JpJomo2

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Japan - Initial Jomon ♥ "The Japanese word Jomon literally means cord-marked, a term given to decoration applied to pottery with the impressions of twisted cords. The term was first used in the report of what is widely regarded as the first scientific archaeological excavation in Japan, at the Omori shell mounds near present-day Tokyo, written by Edward Sylvester Morse, in 1879. This term was subsequently used to refer to the archaeological period during which this pottery was used." [1]

♠ Alternative names ♣ Kakuriyama; Kuwano; Natsushima ♥ These are all names for regional sub-phases of the Initial Jomon [2].

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 9,200-5,300 BCE ♥ [3]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥ Kidder, Jr. [4] lists Jomon communities among "various groups [that] existed on the Japanese islands before one particularly powerful clan initiated a centralization process that led to the formation of the Yamato kingdom."

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Incipient Jomon ♥ [5]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Early Jomon ♥ [6]
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ inferred absent ♥ Kidder, Jr. [7] lists Jomon communities among "various groups [that] existed on the Japanese islands before one particularly powerful clan initiated a centralization process that led to the formation of the Yamato kingdom." This suggests that there was no capital.


♠ Language ♣ ♥ It seems most likely that the Jomon people spoke a language similar to Ainu [8].

General Description

"Following the discovery of 'pre-Jomon' pottery in Kyushu and elsewhere, Yamanouchi added an earlier stage that he called Soso-ki (the 'grass-roots' stage). It has been adopted by some and rejected by others on the ground that the pottery is not 'Jomon' and that the subsistence system of this phase was Paleolithic-style hunting. Some Westerners use this term, which I call Subearliest in order to distin- guish the phase from, and to show its relationship to, Earliest Jomon. Some prefer 'Incipient'.
"[...]
"By and large, the sites of this phase are rather few, and their cultural content is relatively meager. Bone fishhooks, usually not barbed, were rapidly improved along the northern coast. Arrowheads were small, used more frequently by inland hunters. Plant bulbs and starchy roots were dug with large, adzlike tools that were made of sandstone, slate, or other soft stone. Nuts and possibly seeds were pulverized with grinding stones. Hanawadai in Ibaragi Prefecture is the first recognizable Earliest Jomon community site. Five house pits lying about 10 meters apart contained two successive Hanawadai pottery subtypes, probably meaning that not more than three houses were occupied at any one time. The little bands of occupants could hardly have numbered more than ten or fifteen. One pit is not quite square, measuring 4.6 by 3.8 meters, and has twelve holes for posts. Outdoor fireplaces were used. Seemingly inconvenient bullet-shaped pots stood upright in the soft, loose surface soil. Dogs were kept around the house, the Canis familiaris japonica (small, short-haired, Spitz-like dogs) that were perhaps ancestors of the present-day Shiba.
"Most of the few human skeletons excavated from sites of this phase have been found intentionally buried among the shells, lying on their backs in flexed positions. They dramatize the severe conditions faced by the people of that day. The earliest known Jomon man was uncovered in 1949 below a shell layer in the Hirasaka shell mound in Yokohoma City. He stood rather tall for a Jomon person: about 163 centimeters. His lower left molars were worn down to the jawbone, probably caused by years of pulling leather thongs across them, and X-rays of his bones showed growth interruptions, interpreted as near-fatal spells of extreme malnutrition during childhood. The joints testify to early aging. Virtually unused wisdom teeth are partial evidence for a life expectancy of about thirty years, an estimated average through the Middle Jomon, with an increase of only one year during the next two millennia, until the adoption of rice as a dietary staple.
"[...]
"Koyama Shuzo calculated the population of the Earliest Jomon to be around 21,900. Inhabitants had moved to higher land in the valleys of the lower-central mountains and established communities to the north-east. Concentration in these areas throughout most of the Jomon period can be accounted for by a variety and abundance of plant, mammal, and sea life, where northern and southern environmental zones overlap in central Japan. With the exception of the Latest Jomon, and possibly the Middle Jomon, the Kanto sites are usually more numerous and frequently larger. Over half of the Earliest Jomon population was strung out along the banks of Kanto streams, with ready access to water supplies, for the same reason that earlier and later people - amounting to teeming millions in modern times - congregated there." [9]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers. 310,783 This is the sum of the following Jomon-occupied regions: Tohoku, Kanto, Hokoriku, Chubu, Kansai, Chugoku, Shikoku, Kyushu [10].

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People. 20,100 [11] estimate for entire region, unclear how many were in this quasi-polity

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels. "Because a great number of sites and features such as large villages, pit houses, burials, and shell middens of the Jomon period have been found, many archaeologists believe the inhabitants lived there all year round. However, even with strong evidence of a stable society, there is no doubt that there was a radial development pattern of hunting camps, plant gathering camps, and fishing camps with a residential base at the center." [12]

1. Central residential base
2. Hunting camps
Small, temporary, peripheral.
2. Gathering camps
Small, temporary, peripheral.
2. Fishing camps
Small, temporary, peripheral.

♠ Administrative levels ♣ ♥ levels.

The earliest evidence for an administrative system in the region dates to the late fifth century CE [13].

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.


♠ Military levels ♣ ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ absent ♥ The Jomon appear to have been relatively peaceful [14].

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ absent ♥ The Jomon appear to have been relatively peaceful [15].

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ absent ♥ Full-time specialists

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ absent ♥ The earliest evidence for a “bureaucratic machinery” appears to date to the late fifth century CE [16].

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ The earliest evidence for a “bureaucratic machinery” appears to date to the late fifth century CE [17].

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥ The earliest evidence for a “bureaucratic machinery” appears to date to the late fifth century CE [18].

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ absent ♥ The earliest evidence for a “bureaucratic machinery” appears to date to the late fifth century CE [19].

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ absent ♥ Inferred from the fact that writing was only introduced in Japan in the fifth century CE [20].

♠ Judges ♣ absent ♥

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ "It is clear that cultivation did appear in the Jomon period, but it is equally clear that it remained a minor activity that did not contribute significantly to the growth of social complexity (Rowley-Conwy 2002:62). In fact, Hudson (1997) has that the of full-scale rejection agriculture was one characteristic shared by argued Jomon societies." [21].
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred absent ♥ Generally speaking, the Jomon stored food in pits that were part of residential sites, not at different sites altogether [22].

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the fact that roads are nor mentioned by a number of sources providing comprehensive overviews of Jomon life (e.g. [23][24])--even in chapters dedicated to trade and exchange, only water transport is discussed [25].
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [26]
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [27]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [28]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [29]
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [30]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [31]
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [32]
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [33]
♠ History ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [34]
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [35]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [36]
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥ “To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche.” [37]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ “Japan retained a barter system until the AD 600s [...]. Inspired by circulation of Chinese cash coppers, the island nation first produced extensive coinage after AD 708, when the Empress Genmyo turned new strikes of copper ore into coins.” [38]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ Paper currency first introduced in the 1600s [39].

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ absent ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Thomas Cressy ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent ♥ Metalworking began in the Yayoi period [40].
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ Metalworking began in the Yayoi period [41].
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Metalworking began in the Yayoi period [42].
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Metalworking began in the Yayoi period [43].

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Slings ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful. [44][45]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Gunpowder was introduced in Japan in 1543 [46].
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Gunpowder was introduced in Japan in 1543 [47].

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.[48]
♠ Daggers ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Swords ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Spears ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.[49]
♠ Donkeys ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful. And camels are not native to Japan or its neighbouring regions.
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful. And elephants are not native to Japan or its neighbouring regions.

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Shields ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Helmets ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Limb protection ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.[50][51]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Ditch ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Moat ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Long walls ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ No archaeological evidence for this. Moreover, the scholarly consensus is that the Jomon were relatively peaceful.


Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

References

  1. (Kaner & Nakamura 2004, i)
  2. (Kobayashi 2004, 5)
  3. (Kobayashi 2004, 5)
  4. (Kidder, Jr. 2008, 48)
  5. (Kobayashi 2004, 5)
  6. (Kobayashi 2004, 5)
  7. (Kidder, Jr. 2008, 48)
  8. (Hudson 1999, 83-102)
  9. (Kidder, Jr. 2008, 60-61)
  10. (Habu 2004, 48)
  11. (Habu 2004, 46-50)
  12. (Matsui 2001, 120)
  13. (Steenstrup 2011, 11)
  14. (Yoshida and Kaner 2016, pers. comm.)
  15. (Yoshida and Kaner 2016, pers. comm.)
  16. (Steenstrup 2011, 11)
  17. (Steenstrup 2011, 11)
  18. (Steenstrup 2011, 11)
  19. (Steenstrup 2011, 11)
  20. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  21. (Pearson 2007, 363)
  22. (Habu 2004, 64-70)
  23. (Habu 2004)
  24. (Kobayashi 2004)
  25. (Habu 2004, 236)
  26. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  27. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  28. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  29. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  30. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  31. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  32. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  33. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  34. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  35. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  36. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  37. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  38. (Snodgrass 2003, 253)
  39. (Snodgrass 2003, 254)
  40. (Mizoguchi 2013, 140)
  41. (Mizoguchi 2013, 140)
  42. (Mizoguchi 2013, 140)
  43. (Mizoguchi 2013, 140)
  44. Peter Bleed & Akira Matsui, ‘Why Didn’t Agriculture Develop in Japan? A Consideration of Jomon Ecological Style, Niche Construction, and the Origins of Domestication’, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 2010, Volume 17, Issue 4, p. 362
  45. Peter Bleed & Akira Matsui, ‘Why Didn’t Agriculture Develop in Japan? A Consideration of Jomon Ecological Style, Niche Construction, and the Origins of Domestication’, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 2010, Volume 17, Issue 4, p. 364
  46. (Maruyama 2000, 22)
  47. (Maruyama 2000, 22)
  48. Habu, Junko, ‘Growth and decline in complex hunter-gatherer societies: a case study from the Jomon period Sannai Maruyama site, Japan’, Antiquity, Vol.82(317), 2008, pp. 575-577
  49. J. Edward Kidder, Jr., ‘The earliest societies in Japan’, in Delmer M. Brown The Cambridge History of Japan, Cambrudge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 61
  50. Kidder Jr., J. Edward, 2007. Himiko and Japan's Elusive Kingdom of Yamatai (Honolulu: Hawaii University Press). p. 41
  51. Peter Bleed & Akira Matsui, ‘Why Didn’t Agriculture Develop in Japan? A Consideration of Jomon Ecological Style, Niche Construction, and the Origins of Domestication’, Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory, 2010, Volume 17, Issue 4, p. 360

Frellesvig, B. 2010. A History of the Japanese Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Habu, J. 2004. Ancient Jomon of Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hudson, M. 1999. Ruins of Identity: Ethnogenesis in the Japanese Islands. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.

Kaner, S. and O. Nakamura. 2004. Preface. In Kobayashi, T., Jom reflections pp. i-v. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Kidder, Jr., J.E. 1993. The earliest societies in Japan. In Brown, D. (ed) The Cambridge History of Japan pp. 48-107. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kobayashi, T. 2004. Jomon reflections. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Maruyama, E. 1997. A Historical look at technology and society in Japan (1500-1900). JSAP International 1: 22-25.

Matsui, A. 2001. Jomon. In Peregrine, P. and M. Ember (eds) Encyclopedia of Prehistory: Volume 3: East Asia and Oceania 119-126. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

Mizoguchi, K. 2013. The archaeology of Japan : from the earliest rice farming villages to the rise of the state. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Naumann, N. 2000. Japanese Prehistory: The Material and Spiritual Culture of the Jōmon Period. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Pearson, R. 2006. Jomon hot spot: increasing sedentism in south- western Japan in the Incipient Jomon (14,000-9250 cal. bc) and Earliest Jomon (9250-5300 cal. bc) periods. World Archaeology 38:2, 239-258.

Snodgrass, M.E. 2003. Coins and currency: An historical encyclopaedia. North Carolina; London: MacFarland & Co.

Steenstrup, C. 1996. A history of law in Japan until 1868. Leiden: Brill.