JpAsuka

From Seshat Data Browser
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ AP; Jill Levine ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Kansai - Asuka Period ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Asuka period in Kinki region; Asuka period in Kinai region; Late Kofun period in Kinki region; Late Kofun period in Kinai region ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 538-710 CE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥ "the official record is anything but uneventful, and for the years after A.D. 550 it is essentially an account of how a few men finally transformed the loosely joined Yamato state into a centralized empire."[1]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥ Japan had diplomatic relationships with China and Korean Peninsula's kingdoms. In 663 CE Yamato deployed its navy to the korean kingdom of Peackhe as a military support against its invasion by the kingdom of Silla and the Chinese empire[2].

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Kanai - Kofun Period ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Kansai - Nara Period ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ T'ang China; Korea ♥ Some architectural structures and mural paintings show strong influence from T'ang China and the Korean kingdom of Koguryo[3]. In addition, a wave of Korean migrants to Japan occurred after the T'ang invasion of Korea in the 660's. As a consequence, the substatntial influx of Korean artisans, builders, administrators,elites members and various specialists favoured the spread of Korean culture[4].
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 5,400,000 ♥ km squared for T'ang China.[5]'the literature and music of Japan during the two centuries between the acceptance of Buddhism in 587 and the abandonment of the Nara capital in 784. These were years of vast and fundamental change in the island kingdom, of cultural forced feeding and vigorous new growth. In particular, they were the years when Japan became fully and for all time a participant in the high civilization of East Asia. Participation meant religious and philosophical orientations, an ideal of imperial rule, legal and administrative structures, techniques and styles of architecture, city planning, sculpture, painting, and music - all derived directly or indirectly from China and shared in one degree or another by the peoples on its periphery.'[6]

♠ Capital ♣ Asuka; Naniwa; Asuka; Fujiwara ♥ Asuka:538-645 CE; Naniwa: 645-672 CE; Asuka: 672-694 CE; Fujiwara: 694-710 CE[7]


♠ Language ♣ Old Japanese ♥ [8]

General Description

The last segment of the Kofun period is often designated by historians as Asuka period on the basis of the intoduction of the Buddhism religion in 538 CE.[9][10] As a consequence the historical period "Asuka" overlaps with the archaeological period "Kofun" until 710 CE.The Asuka period can be divided into two main phases. The first phase covers the period (572-645 CE) when four successive heads of the Soga clan were leading figures at court: Saga no Iname, Saga no Umako, Siga no Emishi, and Soga no Ir. The second period is the phase after the violent overthrow of the Soga which was dominated by Tenchi Tenno, his brother Temmu Tenno, and Temmu's widow Jito Tenno from 645 to 692. It ends with the abdication of Jito Tenno in favor of her son Mommu and the move of the capital to the Heijō Palace of Nara.[11]

Population and political organization

In this period there is the establishment of a central administrative control with the introduction of the Ritsuryo law system based on Chinese style law codes.[12][13] The introduction of Buddhism in Japan was favoured by the Soga clan, a Japanese court family, which acquired political prominence with the ascension of the emperor Kimmei in 531.[14] The Soga clan intoduced Chinese model-based fiscal policies, etsablished the first national treasury and promoted trade links with the Korean peninsula.[15] With the Taika reform the size of large burial tumuli (kofun) was strongly decreased by imperial decree.[16] The disappearance of large tumuli coincided with the emergence of a marked pyramidal hierarchy indicated by the difference in the burial assemblage.[17] In the seventh century a deceased person was buried in individual, very small round tumuli, which were much smaller than the preceding monumental mounded tombs. However, burial tumuli disapperead at the end of the seventh century.[18][19] During this period elites began devoting resources to the building of Buddhist temples, which explains the reduction in size of tombs[20][21]

We have estimated the population of Kansai to be between 1.5 million and 2 million people in 600 CE, and between 2 million and 3 million by 700 CE.[22] [23]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ AP ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [100,000-150,000]: 600-710 CE ♥ KM2.

Centers in Kyushu (south west Japan) and Nara-Osaka-Kobe area until 600 CE when unified by a bureaucracy and Buddhism. So 250-599 CE = Nara-Osaka-Kobe, whilst 600-710 CE = Nara-Osaka-Kobe + Kyushu (south west Japan).

"The other main centre was in the fertile, but circumscribed, alluvial systems of the Nara-Osaka-Kobe area, where status differentiation appears instead to have been based on hereditary ritual authority. The fusion of these geographical power-bases had occurred by about A.D. 600, by which time a well-developed bureaucracy in the Nara basin was exerting its authority and promoting Buddhism as a unifying ideology for the new regime, thus replacing the ritual authority vested in earlier individual rulers."[24]


♠ Polity Population ♣ [1,500,000-2,000,000]: 538-600 CE; [2,000,000-3,000,000]: 601-709 CE ♥

Whole of Japan = 1m in 300 CE, 1.5m in 400 CE, 1.75m in 500 CE, 3m in 600 CE, 3.5m in 700 CE. [25] or 5m in 700 CE. 16.8% in Kansai region during Yayoi and Kofun period.[26]

Figure for 600-710 CE = estimate for southern half of Japan

Centers in Kyushu (south west Japan) and Nara-Osaka-Kobe area until 600 CE when unified by a bureaucracy and Buddhism. So 250-599 CE = Nara-Osaka-Kobe, whilst 600-710 CE = Nara-Osaka-Kobe + Kyushu (south west Japan).
"The other main centre was in the fertile, but circumscribed, alluvial systems of the Nara-Osaka-Kobe area, where status differentiation appears instead to have been based on hereditary ritual authority. The fusion of these geographical power-bases had occurred by about A.D. 600, by which time a well-developed bureaucracy in the Nara basin was exerting its authority and promoting Buddhism as a unifying ideology for the new regime, thus replacing the ritual authority vested in earlier individual rulers."[27]

900,000 in Japan 300 BCE - 700 CE

an estimation of the population size in Japan between 300 BCE-700 CE was provided by Koyama[28] on the basis of his demographic study on the forty-seven-volume "National Site Maps" published by the Japanese government in 1965. During the Yayoi and Kofun periods around 16.8 % of Japan's population lived in the Kansai region[29].

5,000,000 in whole archipelago 700 CE

"In the case of ritsuryo Japan, demographers combine the few surviving local census figures with scattered records of agricultural output to estimate the archipelago's overall population as of 700 CE at about 5,000,000. For the next three centuries or so the number seems to have fluctuated in the five to six million range and then gradually risen to perhaps seven million by 1150."[30]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ levels.

4.City

3. Town
2. village
1. Hamlet

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [5-6] ♥ levels. In 645 CE was introduced the Taika reform, which established the ritsuryo system of social, fiscal, and administrative organization of the state[31]. The ritsuryō system was codified in several stages. The ritsuryō system was further consolidated and codified in 701 under the Taihō Code, which, except for a few modifications and being relegated to primarily ceremonial functions, remained in force until 1868[32][33].

1. Emperor

_Central government_

6. Council of Kami Affairs-4[b]. Council of State
6. Chancellor
5. Minister of the Left-3[b] Minister of the Right
5. Four senior counselors
Eight ministries:
4. Ministry of Central affairs
4. Ministry of Personnel
4. Ministry of Civil affairs
4. Ministry of Popular affairs
4. Ministry of War
4. Ministry of Justice
4. Ministry of Treasury
4. Ministry of Imperial household
3. more levels
2. more levels, scribes etc.


♠ Religious levels ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels.

The council of Kami affairs was responsible for appointing and promoting priests[34].

♠ Military levels ♣ [4-5] ♥ levels.

A standing army, inspired by the Chinese-style army, was introduced in Japan in the 7th century CE by the emperor Tenmu. The bulk of the army conscripted was composed of peasants who served in infantry regiments. Each province provided a regiment, which could have a size from several hundred to over a thousand of soldiers[35].

5. Emperor

4. Commander-in-Chief?
3. Regiment (several hundred to over a thousand soldiers)
2. Officer?
1. Individual soldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥ "The Asuka no Kiyomihara code provided for provincial military units made up of one young male conscript from each household"[36]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ "The Asuka no Kiyomihara code provided for provincial military units made up of one young male conscript from each household"[37]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ The council of Kami affairs was responsible for appointing and promoting priests[38].

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ [39] In this period there is the establishment of a central administrative control with the introduction of the Ritsuryo law system based on Chinese style law codes[40]

♠ Examination system ♣ present ♥ A Chinese-style civil service examination system based on the Confucian classics was also adopted[41].

♠ Merit promotion ♣ present ♥ The system of caps and ranks favoured appointments and promotions based on merit[42].

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Mints.[43]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ The Ritsuryo law system, which was inspired by Confucianism and Chinese law system was introduced in the seventh century [44].

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ A code of penal laws was introduced, with five levels of punishment[45].

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥Professional lawyers were not present until the Meiji Restoration[46].

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ [47]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ public storehouses[48]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ The capital Fujiwara was founded beside the Middle Road which, along other two parallels road, ran towards the sacred Mt. Miwa[49].
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ [50]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ The Nihon shoki chronicle tells that a canal was dug for two hundred boats used for transporting rocks for the building of the Empress Saimei's Futatsuki palace located in the inland area of Asuka[51].
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ In the Asuka area there were at least two ports that could have played an important role for trade along the Seto Island Sea and beyond[52].

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources, though seems reasonably likely.
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ The earliest extant written records from Japan are the 8th century court Japanese chronicles Kojiki and Nihon Shoki[53] -- these incorporated even earlier historical records. "The earliest Japanese imperial chronicles, that is, the Kojiki and the Nihonshoki, were completed in AD 712 and 720, and included compilations of various historical records as well as ancestral legends dating back to ancient times"[54] "To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche."[55]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ The earliest extant written records from Japan are the 8th century court Japanese chronicles Kojiki and Nihon Shoki[56] -- these incorporated even earlier historical records. "The earliest Japanese imperial chronicles, that is, the Kojiki and the Nihonshoki, were completed in AD 712 and 720, and included compilations of various historical records as well as ancestral legends dating back to ancient times"[57] "To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche."[58]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ "To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche."[59] "The earliest Japanese imperial chronicles, that is, the Kojiki and the Nihonshoki, were completed in AD 712 and 720, and included compilations of various historical records as well as ancestral legends dating back to ancient times"[60]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ inferred absent ♥ "To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche."[61] "The earliest Japanese imperial chronicles, that is, the Kojiki and the Nihonshoki, were completed in AD 712 and 720, and included compilations of various historical records as well as ancestral legends dating back to ancient times"[62] Initially they simply used kanji, the Chinese characters. Hiragana evolved later, and katakana last of all. So we need to find when they started using hiragana. Before that, just NonPhWrit, after that both.

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ e.g. used by government
♠ Calendar ♣ suspected unknown ♥ e.g. used by government
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred present ♥ unknown. The first university (Daigaku-ryō) was founded at the end of the 7th century CE[63] -- what was studied/taught at the university?
♠ Practical literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥ e.g. used by government.
♠ History ♣ present ♥ "The earliest Japanese imperial chronicles, that is, the Kojiki and the Nihonshoki, were completed in AD 712 and 720, and included compilations of various historical records as well as ancestral legends dating back to ancient times"[64]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ "To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche."[65] perhaps with Buddhism from 552 CE? The first university (Daigaku-ryō) was founded at the end of the 7th century CE[66]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥ The first university (Daigaku-ryō) was founded at the end of the 7th century CE[67] -- what was studied/taught at the university?
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Kojiki contained poetry. "To all appearances, writing as such, in the form of Chinese Classics, was introduced into Japan early in the fifth century as part of the great cultural influx from Paekche."[68] perhaps with Buddhism from 552 CE? The first university (Daigaku-ryō) was founded at the end of the 7th century CE[69]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ fish, rice, iron, bronze
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥ no data.
♠ Precious metals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ The minting of 708 CE was modeled on the Tang currency "which has been found in Japan in reasonable quantities, suggesting its use before the local discovery of copper and establishment of a mint for issuing local silver and copper currency."[70]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ The first minting occurred in 708 CE with silver and copper coins. [71]. "By the late seventh century, a few silver coins were issued, but they did not have a large circulation." The minting of 708 CE was modeled on the Tang currency.[72] "Copper cash was known as Wado-kaichin, and four were the equivalent of a silver coin."[73] Gold coins minted in 760 CE, one gold coin worth 100 copper mon.[74]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ ' The Fukui domain was the first to issue paper currency, doing so in 1661, and other domains followed this practice.’[75]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥ There seems to be uncertainty here. It's difficult to imagine how a system of post stations can be set up without there being any full-time specialists involved in the transit of post/activity of messaging. Brown states unambiguously 'messengers' likely were not professional at this time but also refers to post stations.[76] Full-time specialists could also be those recruited to man or maintain the post stations which were vital to those wanting to send messages. Even if those individuals actually given the post/messages to carry were not specialists, if those working at the essential post stations were full-time, this should be a code of present. Due to the uncertainty of fact/interpretation this code currently has a code of uncertain present.
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ There was a system of post stations in the middle seventh century[77]
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There was a system of post stations in the middle seventh century.[78] However, the source does not say whether this system was open to the public.

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ AP; Edward A L Turner; Thomas Cressy ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ required for bronze
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ 'The establishment of Chinese provinces in the northern Korean Peninsula conveyed knowledge of bronze and iron closer to the Japanese islands, and with Yayoi bronze spears, halberds, swords, mirrors, and bells appeared. In each case, the imported items were transformed by local bronze casters into forms more suited to local tastes and requirements. Thus the weapons were enlarged and broadened.' [79]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ From Early Yayoi.[80]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ Tatara furnaces, or versions thereof, existed since 300 BCE. Not sure when this steel was first produced. It is unlikely the best steel was produced from the very earliest times. Asuka period seems likely. "If black sand was used it would contain hypter-eutectoid steel (carbon content 1.2-1.7 percent) called tama hagane and pieces of iron with a lower carbon content (less than 0.8 percent). The tama hagane was the first quality steel used in swords."[81] References that support tamahagane steel being better than the first steels produced in Japan: "Present study elucidates that the tatara iron and its manufacturing procedure gives distinctive features to Japanese swords which is different from ordinary steel. It is also notable that Japanese swordsmith utilized lath martensite without knowing details about it."[82] Tamahagane steel (metal investigated was crafted by a modern swordsmith) has been "investigated with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe micro analysis methods. Microstructures have been found to be a combination of ferrite and pearlite with a lot of nonmetallic inclusions."[83]


Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ In the Ritsuryō codes it is written that swords and spears should bear the name of the maker[84]. Was this a thrown spear?
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred absent ♥ Weapon of the Americas, no evidence of use
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ "Slings, used to hurl fist-sized rocks or spheres of clay shaped roughly like miniature rugby balls, also appeared during the Yaoi age, distributed in a geographic pattern that suggests mutually exclusive regional preferences for the sling or the bow."[85]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ "Instead, without ready access to supplies of bone and horn, the Japanese fashioned their bows from wood or from laminates of wood and bamboo. The earliest designs were of plain wood ... "[86] Arrowheads have been found in the Yayoi villages. Nevertheless, it is difficult to assess if they belonged to self bows, composite bows or crossbows.[87]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ "Compound or composite bows of the sort favored on the Asian continent - made by laminating together layers of wood, animal tendon and horn - were known in Japan by the late ninth century, but never widely adopted. Instead, without ready access to supplies of bone and horn, the Japanese fashioned their bows from wood or from laminates of wood and bamboo. The earliest designs were of plain wood ... "[88] "These first compound bows, called fusetake yumi, featured a single strip of bamboo laminated to the outside face of the wood, using a paster (called nibe) made from fish bladders. Sometime around the turn of the thirteenth century, a second bamboo laminate was added to the inside face of the bow, to create the sammai uchi yumi. In the fifteenth century, two additional bamboo slats were addeded to the sides, so that the wooden core was now completely encased, producing the shiochiku yumi. The higo yumi used for traditional Japanese archery today appeared sometime during the seventeenth century."[89]
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred present ♥ "As no Japanese oyumi (siege crossbow) has survived, it is impossible to know exactly what one looked like or how it was operated. Certain records make tantalising reference to them being different from Chinese varieties, although this may just be an expression of national pride. It is, however, well substantiated that, in contrast to the predominant Chinese practice, the Japanese crossbows were used for throwing stones as much as for firing arrows."[90] Crossbow known and used in Japan sometime after the invention in China (from date not stated) "but neither the ritsuryo armies nor the bushi appear to have developed much interest in it, preferring to rely instead on the long bow. The ritsuryo military statutes provided for only two soldiers from each fifty-man company to be trained as oyumi operators, and no later source indicates that this ratio was ever increased. Hand-held crossbows and crossbowmen are not mentioned in the statutes at all." "The bow staves of Chinese crossbows were composites of wood, bone, sinew and glue ... But, as we have observed, the Japanese lacked supplies of animal products, and fashioned their bows from wood and bamboo instead, which required that the weapons be long. Manufacturing crossbows with composite bow staves of wood and bamboo comparable in length to those of regular bows would have resulted in a weapon too unwieldy to be practical". However some crossbows were imported.[91]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ "unlike the crossbows that were used as anti-personnel weapons, there does not appear to be any record of trebuchet use in Japan, simply because the siege situation did not demand it."[92] ‘it is not until 1468[CE] that we find an unambiguous reference to the use of traction trebuchets in Japan.’[93]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Could find no reference to support the presence of siege engines.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ before use of gunpowder in Japan
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ not in widespread use until 1543 CE [94]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Thomas Cressy: I have found the following quote, but it is unclear how 'ancient' the weapon actually is. Kanabou (金棒) is noted as being a club weapon in use: 'Sort of iron club used by warriors in ancient times, and a favorite weapon of some monk-warriors (Heisou) in the Heian and Kamakura periods' [95]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ long halberds, some almost 50 centimeters that were produced in Japan. [96] These would have functioned as battle axes rather than polearms.
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ In use since Yayoi
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ In the Ritsuryō codes it is written that swords and spears should bear the name of the maker[97].
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ In the Ritsuryō codes it is written that swords and spears should bear the name of the maker[98].
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ ‘First used by the early Kamakura period, the naginata is closest to a European glaive in form, with an elongated shaft, and a single-edged blade curved more than that of a Kamakura-period Japanese tachi. Most likely, the naginata was based upon similar weapons introduced from China by 300 C.E. which have been unearthed in graves.'[99]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Horses were used in warfare from the 4th century CE onwards.[100]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ I could find no evidence of camels - but no sources saying that they were not used either (although I think this is a very safe bet)
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ I could find no evidence of elephants - but no sources saying that they were not used either (although I think this is a very safe bet)

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth."[101]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ 'Shields were commonly used in nearly all military contexts in Japan, beginning with prehistory'.[102]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ The helmets were introduced in Japan in the 5th century CE[103] "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth."[104]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ Japanese breastplates (Do) started being manufactered in the 4th century CE.[105].
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth."[106]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred absent ♥ Before the time of 'definite' knowledge "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century."[107]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ Scaled armors started being widely used in the 6th century CE[108] "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth."[109]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ Laminar armors were introduced in the 4th century CE[110].
♠ Plate armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Samurai protection from the 5th to 8th centuries, called 'tanko,' was made of discrete, overlapping iron plates.'[111] Does this armour count as plate armour or is it only scaled armour?

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ naval war in Korea
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ naval war in Korea

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ "Unlike the walled towns of China and Korea, fortified places in Japan tended to be isolated military outposts. These yamashiro (mountain castles) were hilltop fortresses consisting only of wooden stockades, gates and towers, joined to one another across valleys and peaks to form a complex defensive arrangement. With no stone or mudbrick walls to batter down, these castles were almost always overcome by infantry assault, often supported by arson attacks launched by fire arrows."[112]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ Typical defenses included a rampart, a ditch, and a palisade[113] "Unlike the walled towns of China and Korea, fortified places in Japan tended to be isolated military outposts. These yamashiro (mountain castles) were hilltop fortresses consisting only of wooden stockades, gates and towers, joined to one another across valleys and peaks to form a complex defensive arrangement."[114]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Typical defenses included a rampart, a ditch, and a palisade[115]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ Typical defenses included a rampart, a ditch, and a palisade[116]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No data. Likely based on presence in earlier periods.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ "These yamashiro (mountain castles) were hilltop fortresses consisting only of wooden stockades, gates and towers, joined to one another across valleys and peaks to form a complex defensive arrangement. With no stone or mudbrick walls to batter down, these castles were almost always overcome by infantry assault, often supported by arson attacks launched by fire arrows."[117] 'Interestingly enough, after the fiasco of 663, when the Japanese in trying to aid Paekche were disastrously routed in a naval battle off the west coast of Korea, they rushed home to start building defenses against an expected invasion from Silla. About eighteen hilltops were fortified with stone walls in north Kyushu'.[118] Were the stone walls mortared or unmortared?
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "These yamashiro (mountain castles) were hilltop fortresses consisting only of wooden stockades, gates and towers, joined to one another across valleys and peaks to form a complex defensive arrangement. With no stone or mudbrick walls to batter down, these castles were almost always overcome by infantry assault, often supported by arson attacks launched by fire arrows."[119] 'Interestingly enough, after the fiasco of 663, when the Japanese in trying to aid Paekche were disastrously routed in a naval battle off the west coast of Korea, they rushed home to start building defenses against an expected invasion from Silla. About eighteen hilltops were fortified with stone walls in north Kyushu'.[120] Were the stone walls mortared or unmortared?
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ not known to be built at this time
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ not possible at this time

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ AP; Jill Levine ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred present ♥ The introduction of Buddhism in Japan was favoured by the Soga clan, a Japanese court family, which acquired political prominence with the ascension of the emperor Kimmei in 531.[121] “Despite these training academies that presumed office by merit, hereditary accession to high places continued to be widely practiced.” [122] Less hereditary than in previous period? The hereditary titles of clan chieftains were abolished.[123]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred present ♥ "A solar kami, Amaterasu (the Sun Goddess), was adopted as the imperial ancestor and promoted to the highest seat in the kami pantheon." [124]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ "Like other provincial (or clan federation) priest-kings, the emperor came to be regarded as a kami incarnate. Perhaps the most significant of the rituals stressing this concept was held at the Daijosai, conducted upon the emperor's accession to the throne. In this ceremony, the emperor communed with Takamimusubi and other kami by sharing with them a meal prepared from rice grown in consecrated fields. (Later, the Sun Goddess replaced Takamimusubi as the central figure in this rite.)" [125]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ "The primordial Shinto ethos seems to have been essentially egalitarian." [126] Buddhism is also fundamentally egalitarian: every human being has a potential to achieve what Buddha achieved, regardless of class or ethnicity [127].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ "A solar kami, Amaterasu (the Sun Goddess), was adopted as the imperial ancestor and promoted to the highest seat in the kami pantheon." [128] "Like other provincial (or clan federation) priest-kings, the emperor came to be regarded as a kami incarnate. Perhaps the most significant of the rituals stressing this concept was held at the Daijosai, conducted upon the emperor's accession to the throne. In this ceremony, the emperor communed with Takamimusubi and other kami by sharing with them a meal prepared from rice grown in consecrated fields. (Later, the Sun Goddess replaced Takamimusubi as the central figure in this rite.)" [129]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ "The primordial Shinto ethos seems to have been essentially egalitarian." [130] Buddhism is also fundamentally egalitarian: every human being has a potential to achieve what Buddha achieved, regardless of class or ethnicity [131].

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ inferred absent: 538-586ce; present: 587-710ce ♥ In the syncretic Shinto-Buddhist ideology that prevailed for many centuries in Japan, moral values mostly came from Buddhism: "Shinto was retained in the Japanese belief structure, even though it never developed the metaphysical worldview or system of ethics that characterize world religions. Perhaps this was because of its close connection with Japanese Buddhism, which had enough metaphysics and ethics to serve both." [132] This suggests that prosociality only became an important moral value in official Japanese ideology when the state embraced Buddhism in 587 CE. According to Buddhism: "The twofold benefit of living a morally good life is linked to a twofold motivation: ‘Protecting oneself, one protects others; protecting others, one protects oneself ’ - just as each acrobat in a balancing act protects his partner by concentrating on himself, and protects himself by concentrating on his partner (see SN 47:19). If we take care of our own spiritual development, we render a service to others; and if we develop love towards others, we thereby also help ourselves. Accordingly, it is explicitly stated, someone who pursues the path of salvation only for his or her own benefit is to be censured, while the one who follows the path for one’s own benefit and for the benefit of others is to be commended (see AN 7:64)." [133] "Three segments of the Noble Eightfold Path (3 - 5) are traditionally subsumed under the principle of morality (sila): ‘right speech’ (3), ‘right action’ (4) and ‘right livelihood’ (5). [...] ‘Right action’ is explained as abstaining from harming and killing sentient beings - including animals (!), and further as abstaining from ‘taking what is not given’ and from sexual misconduct, which means avoiding sexual relations with women who are still under the protection of their families, or with those who are married, betrothed, or celibate for religious reasons. From monks and nuns complete sexual abstention is demanded. ‘Right livelihood’ means abstaining from those sources of income which involve harming other beings: trading in weapons for instance, or trading in living beings, meat, intoxicants or poison; also included is the avoidance of fraud and avarice." [134]

♠ production of public goods ♣ inferred absent: 538-586ce; present: 587-710ce ♥ In the syncretic Shinto-Buddhist ideology that prevailed for many centuries in Japan, moral values mostly came from Buddhism: "Shinto was retained in the Japanese belief structure, even though it never developed the metaphysical worldview or system of ethics that characterize world religions. Perhaps this was because of its close connection with Japanese Buddhism, which had enough metaphysics and ethics to serve both." [135] This suggests that producing public goods only became a virtuous act in official Japanese ideology when the state embraced Buddhism in 587 CE. According to Buddhism: "Leading a moral life is seen as having a wider social dimension as well. Establishing public parks, constructing bridges, digging wells and providing a residence for the homeless (see SN 1:1:47; similarly Jat 31) - all these are commended." [136]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [137] [138]

References

  1. Mason, Richard Henry Pitt. 1997. A History of Japan: Revised Edition. Tuttle Publishing.p.38
  2. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 202-213.
  3. Farris, William Wayne (1998). Sacred Texts and Buried Treasures: Issues on the Historical Archaeology of Ancient Japan. University of Hawaii Press. p. 95.
  4. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 210-213.
  5. Turchin, Peter, Adams, Jonathan M. and Hall, Thomas D. 2006. "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of World-Systems Research 12 (2). p.222.
  6. Brown, Delmer M. 1993. The Cambridge History of Japan Volume 1: Ancient Japan. Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press.p.453
  7. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 164-194.
  8. Deal, William E. 2005. Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan. Oxford University Press.p.242.
  9. G. Barnes, 2007. State formation in Japan: Emergence of a 4th-century ruling elite. Routledge, 15.
  10. Brooks, T, 2013. "Early Japanese Urbanism: A Study of the Urbanism of Proto-historic Japan and Continuities from the Yayoi to the Asuka Periods."Unpublished thesis, Sydney University, 11.
  11. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 164-190.
  12. G. Barnes, 2007. State formation in Japan: Emergence of a 4th-century ruling elite. Routledge, 15.
  13. Farris, WW 1998, Sacred Texts and Buried Treasures: Issues in Historical Archaeology of Ancient Japan, University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu.
  14. McCallum, D. F., 2009. The Four Great Temples: Buddhist Archaeology, Architecture, and Icons of Seventh-Century Japan. Honolulu: University of Haway Press, 19-21.
  15. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 163-164.
  16. K. Mizoguchi, 2013 The Archaeology of Japan. From the Earliest Rice Farming Villages to the Rise of the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 319.
  17. K. Mizoguchi, 2013. The Archaeology of Japan. From the Earliest Rice Farming Villages to the Rise of the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 320.
  18. K. Mizoguchi, 2013. The Archaeology of Japan. From the Earliest Rice Farming Villages to the Rise of the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 320.
  19. Barnes, GL 1993, China, Korea and Japan: The Rise of Civilization in East Asia, Thames and Hudson, London, 251-255.
  20. Brooks, T, 2013. "Early Japanese Urbanism: A Study of the Urbanism of Proto-historic Japan and Continuities from the Yayoi to the Asuka Periods."Unpublished thesis, Sydney University, 43.
  21. K. Mizoguchi, 2013. The Archaeology of Japan. From the Earliest Rice Farming Villages to the Rise of the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 322-323.
  22. Kidder, J. E., 2007. Himiko and Japan's elusive chiefdom of Yamatai: archaeology, history, and mythology. University of Hawaii Press, 60.
  23. Koyama, S., 1978. Jomon Subsistence and Population. Senri Ethnological Studies 2. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology
  24. (Ikawa-Smith 1985, 396) Ikawa-Smith, Fumiko in Misra, Virenda N. Bellwood, Peter S. 1985. Recent Advances in Indo-Pacific Prehistory: Proceedings of the International Symposium Held at Poona, December 19-21, 1978. BRILL.
  25. (McEvedy and Jones 1978) McEvedy, Colin. Jones, Richard. 1978. Atlas of World Population History. Penguin Books Ltd. London.
  26. (Totman 2004, 83) Totman, Conrad D. 2004. Pre-Industrial Korea and Japan in Environmental Perspective. BRILL.
  27. (Ikawa-Smith 1985, 396) Ikawa-Smith, Fumiko in Misra, Virenda N. Bellwood, Peter S. 1985. Recent Advances in Indo-Pacific Prehistory: Proceedings of the International Symposium Held at Poona, December 19-21, 1978. BRILL.
  28. Koyama, S., 1978. Jomon Subsistence and Population. Senri Ethnological Studies 2. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology.
  29. Kidder, J. E., 2007. Himiko and Japan's elusive chiefdom of Yamatai: archaeology, history, and mythology. University of Hawaii Press, 60.
  30. (Totman 2004, 83) Totman, Conrad D. 2004. Pre-Industrial Korea and Japan in Environmental Perspective. BRILL.
  31. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 195-198.
  32. L. Worden, Robert, 1994. "Kofun and Asuka Periods, ca. A.D. 250-710"
  33. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 233-236.
  34. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 250.
  35. Kuehn, John T. 2014. A Military History of Japan: From the Age of the Samurai to the 21st Century. Praeger,pp.17-18.
  36. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 232.
  37. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 232.
  38. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 250.
  39. Brown, Delmer M. 1993. The Cambridge History of Japan Volume 1: Ancient Japan. Cambridge Histories Online Cambridge University Press.p.233-237
  40. G. Barnes, 2007. State formation in Japan: Emergence of a 4th-century ruling elite. Routledge, 15.
  41. Mason, Richard Henry Pitt. 1997. A History of Japan: Revised Edition. Tuttle Publishing, p.57.
  42. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 178.
  43. (Higham 2009, 84) Higham, Charles. 2009. Encylopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations. Infobase Publishing.
  44. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 215.
  45. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 180.
  46. Hood, David 1997. ‘Exclusivity and the Japanese Bar: Ethics or Self-Interest?’. Pacific Rim Law & Policy Journal (Pacific Rim Law & Policy Association) 6 (1).p.201.
  47. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 160.
  48. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 204.
  49. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 36.
  50. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 250.
  51. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 203.
  52. Brooks, T, 2013. "Early Japanese Urbanism: A Study of the Urbanism of Proto-historic Japan and Continuities from the Yayoi to the Asuka Periods."Unpublished thesis, Sydney University, 66.
  53. G. Barnes, 1993.The rise of civilization in East Asia : the archaeology of China, Korea and Japan. New York, N.Y.: Thames and Hudson, 21.
  54. (Mizoguchi 2013, 32) Mizoguchi, Koji. 2013. The Archaeology of Japan: From the Earliest Rice Farming Villages to the Rise of the State. Cambridge University Press.
  55. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  56. G. Barnes, 1993.The rise of civilization in East Asia : the archaeology of China, Korea and Japan. New York, N.Y.: Thames and Hudson, 21.
  57. (Mizoguchi 2013, 32) Mizoguchi, Koji. 2013. The Archaeology of Japan: From the Earliest Rice Farming Villages to the Rise of the State. Cambridge University Press.
  58. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  59. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  60. (Mizoguchi 2013, 32) Mizoguchi, Koji. 2013. The Archaeology of Japan: From the Earliest Rice Farming Villages to the Rise of the State. Cambridge University Press.
  61. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  62. (Mizoguchi 2013, 32) Mizoguchi, Koji. 2013. The Archaeology of Japan: From the Earliest Rice Farming Villages to the Rise of the State. Cambridge University Press.
  63. Brown, Delmer M. 1993. The Cambridge History of Japan Volume 1: Ancient Japan. Cambridge Histories Online Cambridge University Press.p.212-213.
  64. (Mizoguchi 2013, 32) Mizoguchi, Koji. 2013. The Archaeology of Japan: From the Earliest Rice Farming Villages to the Rise of the State. Cambridge University Press.
  65. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  66. Brown, Delmer M. 1993. The Cambridge History of Japan Volume 1: Ancient Japan. Cambridge Histories Online Cambridge University Press.p.212-213.
  67. Brown, Delmer M. 1993. The Cambridge History of Japan Volume 1: Ancient Japan. Cambridge Histories Online Cambridge University Press.p.212-213.
  68. (Frellesvig 2010, 11)
  69. Brown, Delmer M. 1993. The Cambridge History of Japan Volume 1: Ancient Japan. Cambridge Histories Online Cambridge University Press.p.212-213.
  70. (Higham 2009, 84) Higham, Charles. 2009. Encylopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations. Infobase Publishing.
  71. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 435.
  72. (Higham 2009, 84) Higham, Charles. 2009. Encylopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations. Infobase Publishing.
  73. (Higham 2009, 84) Higham, Charles. 2009. Encylopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations. Infobase Publishing.
  74. (Higham 2009, 84) Higham, Charles. 2009. Encylopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations. Infobase Publishing.
  75. Deal, William E. 2005. Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan. Oxford University Press.p.126.
  76. (Brown 1993, 43, 198) Brown, Delmer M. 1993. The Cambridge History of Japan Volume 1: Ancient Japan. Cambridge Histories Online Cambridge University Press.
  77. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 198.
  78. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 198.
  79. Charles F W Higham. 2004. Encyclopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations. Facts On File, Inc. New York. p.404
  80. (Okazaki 1993, 279) Okazaki Takashi. Japan and the continent in the Jomon and Yayoi periods. Janet Goodwin trans. Delmer M Brown. ed. 1993. The Cambridge History of Japan. Volume 1. Ancient Japan. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  81. (Wittner 2008, 25) David G Wittner. 2008. Technology and the Culture of Progress in Meiji Japan. Routledge. Abingdon.
  82. Ananda Kumar Das. Takuya Ohba. Shigakazu Morito. Muneo Yaso. "Evidence of Lath Martensite in High-C Japanese Sword Produced from Tamahagane Steel by Tatara Process." 2010. Materials Science Forum. Vols. 654-656. Trans Tech Publications. pp. 138-141
  83. Go Takami. Takuya Ohba. Shigekazu Morito. Ananda Kumar Das. "Microstructural Observation on Materials of the Japanese Sword under Fold-Forging Process. 2010. Materials Science Forum. Vols. 654-656. Trans Tech Publications. pp. 134-137
  84. Friday, Karl F. 2004. Samurai, Warfare and the State in Early Medieval Japan. London: Routledge, 65..
  85. (Friday 2004, 68) Karl F Friday. 2005. Samurai, Warfare and the State in Early Medieval Japan. Routledge. New York.
  86. (Friday 2004, 68) Karl F Friday. 2005. Samurai, Warfare and the State in Early Medieval Japan. Routledge. New York.
  87. K. Mizoguchi, 2013. The Archaeology of Japan. From the Earliest Rice Farming Villages to the Rise of the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 284.
  88. (Friday 2004, 68) Karl F Friday. 2005. Samurai, Warfare and the State in Early Medieval Japan. Routledge. New York.
  89. (Friday 2004, 69) Karl F Friday. 2005. Samurai, Warfare and the State in Early Medieval Japan. Routledge. New York.
  90. (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.
  91. (Friday 2004, 74-76) Karl F Friday. 2005. Samurai, Warfare and the State in Early Medieval Japan. Routledge. New York.
  92. (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.
  93. Turnbull, Stephen. 2012. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Vol. 43. Osprey Publishing.p.23.
  94. Deal, William E. 2005. Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan. Oxford University Press.p.163-64.
  95. Louis Frederick, Japan Encyclopedia, translated by Kathe Roth, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 202, p. 466
  96. Okazaki Takashi. Japan and the continent in the Jomon and Yayoi periods. Janet Goodwin trans. Delmer M Brown. ed. 1993. The Cambridge History of Japan. Volume 1. Ancient Japan. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. p. 279
  97. Friday, Karl F. 2004. Samurai, Warfare and the State in Early Medieval Japan. London: Routledge, 65..
  98. Friday, Karl F. 2004. Samurai, Warfare and the State in Early Medieval Japan. London: Routledge, 65..
  99. Deal, William E. 2005. Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan. Oxford University Press.p.161.
  100. Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). "Horses" in Japan Encyclopedia, pp. 354-355.
  101. (Stone 1999, 60-61) George Cameron Stone. 1999. Glossary of the Construction, Decoration and Use of Arms and Armor in All Countries and in All Times. Dover Publications, Inc. Mineola.
  102. Deal, William E. 2005. Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan. Oxford University Press.p.172.
  103. Bryant, Anthony J. 1991. Early Samurai: 200-1500 AD. Vol. 35. Osprey Publishing.p.45.
  104. (Stone 1999, 60-61) George Cameron Stone. 1999. Glossary of the Construction, Decoration and Use of Arms and Armor in All Countries and in All Times. Dover Publications, Inc. Mineola.
  105. Farris, W. W., 1998. Sacred texts and buried treasures: issues in the historical archaeology of ancient Japan.University of Hawaii Press,P.75
  106. (Stone 1999, 60-61) George Cameron Stone. 1999. Glossary of the Construction, Decoration and Use of Arms and Armor in All Countries and in All Times. Dover Publications, Inc. Mineola.
  107. (Stone 1999, 60-61) George Cameron Stone. 1999. Glossary of the Construction, Decoration and Use of Arms and Armor in All Countries and in All Times. Dover Publications, Inc. Mineola.
  108. Bryant, Anthony J. 1991. Early Samurai: 200-1500 AD. Vol. 35. Osprey Publishing.p.46.
  109. (Stone 1999, 60-61) George Cameron Stone. 1999. Glossary of the Construction, Decoration and Use of Arms and Armor in All Countries and in All Times. Dover Publications, Inc. Mineola.
  110. Farris, W. W., 1998. Sacred texts and buried treasures: issues in the historical archaeology of ancient Japan.University of Hawaii Press, p.75
  111. (Nolan 2006, 26) Cathal J Nolan. 2006. The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000-1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization. Volume 1 A - K. Greenwood Press. Westport.
  112. (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.
  113. Deal, William E. 2005. Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan. Oxford University Press.p.173.
  114. (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.
  115. Deal, William E. 2005. Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan. Oxford University Press.p.173.
  116. Deal, William E. 2005. Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan. Oxford University Press.p.173.
  117. (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.
  118. Kidder Jr., J. Edward, 2007. Himiko and Japan's Elusive Kingdom of Yamatai (Honolulu: Hawaii University Press). p. 126
  119. (Turnball 2002) Turnball, S. 2002. Siege Weapons of the Far East (1): AD 612-1300. Osprey Publishing.
  120. Kidder Jr., J. Edward, 2007. Himiko and Japan's Elusive Kingdom of Yamatai (Honolulu: Hawaii University Press). p. 126
  121. McCallum, D. F., 2009. The Four Great Temples: Buddhist Archaeology, Architecture, and Icons of Seventh-Century Japan. Honolulu: University of Haway Press, 19-21.
  122. (Meyer, Milton Walter. 1993. Japan: A Concise History. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 36.)
  123. Brown, D., 1993.The Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 2.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 177.
  124. Takaeshi, M. 1993. Early Kami Worship. In Brown, D. (ed) ‘The Cambridge History of Japan, vol 1: Ancient Japan’’ pp. 317-358. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  125. Takaeshi, M. 1993. Early Kami Worship. In Brown, D. (ed) ‘The Cambridge History of Japan, vol 1: Ancient Japan’’ pp. 317-358. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  126. Yusa, M. 1994. Women in Shinto: images remembered. In Sharma, A. (ed) Religion and Women pp. 93-118. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  127. Vesna Wallace 2017, pers. comm. to A. Dupeyron and P. Turchin
  128. Takaeshi, M. 1993. Early Kami Worship. In Brown, D. (ed) ‘The Cambridge History of Japan, vol 1: Ancient Japan’’ pp. 317-358. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  129. Takaeshi, M. 1993. Early Kami Worship. In Brown, D. (ed) ‘The Cambridge History of Japan, vol 1: Ancient Japan’’ pp. 317-358. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  130. Yusa, M. 1994. Women in Shinto: images remembered. In Sharma, A. (ed) Religion and Women pp. 93-118. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  131. Vesna Wallace 2017, pers. comm. to A. Dupeyron and P. Turchin
  132. Takaeshi, M. 1993. Early Kami Worship. In Brown, D. (ed) ‘The Cambridge History of Japan, vol 1: Ancient Japan’’ pp. 317-358. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  133. Schmidt-Leukel, P. 2006. ‘’Understanding Buddhism’’ p. 63. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.
  134. Schmidt-Leukel, P. 2006. ‘’Understanding Buddhism’’ p. 64. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.
  135. Takaeshi, M. 1993. Early Kami Worship. In Brown, D. (ed) ‘The Cambridge History of Japan, vol 1: Ancient Japan’’ pp. 317-358. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  136. Schmidt-Leukel, P. 2006. ‘’Understanding Buddhism’’ p. 65. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press.
  137. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  138. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html

Henshall, Kenneth. 2012. A History of Japan: From Stone Age to Superpower. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Mason, R,H.P and J.G. Caiger. 1997. A History of Japan. Vermont: Tuttle Publishing.

Meyer, Milton Walter. 1993. Japan: A Concise History. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.

Pempel, T. (1992). Bureaucracy in Japan. PS: Political Science and Politics, 25(1), 19-24.

Young, David and Michiko Young. 2014. The Art of Japanese Architecture. Tuttle Publishing.