JpAzMom

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Gréine Jordan ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Japan - Azuchi-Momoyama ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Shokuho Period; Momoyama Period; Unification Period ♥ The Azuchi-Momoyama period takes its name from two castles built by warrior-rulers in the second half of the 16th century.[1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1568-1603 CE ♥ 'While most scholars of Japanese history agree upon names used to identify various periods, the dates specified for each era can vary a great deal. Generally, the years 1185-1615[CE] are designated Japan’s medieval era, identified as such due to the advent of rule by the warrior class, feudal system of land allocation and administration, and characteristic political unrest.' [2] 'the period begins with the rise to power of Oda Nobunaga. In 1573 the ‘Ashikaga bakufu ends: Oda Nobunaga defeats the shogun, Ashikaga Yoshiaki; Nobunaga in control of the government Nobunaga destroys opposition daimyo families of Asai Nagamasa and Asakura Yoshikage' [3]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ loose; quasi-polity ♥ but moving towards more centralized rule. ‘Hideyoshi continued the process of national unification. By 1590, most of Japan was under his control.’ [4]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Japan - Sengoku Jidai ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ By the 1560s[CE], the extended period of political disorder and civil war was ending. A process of national unification began to occur as the result of the military and political shrewdness of three central figures: the warriors Oda Nobunaga (1534-82[CE]), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-98[CE]), and Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616[CE]). Beginning with Nobunaga, these three gradually defeated and annexed smaller daimyo, leading eventually to complete control over Japan by the Tokugawa shogunate.[5]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Tokugawa Shogunate ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Japanese ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Kyoto ♥ Kyoto was the official capital of the Japanese empire, and residence of the imperial family, from 794 until 1868. [6] For much of Japanese history, however,, the imperial family were figureheads and in practice did not control the country there were a number of other cities which were set up as administrative capitals which were inhabited by these wielding power. ‘The Azuchi-Momoyama period takes its name from two castles built by warrior-rulers in the second half of the 16th century. Azuchi Castle was built by Oda Nobunaga on the shores of Lake Biwa near Kyoto. Toyotomi Hideyoshi built his castle, Momoyama (Peach Mountain), at Fushimi on what was then the outskirts of Kyoto.’ [7]

♠ Language ♣ Middle Japanese (12th-16th century) ♥ [8]

General Description

The Azuchi-Momoyama period (1568-1603 CE), also known as the Shokuho period, is named for the castles built by the warrior rulers Oda Nobunaga (Azuchi) and Toyotomi Hideyoshi (Momoyama).[9] The Azuchi-Momoyama period marked the beginning of a process of national unification after the disorder of the Warring States period.[10] The period starts with the rise to power of the military commander and regional lord Oda Nobunaga. With his defeat of the shogun Ashikaga Yoshiaki, he set about bringing the lesser daimyō (lords) under the control of a single military command.[11][12] In 1568 Nobunaga marched on, and occupied, the imperial capital of Kyoto, gaining effective control of the government.[13]
After the death of Nobunaga in 1582, his general Toyotomi Hideyoshi continued this process, gaining control of most of Japan by 1590 CE. In an attempt to expand Japan's territory overseas, Hideyoshi led two unsuccessful invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597.[14] Hideyoshi's death in 1598, leaving a council of lords in charge until his young son came of age, sparked off a succession struggle. The general Tokugawa Ieyasu, a former ally of Oda Nobunaga, emerged victorious from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, cementing his power. After his victory, he was appointed shogun in 1603, founding the Tokugawa Shogunate which would dominate Japan for the next 200 years.[15]

Population and political organization

While the generals Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu consolidated power into a military confederation, the emperor remained the nominal head of state throughout the period.[16] Although the older social order remained largely intact, with peasants subservient to feudal lords, Oda Nobunaga's policy of annexing lands and awarding them to his loyal retainers reshaped the power relations between lords and enabled the consolidation of his own power.[17] Toyotomi Hideyoshi was instrumental in creating a strict and finely graded social hierarchy of warriors, farmers, artisans, and merchants, a structure that would be institutionalized in the succeeding Tokugawa period.[18]
Population estimates for the area under Azuchi-Momoyama control range from roughly 17 million in 1500 CE to 22 million in 1600 CE.[19] The imperial capital, Kyoto, remained the largest settlement with approximately 300,000 inhabitants.[20]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Gréine Jordan ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 295,000 ♥KM2. the gross land figure for Japan’s three main islands Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku.[21]' 'During the process of political re-unification in the late sixteenth century, the emergent borders between sengoku daimyo¯ domains were again ‘demoted’ to the status of internal administrative boundaries. The area under ‘unified’ rule expanded very rapidly in this period, even going beyond Japan’s ‘traditional’ boundaries for a brief period in the 1590s as a result of Toyotomi Hideyoshi’s invasions of the Korean peninsula. However upon Hideyoshi’s death, all attempts to conquer Korea were abandoned, and Japan’s national territory reverted to more or less the same dimensions as in the medieval period—the three islands of Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu, plus the southern tip of Hokkaido. At least in a formal, political sense, this national territory remained more or less unchanged until the end of the eighteenth century. [22]

♠ Polity Population ♣ 17,000,000: 1500 CE; 22,000,000: 1600 CE ♥ 17,000,000: 1500CE; 22,000,000: 1600CE; Population estimate by McEvedy and Jones. [23]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 300,000 ♥ Kyoto [24]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 5 ♥

5. Cities (palace, monumental structures, market, central government buildings, military fortifications, transport hubs, shrines, temples)

Population:

‘Between 1550 and 1700 Kyoto was the first city to surpass a population of 100,000 people.' [25]

4. Castle Town /Market Town (market, regional government buildings, military fortifications)

Population:

'By the Azuchi-Momoyama period (late 16th century), castle towns became the political and administrative hubs of daimyo domains, and it is estimated that in most domains one-10th of the population resided in its castle town. Some of them, at least, were to become Japan’s largest cities, such as Edo and Osaka.[26] ‘During the 16th century, castle towns (joka machi) began their transformation into town and city complexes. This occurred in part because castle towns served as government administration centres. Many daimyo and almost all samurai lived within the castle town complexes. Merchants, traders, artisans, craftspeople, and others were eventually incorporated into these towns and cities to provide the labor and market activity needed to support the work conducted there and to further build and maintain the infrastructure. As a result of this dynamic, castle and market towns came to occupy the same location.’[27]

3. Port Towns (accommodation, trade, transport hubs)

Population:???

'Port towns grew up around sea ports that developed flourishing trading centers in the medieval and early modern periods'[28]

2. Temple/Shrine Towns (shrines, temples, accommodation)

Population:???

‘Temple and shrine towns (monzen machi) originated in the vicinity of Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines, usually along the roads leading to these religious sites. These towns served the needs of pilgrims visiting the temples and shrines. Establishments that developed along these routes provided food and lodging to pilgrims, and sold amulets and other religious items. As religious sites grew in size, so did the permanent infrastructure needed to support this activity.’[29]

1. Village (residential)

Population: 10-100

‘Besides farm villages, fishing villages were a feature of medieval and early modern rural life.’[30]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [4-6] ♥

1 Emperor

"the emperor and the imperial court were still the formal head of government. Warrior governments typically sought out- or forced-the formal imperial decrees that gave legitimacy to the shoguns."[31]
2. Imperial court

_Warrior bureaucracy (Shogunate)_

1-2. Shogun


_Provincial bureaucracy_

2-3. Provincial aristocrats
"Their governments, known commonly as shogunates, were often challenged by the interests of other powerful warrior families in various parts of Japan and by the imperial family in Kyoto."[32]
3-4. Cosigner / Council of State Members
4-5. Administrative Baord office heads / court officials
5-6 Board Office staffers


'For the nearly 700-year span of Japan’s medieval and early modern periods, warriors-with varying levels of effectiveness and hegemony-ruled the country. Although the fortunes of particular extended warrior families waxed and waned, only members of the warrior class could serve as shoguns, the military rulers. Their governments, known commonly as shogunates, were often challenged by the interests of other powerful warrior families in various parts of Japan and by the imperial family in Kyoto. Although the warrior bureaucracy largely controlled the affairs of the state, the emperor and the imperial court were still the formal head of government. Warrior governments typically sought out- or forced-the formal imperial decrees that gave legitimacy to the shoguns. Occasionally emperors would attempt to reassert direct imperial rule. They were, however, always suppressed in favor of warrior rule... Warrior governments functioned as a lord-vassal system of loyalty. This is reflected in the political structures of the different shogunates. Although they varied greatly in their organization, the notion of loyalty, whether earned or forced, always laid the foundation on which the warrior government was built.'[33] 'Hideyoshi is remembered as the creator of institutions that became the building blocks for the subsequent Tokugawa hegemony.'[34]

♠ Religious levels ♣ [2-3] ♥

‘High office in one of the gozan monasteries brought distinction to a monk, his family, and patrons. Clearly, many monks wanted the title of abbot or senior administrator but not the obligations that went with the office. Finding and maintaining talented monastic leadership thus remained a critical problem for the gozan institution and its secular sponsors. And the problem was compounded by the fact that the shogunate collected a fee each time it issued a certificate of appointment to an abbot.’ [35]



♠ Military levels ♣ 5 ♥

"by 1623, Ieyasu’s force consisted of 12 companies. The companies were headed by a single captain, four lieutenants, and 50 guards. There was extensive variation in the ways troops were structured for battle and the hierarchy of command that directed the troops."[36]

1. Shogun

2. Captain
3. Lieutenant
4. Guards
5. Individual soldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ [37]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ [38]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ ‘The generic term for a Shinto priest is kannushi. However, Shinto in the medieval and early modern periods was not a centrally organized tradition. Hence, there is great variation in terminology used to denote Shinto priests. Historically, the office of shrine priest was typically passed down through a priestly family from father to son.’ [39]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ So far I have been unable to find sources explicitly stating the structure of administrative/bureaucratic system in the Azuchi-Momoyama period. This appears to be because while the power balance and organization of the country were in a state of flux there was a continuum of the previous Muromachi period administrative/bureaucratic system, however this system would also have been undergoing a transformation into the more elaborate Tokugawa system. No sources indicate a collapse of the administrative/bureaucratic system therefore the below codes reflect variables that were identified in the Muromachi period and continued into the Tokugawa period.[40]

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ ‘The regional laws set forth by the increasingly powerful daimyo continued to make up the primary form of legal structure after the Muromachi shogunate officially collapsed and the Azuchi-Momoyama period began. However, Japan as a nation was very unstable during this period, and domains changed hands often, making it hard to enforce any one legal code for very long. Thus, land rights were often abused and much criminal activity went unpunished.’ [41] 'the legal system was based on status considerations, and separate legal codes were issued for each status group.' [42]

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥ professional lawyers were not present until the Meiji Restoration. [43]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ ‘by the late medieval period... The construction and maintenance of reservoirs and irrigation ditches was undertaken collectively by peasants either from a single village community of from several village communities banded together as a unit for the task.'[44]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ 'The period when any particular water supply system was constructed also had a lot to do with its design. A great many of the water supply systems that were laid out during the final decades of the sixteenth century or in the early seventeenth century were constructed principally to provide water to the moats that surrounded the castle or to the canals that functioned both as defensive moats and as sources of drinking water.'[45]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ [46]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ 'It was only in the late 16th century that military leaders such as Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi recognized the importance of a functioning road system to their quest for the unification of Japan. To this end, they inaugurated efforts to improve the roads and make them safe for travel, and to abolish the barrier system, which hindered both mobility and trade.[47]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ ‘the construction by Hideyoshi of a large-scale bridge across the Kamo River.’[48]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ ‘In the Azuchi-Momoyama Period (1568-1600[CE]), Toyotomi Hideyoshi...ordered Otani Yoshitsugu, the owner of Tsuruga Castle, to build a canal from Oura toward Tasuragu.’ [49] 'A great many of the water supply systems that were laid out during the final decades of the sixteenth century or in the early seventeenth century were constructed principally to provide water to the moats that surrounded the castle or to the canals that functioned both as defensive moats and as sources of drinking water.' [50]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ [51]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ 'All the gold and silver mines in the nation, including the Sado gold mine and the Iwami silver mine, were placed under Hideyoshi's direct control; the amount of fees he received from these in 1598 came to more than 3,397 pieces of gold and 79,415 pieces of silver'[52]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ The earliest known written Japanese texts date to the eight century. Although the spoken languages have no relationship Chinese characters were borrowed to enable Japanese to be written ‘Over time the Japanese writing system developed into a complex use of Chinese characters along with two different phonetic scripts to represent the sounds of spoken Japanese. The two phonetic scripts—hiragana and katakana—represented the same sounds but were used in different contexts reflecting, among other things, class and gender.’[53]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ The earliest known written Japanese texts date to the eight century. Although the spoken languages have no relationship Chinese characters were borrowed to enable Japanese to be written ‘Over time the Japanese writing system developed into a complex use of Chinese characters along with two different phonetic scripts to represent the sounds of spoken Japanese. The two phonetic scripts—hiragana and katakana—represented the same sounds but were used in different contexts reflecting, among other things, class and gender.’[54]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ The earliest known written Japanese texts date to the eight century. Although the spoken languages have no relationship Chinese characters were borrowed to enable Japanese to be written ‘Over time the Japanese writing system developed into a complex use of Chinese characters along with two different phonetic scripts to represent the sounds of spoken Japanese. The two phonetic scripts—hiragana and katakana—represented the same sounds but were used in different contexts reflecting, among other things, class and gender.’[55]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ 'he [Toyotomi Hideyoshi] ordered censuses taken in all villages to prevent military men from taking refuge in them'[56] ‘Unusually precise records describing how wounds were inflicted in battle from 1333 through 1600 enable us to trace the dissemination of weapons. One can precisely chart how weapons were used from 1333 onward because battle reports (kassen chūmon) and “petitions for reward” (gunchūjō) record how wounds were inflicted.’ [57]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ ‘In the medieval and early modern periods, the Japanese utilized the traditional lunar calendar. Dates on this calendar represented the day, month, and year, the last of which could be determined by several methods. Two such methods included the 60-year time cycle and the use of the era name, or nengo. Nengo was a unit of time comparable to an era, commonly employed to date events or chronological periods. The use of this measure of time began in the seventh century. The change of emperor included a change in era name. However, in the early modern period, the nengo did not simply represent the duration of a governmental regime. New era names might be declared when auspicious events occurred or at certain points in the traditional 60- year (sexagenary) calendar cycle.’[58]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ [59]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ [60]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥
♠ History ♣ present♥ There is a long tradition of historical recording in Japan. Japan’s oldest extant text is Kojiki (Record of ancient matters) written in 712CE although it deals with what today would be considered mythological themes it was treated as a historic text.[61]
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred absent ♥ 'Unless we make the claim that Buddhism is a philosophy, Japan did not have philosophical systems separate from explicit religious affiliations until the early modern period.'[62]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ ‘In medieval and early modern Japan, the natural sciences—including such disciplines as medicine, mathematics, and astronomy—were largely influenced by Chinese systems of science and classification of the natural world.’[63]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ One of the world’s oldest extant novels was written in Japan c.1000 in the Heian period. Genji monogatari (Tale of Genji) written by a noblewoman lady-in-waiting Murasaki Shikibu. ‘While aristocratic literature retained its importance throughout the medieval and early modern periods, it was also supplanted in many ways by literature that reflected the sensibilities of a much broader segment of Japanese society. Warriors, Buddhists, merchants, masterless samurai, and geisha were among those who became the subjects of this literature and those whose interests this literature sometimes expressed.’[64]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ 'The rapid increase in the production of gold and particularly silver involved Japan perforce in world commerce and transformed the structure of trade in East Asia.'[65]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ ‘for several centuries [before 1600], Japan’s monetary circulation depended mainly on the import of Chinese bronze coins, making Japan a peripheral zone in a China-centered monetary sphere that extended across East and Southeast Asia.’ [66]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent: 1568-1587 CE; present: 1588-1603 CE ♥ 'Money had not been minted in Japan since the twelve imperial coins (kocho junisen) of Nara times, and from late Heian, Sung [Chinese dynasty 960-1280CE] coins circulated unchecked by legislative action.'[67]'In 1588, Hideyoshi commissioned the Goto family to mint oban gold coins, which were followed by the koban and ichibuban. Further, he assigned twenty silver refiners to Daikoku (Yuasa) Joze of Sakai to mint silver coins....This striking and issuance of gold and silver coins was an epochmaking event in Japan's monetary history.[68] 'In the third month of 1569, only a year after he had entered Kyoto, Nobunaga established official exchange rates for gold, silver, and copper coins (ten ryo of gold were to equal fifteen copper kammon, and ten ryo of silver were to equal two kammon) and laid down rules for trading in gold and silver; for example, imported items such as raw silk, medicines, damask, and tea bowls had to be traded in gold and silver. This establishment of official exchange rates was a completely new policy; nothing similar had been attempted by the Muromachi shogunate. 13 It was also the predecessor of the triple coinage system that would prevail through the Tokugawa period to the 1870s' [69]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ 'The Fukui domain was the first to issue paper currency, doing so in 1661, and other domains followed this practice.’[70]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ 'the use of couriers dates back to the early medieval period.'[71]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ there were post stations which were established to provide services to couriers. [72]
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Gréine Jordan ; Thomas Cressy ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ required for bronze
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥[73]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥[74]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥[75]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Could not find any evidence of use
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred absent ♥ Could not find any evidence of use
♠ Slings ♣ absent ♥ although they had been present in the much earlier Yayoi period (c.300BCE-300CE).[76]
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ although single piece bows were used in earlier times, and could technically have been used, the composite bow had been standard military equipment since the 9th century.
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥‘From the Kamakura period, bows were constructed in layers utilizing bamboo slats for added strength and flexibility. The core of the bow was made of stiff wood and was combined with laminated pieces of bamboo. After the 15th century, the sides of the bow were laminated with bamboo slats, and the wooden core of the bow was thus completely encased in bamboo. For added strength, cane was wound around the stave of the bow. While in theory the cane bow was finished with lacquer for additional protection, this was not always the case in practice.’[77]
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The bow staves of Chinese crossbows were composites of wood, bone, sinew and glue ... But, as we have observed, the Japanese lacked supplies of animal products, and fashioned their bows from wood and bamboo instead, which required that the weapons be long. Manufacturing crossbows with composite bow staves of wood and bamboo comparable in length to those of regular bows would have resulted in a weapon too unwieldy to be practical". However some crossbows were imported.[78]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ traction trebuchets were powered by human muscle not gravity. ‘sporadic accounts of stone-throwing catapults occur in the Japanese chronicals over the next two centuries [1400-1600s].’[79]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ "Japan appears never to have adopted the counterweight trebuchet, making the leap direct from traction trebuchets to cannon, although even these saw little use until the very end of the age of the samurai."[80]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ present ♥ ‘explosive weapons were rarely used in Japan before the 19th century. Evidence indicates that samurai eschewed most forms of heavy artillery until the last major campaign of the Tokugawa shogunate, in which cannons were used against lingering Toyotomi loyalists at Osaka Castle between 1614 and 1615.’[81] Thunderclap Bombs the only account we have of thunderclap bombs in Japan concerns the exploding bombs thrown by traction trebuchets in 1468... similar bombs were probably used in Japan as late as in 1614 during the defence of Osaka castle.’[82]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ present ♥ ‘even if firearms (teppo) were already known in Japan, their use was not widespread in Japanese battles until after European guns were formally introduced to Tanegashima Tokitaka, daimyo of an island domain off the southern coast of Kyushu, in 1543.’[83] ‘early in the 16th century, firearms were introduced to Japan and quickly adapted for use in battle. By the end of the Warring States period in 1568, gunnery began to replace archery as the most prominent weapon in the military arsenal. Foot soldiers learned to use the newly acquired weapon to best advantage in various foot stances and on horseback.’[84]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Kanabou (金棒) is noted as being a club weapon in use: 'Sort of iron club used by warriors in ancient times, and a favorite weapon of some monk-warriors (Heisou) in the Heian and Kamakura periods' [85] Photographs exists as late as 1868 with samurai still being equipped with this [86]
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred present ♥ [87]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Tantō knives for example were in use
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ ‘The curved-profile Japanese sword originated in approximately the eighth century, coinciding with the earliest steel production in Japan and the emergence of the first professional military figures.' [88]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ ‘The yari [spear] was one of the most important weapons in the samurai arsenal, especially in infantry units during the Warring States period (1467-1568).’[89] ‘Spears (yari) have a long history in Japan, as the two earliest extant Japanese histories, the Kojiki (712 C.E.) and the Nihon shoki (720 C.E.) recount that the Japanese islands emerged from drops created when the gods Izanami and Izanagi used a jeweled spear to stir the cosmic brine mixture that constituted the universe.[90] ‘The yari is also sometimes called a lance to underscore that in Japan spears were not thrown as in other military traditions where these arms served as projectile weapons.’[91]
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥ ‘First used by the early Kamakura period, the naginata is closest to a European glaive in form, with an elongated shaft, and a single-edged blade curved more than that of a Kamakura-period Japanese tachi. Most likely, the naginata was based upon similar weapons introduced from China by 300 C.E. which have been unearthed in graves.'[92] ‘From the 11th until the mid-15th century, the naginata was the primary weapon wielded by foot soldiers....From the end of the 15th century, most troops serving on foot were provided with a straight, thrusting spear (yari) that produced more effective results in destroying opposing forces.’[93]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ could find no evidence of dogs - but no sources saying that they were not used either
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ could find no evidence of donkeys - but no sources saying that they were not used either
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Horses from the 8th century cavalry played an often vital part in Japanese . The importance place about cavalry shifted throughout time falling in and out of popularity but always remaining present.[94]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ could find no evidence of camels - but no sources saying that they were not used either (although I think this is a very safe bet)
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ could find no evidence of elephants - but no sources saying that they were not used either (although I think this is a very safe bet)

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ ‘Japanese armorers did not confine themselves to metal, and instead incorporated lighter and more malleable materials such as leather and silk (or other fibers) along with iron or steel parts.’ [95] ‘The preferred type of leather was cowhide, and the preferred part of the hide was the animal’s back, as this was the thickest. But because it was uneconomical to waste the rest of the hide, craftsmen also made sane from the belly leather, which was thinner and softer. This meant that the lamellae in most armors were of uneven.’ [96]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ ' Chinese dynastic histories include descriptions that indicate shields were in use by the third century in Japan...From the Nara period to the early medieval period, military shields were standing wooden barriers about eye-level in height and roughly the width of human shoulders... They were attached to poles, or feet, which were hinged so that the support could be collapsed and stored or transported flat. Approximately one and a half meters tall and less than half a meter wide, mostly such shields were made of several planks joined vertically. Although shields could withstand more force if each was made from a single board, this was the exception rather than the rule. Protective substances such as lacquer could also prolong the life of such standing shields; however, by the end of the Kamakura period, decoration usually consisted solely of a family crest.' [97]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ The basic form of helmet (kabuto) that dominated medieval and early modern armor was shaped generally like a skull cap with an opening at the front top and flaps at the sides intended to protect the neck and face. In addition, the neck was shielded by a series of three or five metal plates. By the end of the Muromachi period, most ordinary helmets were made from iron and/or steel. The helmet was formed from individual plates fastened with rivets or simply joined together. The top portion of the helmet, shaped like the pate of a human head, was called the hachi. In the early medieval period, from the 11th to 14th centuries, hachi were almost invariably rounded.' [98]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ ‘Such suits, called nambando gusoku in Japanese, often incorporated two single-ridged, hammered iron sheets which were hinged on one side and fastened with cord on the other.’ [99]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[100] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[101]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[102] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[103]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[104] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[105]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ ‘lames in English, or sane in Japanese, and remained a central component of the relatively flexible armor developed in Japan throughout the medieval period... Even armor made during the early feudal era in Japan typically consisted of modular steel scales called lames atop leather laced together with leather, various types of cord, and silk.’ [106] "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[107] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[108]
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ ‘Once firearms were introduced to Japan, armor requirements and designs changed once again. In addition to matchlock harquebuses, Western armor began to be imported into Japan from the late Muromachi period. Initially, Japanese warriors adapted Western cuirasses by simply attaching protective skirts and neck guards, but soon entire sets of body armor in Western styles began to be produced in Japan. Such suits, called nambando gusoku in Japanese, often incorporated two single-ridged, hammered iron sheets which were hinged on one side and fastened with cord on the other.’ [109] "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[110] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[111]


Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ ‘The atake-bune was a type of naval warship that was used in battles during the Warring States period and into the early Edo period. These vessels were anywhere from about 20 to 65 feet in length. Atake-bune included a wooden tower from which arrows or matchlock guns could be fired at the enemy. Twenty to 25 oarsmen were needed to propel these large ships.’ [112] ‘Seki-bune was a type of Japanese warship used in the Warring States period and at the beginning of the early modern period. Unlike its contemporary, the atake-bune, the seki-bune was much smaller and faster’. [113]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ 'elevated shiro built during the late Muromachi and Momoyama periods'.[114] 'Despite their imposing appearances, the castles of the Azuchi- Momyama epoch were not constructed only for defense. Daimyo wished to develop commercially thriving towns around their fortresses and therefore often selected castle sites more on the basis of economic than military considerations. But above all, the typical Azuchi-Momoyama daimyo conceived of the castle as a means to impress the world with his grandeur and power. Thus, although castles of the time were noteworthy because of their broad, deep moats and huge protective walls made of stone, their most distinctive features were multistoried donjons or keeps, which were of little use militarily but were highly decorative and showy.'[115]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ an example from the third siege of Nagashirma 1574CE ‘by the end of 1574 they were slowly starving to death. Instead of accepting surrender. Nobunaga commanded the erection of a very tall wooden palisade which was anchored on the forts of Nakae and Yanagashima.’ [116]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ ‘the other feat of almost Herculean proportions was the erection by Hideyoshi of an earthen embankment around the capital city of Kyoto. ;[117] "Earthern ramparts called dobashi were placed across the moat at points where attackers attempting to cross them would be most vulnerable."[118]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ ‘for protecting the approaches to a castle, three types of excavation were used: areas filled with water, wide ditches and tracts of mud or swamp.'[119]
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ 'Despite their imposing appearances, the castles of the Azuchi- Momyama epoch were not constructed only for defense. Daimyo wished to develop commercially thriving towns around their fortresses and therefore often selected castle sites more on the basis of economic than military considerations. But above all, the typical Azuchi-Momoyama daimyo conceived of the castle as a means to impress the world with his grandeur and power. Thus, although castles of the time were noteworthy because of their broad, deep moats and huge protective walls made of stone, their most distinctive features were multistoried donjons or keeps, which were of little use militarily but were highly decorative and showy.'[120] "the water-filled moat or hori afforded the best guarantee against penetration."[121]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ Momoyama Period: "The stone walls so characteristic of the Japanese castle were built on a foundation of earth covered with small stones over which were placed the larger surface stones. Except at the corners, which were fashioned of stone slabs arranged much like the corner of a brick wall, the stones were of no uniform size or pattern. Generally, however, they were wedge-shaped and were placed with the smaller end of the wedge at the surface and the larger on the inside. This arrangement held them locked in position by their own weight and made them resistant to earthquakes. It also necessitated giving the wall a curve, and records show that this was geometrically determined. The basic earthen wall was known as a doi and the finished wall of stone as an ishigaki. Since no mortar was used to hold the stones in place, free drainage of water was permitted. Nevertheless, openings for drainage were used, although they were kept small so as not to be of advantage to the enemy."[122] 'Despite their imposing appearances, the castles of the Azuchi- Momyama epoch were not constructed only for defense. Daimyo wished to develop commercially thriving towns around their fortresses and therefore often selected castle sites more on the basis of economic than military considerations. But above all, the typical Azuchi-Momoyama daimyo conceived of the castle as a means to impress the world with his grandeur and power. Thus, although castles of the time were noteworthy because of their broad, deep moats and huge protective walls made of stone, their most distinctive features were multistoried donjons or keeps, which were of little use militarily but were highly decorative and showy.'[123] ‘He [Nobunaga] decided to build the castle completely of stone something, as I have said; quite unknown in Japan. As there was no stone available for the work, he ordered many stone idols to be pulled down, and the men tied ropes around the necks of these and dragged them to the site.’ [124]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Momoyama Period: "The stone walls so characteristic of the Japanese castle were built on a foundation of earth covered with small stones over which were placed the larger surface stones. Except at the corners, which were fashioned of stone slabs arranged much like the corner of a brick wall, the stones were of no uniform size or pattern. Generally, however, they were wedge-shaped and were placed with the smaller end of the wedge at the surface and the larger on the inside. This arrangement held them locked in position by their own weight and made them resistant to earthquakes. It also necessitated giving the wall a curve, and records show that this was geometrically determined. The basic earthen wall was known as a doi and the finished wall of stone as an ishigaki. Since no mortar was used to hold the stones in place, free drainage of water was permitted. Nevertheless, openings for drainage were used, although they were kept small so as not to be of advantage to the enemy."[125]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred absent ♥ field fortifications "did not suit the fluid nature of most samurai warfare and make only rare appearances such as at Okita Nawate in 1584" [126]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred present ♥ "The largest and most heavily fortified moat surrounded the main compound."[127]
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘Previously castles had been little more than temporary fortifications of hilltops, but Father Frois' description of Nobunaga at work on his Nijo castle in 157 5 makes it clear that by the Momoyama period, they were built to last and to resist attacks by firearms.’ [128] ‘although the palatial castles of the Azuchi-Momoyama period were erected with defense against gunfire in mind, they were primarily a setting for daimyo displays of military and political power.’ [129]

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ "the emperor and the imperial court were still the formal head of government. Warrior governments typically sought out- or forced-the formal imperial decrees that gave legitimacy to the shoguns."[130] "Their governments, known commonly as shogunates, were often challenged by the interests of other powerful warrior families in various parts of Japan and by the imperial family in Kyoto."[131]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ "The Kojiki, Japan’s earliest extant written text, recounts the story of the creation of the Japanese islands by Izanagi and Izanani (both brother and sister and husband and wife). It tells the story of the birth of the kami, especially the birth of Amaterasu, the sun goddess, from whom the Japanese imperial family - and by extension the Japanese people - are descended. The narrative tells of how Ninigi no Mikoto, grandson of Amaterasu Omikami, was sent to establish sovereignty over the Japanese islands. It was Ninigi’s great grandson, Jimmu, who became, according to the narrative, the first emperor of Japan. All Japanese emperors are said to descend from this sacred line beginning with Amaterasu. The three regalia - mirror, sword, and jewel - the symbols of imperial ruling authority, are said to have originated with Amaterasu who started the tradition of passing these symbols to each subsequent ruler. In the medieval and early modern periods (in fact, up until 1945), this Kojiki narrative was used to argue the legitimacy of the imperial family as rightful rulers." [132]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ “What remains constant throughout history is the emperor’s identity as a deity (‘’kami’’) in the Japanese sense.” [133] However, it is worth noting that “the fluid cosmology of the Japanese, humans, including shamans, and deities do not constitute clear-cut categories”, meaning that the kami have, or can have, human attributes [134]. And since “the ‘’kami’’ are like humans, emperors too have been human to most Japanese” and, throughout history, “there have been many folktales pointing to the humanness of the emperors”, for example ones centering on an eighteenth-century crown-prince’s love for soba noodles [135].

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ "The primordial Shinto ethos seems to have been essentially egalitarian." [136] Buddhism is also fundamentally egalitarian: every human being has a potential to achieve what Buddha achieved, regardless of class or ethnicity [137].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ The emperor was thought to be a god [138].
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥ absent/present/unknown

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [139] [140]

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