian period. Genji monogatari (Tale of Genji) written by a noblewoman lady-in-waiting Murasaki Shikibu. ‘While aristocratic literature retained its importance throughout the medieval and early modern periods, it was also supplanted in many ways by literature that reflected the sensibilities of a much broader segment of Japanese society. Warriors, Buddhists, merchants, masterless samurai, and geisha were among those who became the subjects of this literature and those whose interests this literature sometimes expressed.’[93]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present: 1185-1226 CE; absent: 1226-1333 CE ♥ 'In Japan, prices had previously been calculated in amounts of cloth, but in 1226[CE] the Kamakura bakufu abolished the cloth equivalence and ordered the use of copper coins.'[94]
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ 'others provided gold, horses, copper verdigris, iron, sea bream, and incense. This tax system reflected the special goods produced in the various regions of Japan.' [95]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ ‘for several centuries [before 1600], Japan’s monetary circulation depended mainly on the import of Chinese bronze coins, making Japan a peripheral zone in a China-centered monetary sphere that extended across East and Southeast Asia.’ [96] 'From late Heian to early Kamakura times, the court had forbidden metal currency and prohibited the circulation of "new coins," that is, Southern Sung coins, in order to control prices. In ...1199[CE], the year of Minamoto Yoritomo's death, the Southern Sung also prohibited the export of Sung copper coins by Japanese and Koryo merchants. At that time copper coins were not used as money in trade transactions but were exchanged for goods of equivalent value...However, with the development of various forces of production and the expansion of commerce, the demand for a circulating currency increased. The court was thus forced to recognize the great importance of the Sung coins' [97] 'The tremendous outflow of Sung coins to Japan as well as to various parts of Asia aggravated the economic crisis throughout the Southern Sung, causing the government to adopt stringent regulations to curtail the flow of copper coins to Japan. The excessive exporting necessary to obtain the Sung coins also disrupted the Japanese economy.' [98]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ 'Money had not been minted in Japan since the twelve imperial coins (kocho junisen) of Nara times, and from late Heian, Sung [Chinese dynasty 960-1280CE] coins circulated unchecked by legislative action. However, with the development of various forces of production and the expansion of commerce, the demand for a circulating currency increased. The court was thus forced to recognize the great importance of the Sung coins, whose circulation had been prohibited until early Kamakura. '[99]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ 'The Fukui domain was the first to issue paper currency, doing so in 1661, and other domains followed this practice.’[100]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ 'the use of couriers dates back to the early medieval period.'[101]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ There were post stations which were established to provide services to couriers, these stations developed into settlements.
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources.

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Gréine Jordan ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ required for bronze
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ [102]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ [103]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ ET: Tatara furnaces, or versions thereof, existed since 300 BCE. Not sure when this steel was first produced. It is unlikely the best steel was produced from the very earliest times. Asuka period seems likely. "If black sand was used it would contain hypter-eutectoid steel (carbon content 1.2-1.7 percent) called tama hagane and pieces of iron with a lower carbon content (less than 0.8 percent). The tama hagane was the first quality steel used in swords."[104] References that support tamahagane steel being better than the first steels produced in Japan: "Present study elucidates that the tatara iron and its manufacturing procedure gives distinctive features to Japanese swords which is different from ordinary steel. It is also notable that Japanese swordsmith utilized lath martensite without knowing details about it."[105] Tamahagane steel (metal investigated was crafted by a modern swordsmith) has been "investigated with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe micro analysis methods. Microstructures have been found to be a combination of ferrite and pearlite with a lot of nonmetallic inclusions."[106]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Could not find any evidence of use
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred absent ♥ Could not find any evidence of use
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ "Slings, used to hurl fist-sized rocks or spheres of clay shaped roughly like miniature rugby balls, also appeared during the Yaoi age, distributed in a geographic pattern that suggests mutually exclusive regional preferences for the sling or the bow."[107]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ "Instead, without ready access to supplies of bone and horn, the Japanese fashioned their bows from wood or from laminates of wood and bamboo. The earliest designs were of plain wood ... "[108]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ ‘From the Kamakura period, bows were constructed in layers utilizing bamboo slats for added strength and flexibility. The core of the bow was made of stiff wood and was combined with laminated pieces of bamboo.’[109] "Japanese bows began as simple wooden staves and gradually gained laminates of bamboo first on the outside face, then the inside face (early thirteenth century), then on the two sides (fifteenth century)."[110]"The bow remained the primary combat weapon until the arquebus replaced it in the sixteenth century."[111]
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred present ♥ "The bow staves of Chinese crossbows were composites of wood, bone, sinew and glue ... But, as we have observed, the Japanese lacked supplies of animal products, and fashioned their bows from wood and bamboo instead, which required that the weapons be long. Manufacturing crossbows with composite bow staves of wood and bamboo comparable in length to those of regular bows would have resulted in a weapon too unwieldy to be practical". However some crossbows were imported.[112]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Unless anti-personnel "siege crossbows" are counted. "unlike the crossbows that were used as anti-personnel weapons, there does not appear to be any record of trebuchet use in Japan, simply because the siege situation did not demand it."[113] ‘it is not until 1468[CE] that we find an unambiguous reference to the use of traction trebuchets in Japan.’[114]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ traction trebuchets were not gravity powered like the counter-weight trebuchet.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ before use of gunpowder in Japan
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ not in widespread use until 1543CE [115] "Portuguese introduced them in 1543 CE." [116]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ Kanabou (金棒) is noted as being a club weapon in use: 'Sort of iron club used by warriors in ancient times, and a favorite weapon of some monk-warriors (Heisou) in the Heian and Kamakura periods' [117]
♠ Battle axes ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Ken tanto knives have been found from this era
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ ‘The curved-profile Japanese sword originated in approximately the eighth century [CE], coinciding with the earliest steel production in Japan and the emergence of the first professional military figures.' [118]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ ‘Spears (yari) have a long history in Japan, as the two earliest extant Japanese histories, the Kojiki (712 C.E.) and the Nihon shoki (720 C.E.) recount that the Japanese islands emerged from drops created when the gods Izanami and Izanagi used a jeweled spear to stir the cosmic brine mixture that constituted the universe.[119] ‘The yari is also sometimes called a lance to underscore that in Japan spears were not thrown as in other military traditions where these arms served as projectile weapons.’[120]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ ‘First used by the early Kamakura period, the naginata is closest to a European glaive in form, with an elongated shaft, and a single-edged blade curved more than that of a Kamakura-period Japanese tachi. Most likely, the naginata was based upon similar weapons introduced from China by 300 C.E. which have been unearthed in graves.'[121] ‘From the 11th until the mid-15th century, the naginata was the primary weapon wielded by foot soldiers.’[122]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ I could find no evidence of dogs - but no sources saying that they were not used either
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ I could not find references to Donkeys being used - this does seem odd so I would triple check
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Horses from the 8th [CE] century cavalry played an often vital part in Japanese . The importance place about cavalry shifted throughout time falling in and out of popularity but always remaining present.[123] ‘Horsemanshipwas central to bushi identity, dihave seen, the horse was one of the two tools that defined the “way of bow and horse,” which defined the samuraistinguishing the professional warrior from those who served him - and fought beside him, on foot. As we . [124]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ I could find no evidence of camels - but no sources saying that they were not used either (although I think this is a very safe bet)
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ I could find no evidence of elephants - but no sources saying that they were not used either (although I think this is a very safe bet)

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ ‘Japanese armorers did not confine themselves to metal, and instead incorporated lighter and more malleable materials such as leather and silk (or other fibers) along with iron or steel parts.’ [125] ‘The preferred type of leather was cowhide, and the preferred part of the hide was the animal’s back, as this was the thickest. But because it was uneconomical to waste the rest of the hide, craftsmen also made sane from the belly leather, which was thinner and softer. This meant that the lamellae in most armors were of uneven.’ [126]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ 'Chinese dynastic histories include descriptions that indicate shields were in use by the third century in Japan...From the Nara period to the early medieval period, military shields were standing wooden barriers about eye-level in height and roughly the width of human shoulders... They were attached to poles, or feet, which were hinged so that the support could be collapsed and stored or transported flat. Approximately one and a half meters tall and less than half a meter wide, mostly such shields were made of several planks joined vertically. Although shields could withstand more force if each was made from a single board, this was the exception rather than the rule. Protective substances such as lacquer could also prolong the life of such standing shields; however, by the end of the Kamakura period, decoration usually consisted solely of a family crest.' [127] ‘Typically, shields of this sort were lined up, sometimes overlapping like roof tiles, to form a portable wall that protected archers on foot. They were also placed atop the walls of fortifications and hung from the sides of boats. On occasion, they served as substitutes for other tools, such as benches or ladders. Japanese warriors never, on the other hand, appear to have developed muchinterest in hand-held shields, probably because of the incompatibility of this sort of armament with mounted archery.’ [128]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ 'The basic form of helmet (kabuto) that dominated medieval and early modern armor was shaped generally like a skull cap with an opening at the front top and flaps at the sides intended to protect the neck and face. In addition, the neck was shielded by a series of three or five metal plates. By the end of the Muromachi period, most ordinary helmets were made from iron and/or steel. The helmet was formed from individual plates fastened with rivets or simply joined together. The top portion of the helmet, shaped like the pate of a human head, was called the hachi. In the early medieval period, from the 11th to 14th centuries [CE], hachi were almost invariably rounded.' [129]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ if meaning a metal breastplate present if meaning armor that covers the torso.
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[130] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[131]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[132] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[133]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[134] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[135]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[136] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[137]
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[138] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[139]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥ small vessels were used in the Second Mongol Invasion in 1281CE [140]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ ‘Kamakura fronted on to the sea and was surrounded on three sides by mountains with the only access by land being a few easily defensible mountain passes or man-made tunnels carved out of soft rock. A long earthwork that followed the line of the most prominent ridge augmented these natural fortification’ [141] "Unlike the walled towns of China and Korea, fortified places in Japan tended to be isolated military outposts. These yamashiro (mountain castles) were hilltop fortresses consisting only of wooden stockades, gates and towers, joined to one another across valleys and peaks to form a complex defensive arrangement."[142]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ [143] ‘Descriptions in Taiheiki and other texts, and depictions of fortifications in fourteenth-century scroll paintings, indicate that fortresses of the period were architecturally similar to those of the early Kamakura era, albeit now fully enclosed and often reinforced with wooden palisades and additional yagura erected at various points along the walls between, as well as adjacent to, the gates.’ [144] "These yamashiro (mountain castles) were hilltop fortresses consisting only of wooden stockades, gates and towers, joined to one another across valleys and peaks to form a complex defensive arrangement."[145]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ 'Literary and pictorial accounts confirm that extensive planning and earthworks projects were utilized throughout the medieval era for major battles. For instance, the defense works at Ichinotani erected by the Taira clan in 1184[CE] included boulders topped by thick logs, a double row of shields, and turrets with openings for shooting.[146]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ 'Military architects familiar with agricultural irrigation principles constructed ditches and moats to deter mounted troops. In sum, military construction of the early medieval period involved tailoring familiar forms to warrior needs to provide an initial line of defense.'[147] ‘Among the most remarkable examples of early medieval military ditches is the massive defensive line Fujiwara Yasuhira prepared when he learned of Yoritomo’s invasion plans in 1189[CE]. This barrier, the remains of which can still be seen today, effectively blocked the whole of the Tōsandō , the only route into Mutsu. Stretching some 3 kilometres between Azukashiyama and Kunimishuku, on the northeast end of the Fukushima plain, it was about 15 meters wide and 3meters deep, featuring steep ramparts of packed earth, augmented here and there with stone.’ .[148]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ 'Military architects familiar with agricultural irrigation principles constructed ditches and moats to deter mounted troops. In sum, military construction of the early medieval period involved tailoring familiar forms to warrior needs to provide an initial line of defense.'[149]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ 1274 CE. hardly any use seems to have been made of stone at Kamakura, even though fortifications built of stone had recently made a brief reappearance on the Japanese scene as a result of the attempt by Kublai Khan, the Yuan (Mongol) Emperor of China, to invade Japan in 1274' [150] "With no stone or mudbrick walls to batter down, these castles were almost always overcome by infantry assault, often supported by arson attacks launched by fire arrows."[151]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ ' 1274 CE. hardly any use seems to have been made of stone at Kamakura, even though fortifications built of stone had recently made a brief reappearance on the Japanese scene as a result of the attempt by Kublai Khan, the Yuan (Mongol) Emperor of China, to invade Japan in 1274' [152] "With no stone or mudbrick walls to batter down, these castles were almost always overcome by infantry assault, often supported by arson attacks launched by fire arrows."[153]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ [154]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ 'Until the end of the Kamakura period, most fortresses built in Japan were relatively simple, and were designed for a particular siege or campaign. Terms such as shiro and jokaku (translated in later eras as “castle”) appear frequently in 12th- and 13th century [CE] accounts of warfare, but in the Kamakura era, these terms refer to temporary fortifications. Early medieval defense structures were more like barricades than buildings, and were not intended to house soldiers for extended periods. However, such fortifications could be elaborate and large in scale.'[155]
♠ Long walls ♣ 20 ♥ [156] 'the experience of the first invasion prompted the Japanese to construct a number of long stone walls round Hakata Bay in 1275[CE].' [157] After the 1274 CE Mongol invasion "The value of fortified positions was so clear ... that the bakufu ordered the construction of a wall around Hakata Bay where they had landed, and at other important sites."[158]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ no evidence of these type of fortifications, but no source explicitly saying they were absent

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ 'The shogunal regent (shikken) system put into effect by the Hojo family further transformed the relationship between court and shogunate. At court, the imperial government was run, in fact, not by the emperor but by an imperial regent from the aristocratic Fujiwara family. The Hojo family was now in control of the shogunate via the shogunal regency. Both forms of authority were thus controlled by regents, with the Hojo regent regulating most aspects of government. The Hojo regents also increasingly involved themselves in matters of imperial succession, thereby lending additional complications to the already divisive process of choosing emperors.' [159]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ "The Kojiki, Japan’s earliest extant written text, recounts the story of the creation of the Japanese islands by Izanagi and Izanani (both brother and sister and husband and wife). It tells the story of the birth of the kami, especially the birth of Amaterasu, the sun goddess, from whom the Japanese imperial family - and by extension the Japanese people - are descended. The narrative tells of how Ninigi no Mikoto, grandson of Amaterasu Omikami, was sent to establish sovereignty over the Japanese islands. It was Ninigi’s great grandson, Jimmu, who became, according to the narrative, the first emperor of Japan. All Japanese emperors are said to descend from this sacred line beginning with Amaterasu. The three regalia - mirror, sword, and jewel - the symbols of imperial ruling authority, are said to have originated with Amaterasu who started the tradition of passing these symbols to each subsequent ruler. In the medieval and early modern periods (in fact, up until 1945), this Kojiki narrative was used to argue the legitimacy of the imperial family as rightful rulers." [160]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ “What remains constant throughout history is the emperor’s identity as a deity (‘’kami’’) in the Japanese sense.” [161] However, it is worth noting that “the fluid cosmology of the Japanese, humans, including shamans, and deities do not constitute clear-cut categories”, meaning that the kami have, or can have, human attributes [162]. And since “the ‘’kami’’ are like humans, emperors too have been human to most Japanese” and, throughout history, “there have been many folktales pointing to the humanness of the emperors”, for example ones centering on an eighteenth-century crown-prince’s love for soba noodles [163].

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ "The primordial Shinto ethos seems to have been essentially egalitarian." [164] Buddhism is also fundamentally egalitarian: every human being has a potential to achieve what Buddha achieved, regardless of class or ethnicity [165].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ The emperor was thought to be a god [166].
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥ absent/present/unknown

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ In the syncretic Shinto-Buddhist ideology that prevailed for many centuries in Japan, moral values mostly came from Buddhism: “Shinto was retained in the Japanese belief structure, even though it never developed the metaphysical worldview or system of ethics that characterize world religions. Perhaps this was because of its close connection with Japanese Buddhism, which had enough metaphysics and ethics to serve both.” [167] According to Buddhism: “The twofold benefit of living a morally good life is linked to a twofold motivation: ‘Protecting oneself, one protects others; protecting others, one protects oneself ’ - just as each acrobat in a balancing act protects his partner by concentrating on himself, and protects himself by concentrating on his partner (see SN 47:19). If we take care of our own spiritual development, we render a service to others; and if we develop love towards others, we thereby also help ourselves. Accordingly, it is explicitly stated, someone who pursues the path of salvation only for his or her own benefit is to be censured, while the one who follows the path for one’s own benefit and for the benefit of others is to be commended (see AN 7:64).” [168] “Three segments of the Noble Eightfold Path (3 - 5) are traditionally subsumed under the principle of morality (sila): ‘right speech’ (3), ‘right action’ (4) and ‘right livelihood’ (5). [...] ‘Right action’ is explained as abstaining from harming and killing sentient beings - including animals (!), and further as abstaining from ‘taking what is not given’ and from sexual misconduct, which means avoiding sexual relations with women who are still under the protection of their families, or with those who are married, betrothed, or celibate for religious reasons. From monks and nuns complete sexual abstention is demanded. ‘Right livelihood’ means abstaining from those sources of income which involve harming other beings: trading in weapons for instance, or trading in living beings, meat, intoxicants or poison; also included is the avoidance of fraud and avarice.” [169]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ In the syncretic Shinto-Buddhist ideology that prevailed for many centuries in Japan, moral values mostly came from Buddhism: “Shinto was retained in the Japanese belief structure, even though it never developed the metaphysical worldview or system of ethics that characterize world religions. Perhaps this was because of its close connection with Japanese Buddhism, which had enough metaphysics and ethics to serve both.” [170] According to Buddhism: “Leading a moral life is seen as having a wider social dimension as well. Establishing public parks, constructing bridges, digging wells and providing a residence for the homeless (see SN 1:1:47; similarly Jat 31) - all these are commended.” [171]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [172] [173]

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