JpJomo6

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Japan - Final Jomon ♥ "The Japanese word Jomon literally means cord-marked, a term given to decoration applied to pottery with the impressions of twisted cords. The term was first used in the report of what is widely regarded as the first scientific archaeological excavation in Japan, at the Omori shell mounds near present-day Tokyo, written by Edward Sylvester Morse, in 1879. This term was subsequently used to refer to the archaeological period during which this pottery was used." [1]

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1200-300 BCE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥ Kidder, Jr. [2] lists Jomon communities among "various groups [that] existed on the Japanese islands before one particularly powerful clan initiated a centralization process that led to the formation of the Yamato kingdom."

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Japan - Late Jomon ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Kansai - Yayoi Period ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ absent ♥ Kidder, Jr. [3] lists Jomon communities among "various groups [that] existed on the Japanese islands before one particularly powerful clan initiated a centralization process that led to the formation of the Yamato kingdom." This suggests that there was no capital.


♠ Language ♣ ♥ It seems most likely that the Jomon people spoke a language similar to Ainu [4].

General Description

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers.

310,783

This is the sum of the following Jomon-occupied regions: Tohoku, Kanto, Hokoriku, Chubu, Kansai, Chugoku, Shikoku, Kyushu [5].

♠ Polity Population ♣ [400-1000] ♥ People. Minimum is the population of a large village; maximum assuming that half of the polity population was in the central village.

75,800[6] estimate for entire region


♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [400-500] ♥ Inhabitants. Some villages could get as large as 400 to 500 people in early and middle, and later Jomon periods, and could have up to 40 or 50 houses in a settlement.[7]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels. Inferred from previous quasi-polities.[8]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ ♥ levels.

The earliest evidence for an administrative system in the region dates to the late fifth century CE [9].

♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

Earliest evidence for the existence of ritual specialists dates to the Late Jomon.

♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.


Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ absent ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ absent ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Full-time specialists

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ absent ♥ The earliest evidence for a “bureaucratic machinery” appears to date to the late fifth century CE [10].

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ The earliest evidence for a “bureaucratic machinery” appears to date to the late fifth century CE [11].

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥ The earliest evidence for a “bureaucratic machinery” appears to date to the late fifth century CE [12].

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ absent ♥ The earliest evidence for a “bureaucratic machinery” appears to date to the late fifth century CE [13].

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ absent ♥ Inferred from the fact that writing was only introduced in Japan in the fifth century CE [14].

♠ Judges ♣ absent ♥

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ "It is clear that cultivation did appear in the Jomon period, but it is equally clear that it remained a minor activity that did not contribute significantly to the growth of social complexity (Rowley-Conwy 2002:62). In fact, Hudson (1997) has that the of full-scale rejection agriculture was one characteristic shared by argued Jomon societies." [15].
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred absent ♥ Generally speaking, the Jomon stored food in pits that were part of residential sites, not at different sites altogether [16].

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the fact that roads are nor mentioned by a number of sources providing comprehensive overviews of Jomon life (e.g. [17][18])--even in chapters dedicated to trade and exchange, only water transport is discussed [19].
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ Obsidian mines. "In contrast, large-sized mining sites in which underground obsidian nodules were dug out by means of numerous pits emerged in the Central Highlands during the Jomon Period. The systematic digging technology is characteristic of Jomon procurement activities. Although the earliest mining pit dates back to the late phase of the Incipient Jomon, the historical process with regard to the emergence of the digging technology for the mining is still ambiguous." [20]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [21]
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [22]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [23]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [24]
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [25]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [26]
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [27]
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [28]
♠ History ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [29]
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [30]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [31]
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [32]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ “Japan retained a barter system until the AD 600s [...]. Inspired by circulation of Chinese cash coppers, the island nation first produced extensive coinage after AD 708, when the Empress Genmyo turned new strikes of copper ore into coins.” [33]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ Paper currency first introduced in the 1600s [34].

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Thomas Cressy ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Metalworking began in the Yayoi period [35].[36]
♠ Bronze ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Metalworking began in the Yayoi period [37].[38]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Metalworking began in the Yayoi period [39].
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Metalworking began in the Yayoi period [40].

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Slings ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ 1m long bows with poison tipped arrows have been found for this polity, which could kill anything up to about 50 kg in weight, including people.[41] Making bows that would fit with the highly regularized 10,000-year-long Jomon archery tradition would have required the use of staves that were carefully harvested from plants nurtured during growth [42]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Gunpowder was introduced in Japan in 1543 [43].
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Gunpowder was introduced in Japan in 1543 [44].

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Battle axes ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Daggers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful. [45]. [46]
♠ Swords ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Pearson suggests: ‘There is hard archaeological evidence that continental people visited Jomon communities. At the Itoku site in Kochi Prefecture in southern Shikoku, both human and animal bones with modifications caused by metal tools were found in a deposit dating to 3200-2800 B.P. (Maruyama et al. 2004). The modifications appear to have been made by metal swords or knives and are consistent with violent conflict (Matsui 2005).’[47]
♠ Spears ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful. And camels are not native to Japan or its neighbouring regions.
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful. And elephants are not native to Japan or its neighbouring regions.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Shields ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Helmets ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Limb protection ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.[48]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Ditch ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Moat ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Long walls ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The following is relevant, but not enough to code this variable. "The second theme is that various ritual practices, from burial with grave goods to the construction of stone‐built monuments, were expressions of social power rather than ritual power or religious authority. This theme is at the forefront of discussions by scholars such as Junko Habu and Oki Nakamura who have argued that there was a degree of inherited, or ascribed, social status in the Jomon period, and that the primary function of ritual practice was to express and legitimate this ascribed status. There remains considerable disagreement about this (Habu 2004)." [49].

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The following is relevant, but not enough to code this variable. "The second theme is that various ritual practices, from burial with grave goods to the construction of stone‐built monuments, were expressions of social power rather than ritual power or religious authority. This theme is at the forefront of discussions by scholars such as Junko Habu and Oki Nakamura who have argued that there was a degree of inherited, or ascribed, social status in the Jomon period, and that the primary function of ritual practice was to express and legitimate this ascribed status. There remains considerable disagreement about this (Habu 2004)." [50].

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Several ethnographic accounts of the native peoples of the northwest coast of North America report the existence of a class of person described as slaves, suggesting a high degree of social differentiation. In many ways, the cultures of the northwest coast were comparable to the Jomon culturees, especially of eastern Japan. Just like the Jomon people, they had no agriculture, but differences in personal status developed, supported by a fishing, hunting and gathering economy. Is there any reason why similar status distinctions should not have developed within Jomon Japan, where economic conditions similar to those on the northwest coast prevailed? The high degree of organisational potential exhibited by Jomon societies, exemplified by the construction of large-scale features such as the ditch at Shizukawa, and the strength of what we might call Jomon cultural power, certainly provided the conditions for the appearance of a degree of social ranking and the accrual of individual status differences within the framework of Jomon society.//For example, in the middle of a community cemetery at the Late Jomon Yamaga shell midden in Fukuoka Prefecture, lies a woman with twenty shell armlets on her wrists [...]. Because of their fragility, she would not have been able to undertake any serious everyday work without considerable inconvenience. We should consider this woman as being of high status who avoided any manual labour. It is possible, although we have no evidence for this, that labour was undertaken for her by slaves. In addition, a man buried with a pattern-engraved deer antler hip ornament may also have been a person of high status. Watanabe Hitoshi pioneered discussions of the existence of stratification in Jomon society, and was supported by the eminent archaeologist Sahara Makoto in the view that social differences in the Jomon were institutionalised. Thinking this way, it is possible to interpret examples of adult women being buried with a slave who was responsible for seeing the child safely to the other world. Perhaps the tradition which includes the slaves described as attending and protecting the mythical Queen Himiko in the Yayoi period extends back deep in time to the Jomon.//There is one more component to the story of personal ranking; ear ornaments. Appearing around the end of the Initial Jomon and the beginning of the Early Jomon, these distinctive artefacts are suddenly found all over the archipelago. Although the distribution of these objects is very widespread, the numbers of ear ornaments from any particular site are very few. Typically less than one-tenth of burials from Jomon community cemeteries have earrings, and it seems that only certain people within these communities were allowed to wear them. Perhaps these people belonged to an elite class, at the top of the hierarchical social order, above ordinary people who in turn had more social status than our postulated slaves, who made up the lowest Jomon social group. Jomon archaeology continues to produce surprises, though, such as the recent excavations at Kuwano, a community cemetery in Fukui Prefecture, where many of the graves contained slit-stone earrings, a timely reminder that we need to be cautious in our interpretations regarding the precise nature of Jomon society, and that we are well-advised to keep an open mind on the social significance of particular types of artefact." [51]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Several ethnographic accounts of the native peoples of the northwest coast of North America report the existence of a class of person described as slaves, suggesting a high degree of social differentiation. In many ways, the cultures of the northwest coast were comparable to the Jomon culturees, especially of eastern Japan. Just like the Jomon people, they had no agriculture, but differences in personal status developed, supported by a fishing, hunting and gathering economy. Is there any reason why similar status distinctions should not have developed within Jomon Japan, where economic conditions similar to those on the northwest coast prevailed? The high degree of organisational potential exhibited by Jomon societies, exemplified by the construction of large-scale features such as the ditch at Shizukawa, and the strength of what we might call Jomon cultural power, certainly provided the conditions for the appearance of a degree of social ranking and the accrual of individual status differences within the framework of Jomon society.//For example, in the middle of a community cemetery at the Late Jomon Yamaga shell midden in Fukuoka Prefecture, lies a woman with twenty shell armlets on her wrists [...]. Because of their fragility, she would not have been able to undertake any serious everyday work without considerable inconvenience. We should consider this woman as being of high status who avoided any manual labour. It is possible, although we have no evidence for this, that labour was undertaken for her by slaves. In addition, a man buried with a pattern-engraved deer antler hip ornament may also have been a person of high status. Watanabe Hitoshi pioneered discussions of the existence of stratification in Jomon society, and was supported by the eminent archaeologist Sahara Makoto in the view that social differences in the Jomon were institutionalised. Thinking this way, it is possible to interpret examples of adult women being buried with a slave who was responsible for seeing the child safely to the other world. Perhaps the tradition which includes the slaves described as attending and protecting the mythical Queen Himiko in the Yayoi period extends back deep in time to the Jomon.//There is one more component to the story of personal ranking; ear ornaments. Appearing around the end of the Initial Jomon and the beginning of the Early Jomon, these distinctive artefacts are suddenly found all over the archipelago. Although the distribution of these objects is very widespread, the numbers of ear ornaments from any particular site are very few. Typically less than one-tenth of burials from Jomon community cemeteries have earrings, and it seems that only certain people within these communities were allowed to wear them. Perhaps these people belonged to an elite class, at the top of the hierarchical social order, above ordinary people who in turn had more social status than our postulated slaves, who made up the lowest Jomon social group. Jomon archaeology continues to produce surprises, though, such as the recent excavations at Kuwano, a community cemetery in Fukui Prefecture, where many of the graves contained slit-stone earrings, a timely reminder that we need to be cautious in our interpretations regarding the precise nature of Jomon society, and that we are well-advised to keep an open mind on the social significance of particular types of artefact." [52]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Several ethnographic accounts of the native peoples of the northwest coast of North America report the existence of a class of person described as slaves, suggesting a high degree of social differentiation. In many ways, the cultures of the northwest coast were comparable to the Jomon culturees, especially of eastern Japan. Just like the Jomon people, they had no agriculture, but differences in personal status developed, supported by a fishing, hunting and gathering economy. Is there any reason why similar status distinctions should not have developed within Jomon Japan, where economic conditions similar to those on the northwest coast prevailed? The high degree of organisational potential exhibited by Jomon societies, exemplified by the construction of large-scale features such as the ditch at Shizukawa, and the strength of what we might call Jomon cultural power, certainly provided the conditions for the appearance of a degree of social ranking and the accrual of individual status differences within the framework of Jomon society.//For example, in the middle of a community cemetery at the Late Jomon Yamaga shell midden in Fukuoka Prefecture, lies a woman with twenty shell armlets on her wrists [...]. Because of their fragility, she would not have been able to undertake any serious everyday work without considerable inconvenience. We should consider this woman as being of high status who avoided any manual labour. It is possible, although we have no evidence for this, that labour was undertaken for her by slaves. In addition, a man buried with a pattern-engraved deer antler hip ornament may also have been a person of high status. Watanabe Hitoshi pioneered discussions of the existence of stratification in Jomon society, and was supported by the eminent archaeologist Sahara Makoto in the view that social differences in the Jomon were institutionalised. Thinking this way, it is possible to interpret examples of adult women being buried with a slave who was responsible for seeing the child safely to the other world. Perhaps the tradition which includes the slaves described as attending and protecting the mythical Queen Himiko in the Yayoi period extends back deep in time to the Jomon.//There is one more component to the story of personal ranking; ear ornaments. Appearing around the end of the Initial Jomon and the beginning of the Early Jomon, these distinctive artefacts are suddenly found all over the archipelago. Although the distribution of these objects is very widespread, the numbers of ear ornaments from any particular site are very few. Typically less than one-tenth of burials from Jomon community cemeteries have earrings, and it seems that only certain people within these communities were allowed to wear them. Perhaps these people belonged to an elite class, at the top of the hierarchical social order, above ordinary people who in turn had more social status than our postulated slaves, who made up the lowest Jomon social group. Jomon archaeology continues to produce surprises, though, such as the recent excavations at Kuwano, a community cemetery in Fukui Prefecture, where many of the graves contained slit-stone earrings, a timely reminder that we need to be cautious in our interpretations regarding the precise nature of Jomon society, and that we are well-advised to keep an open mind on the social significance of particular types of artefact." [53]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥ absent/present/unknown. Religious doctrine, philosophical statements, or practice makes claims about engaging in activity for the benefit of a wider community, for instance Christian traditions of alms-giving or Islamic sadaqah

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ absent/present/unknown. Public Goods refer to anything that incurs cost to an individual or group of individuals, but that can be used or enjoyed by others who did not incur any of the cost, namely the public at large. They are non-excludable and non-rivalrous goods. Examples are roads, public drinking fountains, public parks or theatres, temples open to the public, etc.

References

  1. (Kaner & Nakamura 2004, i)
  2. (Kidder, Jr. 2008, 48)
  3. (Kidder, Jr. 2008, 48)
  4. (Hudson 1999, 83-102)
  5. (Habu 2004, 48)
  6. (Habu 2004, 46-50)
  7. (Barnes 2015: 131) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/T5SRVKXV.
  8. • (Barnes 2015: 131) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/T5SRVKXV.
  9. (Steenstrup 2011, 11)
  10. (Steenstrup 2011, 11)
  11. (Steenstrup 2011, 11)
  12. (Steenstrup 2011, 11)
  13. (Steenstrup 2011, 11)
  14. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  15. (Pearson 2007, 363)
  16. (Habu 2004, 64-70)
  17. (Habu 2004)
  18. (Kobayashi 2004)
  19. (Habu 2004, 236)
  20. (Shimada 2012, 240)
  21. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  22. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  23. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  24. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  25. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  26. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  27. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  28. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  29. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  30. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  31. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  32. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  33. (Snodgrass 2003, 253)
  34. (Snodgrass 2003, 254)
  35. (Mizoguchi 2013, 140)
  36. Pearson, Richard., ‘Debating Jomon Social Complexity’, Asian Perspectives: Journal of Archeology for Asia & the Pacific, Volume 46, Number 2 (Fall), 2007, pp. 360
  37. (Mizoguchi 2013, 140)
  38. Pearson, Richard., ‘Debating Jomon Social Complexity’, Asian Perspectives: Journal of Archeology for Asia & the Pacific, Volume 46, Number 2 (Fall), 2007, pp. 360
  39. (Mizoguchi 2013, 140)
  40. (Mizoguchi 2013, 140)
  41. J. Edward Kidder, Jr., ‘The earliest societies in Japan’, in Delmer M. Brown The Cambridge History of Japan, Cambrudge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, pp. 73-74
  42. Peter Bleed & Akira Matsui, ‘Why Didn’t Agriculture Develop in Japan? A Consideration of Jomon Ecological Style, Niche Construction, and the Origins of Domestication’, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 2010, Volume 17, Issue 4, p. 364
  43. (Maruyama 2000, 22)
  44. (Maruyama 2000, 22)
  45. (Mizoguchi 2013, 140)
  46. Pearson, Richard., ‘Debating Jomon Social Complexity’, Asian Perspectives: Journal of Archeology for Asia & the Pacific, Volume 46, Number 2 (Fall), 2007, pp. 360
  47. Pearson, Richard., ‘Debating Jomon Social Complexity’, Asian Perspectives: Journal of Archeology for Asia & the Pacific, Volume 46, Number 2 (Fall), 2007, pp. 360
  48. Peter Bleed & Akira Matsui, ‘Why Didn’t Agriculture Develop in Japan? A Consideration of Jomon Ecological Style, Niche Construction, and the Origins of Domestication’, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 2010, Volume 17, Issue 4, p. 360
  49. Kaner, S. 2011. The Archaeology of Religion and Ritual in the Prehistoric Japanese Archipelago. In Insoll, T. (ed) The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Ritual and Religion pp. 457-467)
  50. Kaner, S. 2011. The Archaeology of Religion and Ritual in the Prehistoric Japanese Archipelago. In Insoll, T. (ed) The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Ritual and Religion pp. 457-467)
  51. Kobayashi, T. 2004. Jomon reflections: forager life and culture in the prehistoric Japanese archipelago pp. 133-135. Oxford: Oxbow.
  52. Kobayashi, T. 2004. Jomon reflections: forager life and culture in the prehistoric Japanese archipelago pp. 133-135. Oxford: Oxbow.
  53. Kobayashi, T. 2004. Jomon reflections: forager life and culture in the prehistoric Japanese archipelago pp. 133-135. Oxford: Oxbow.

Frellesvig, B. 2010. A History of the Japanese Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Habu, J. 2004. Ancient Jomon of Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hudson, M. 1999. Ruins of Identity: Ethnogenesis in the Japanese Islands. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.

Kaner, S. and O. Nakamura. 2004. Preface. In Kobayashi, T., Jom reflections pp. i-v. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

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