JpAshik

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Gréine Jordan ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Ashikaga Shogunate ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Muromachi period; Muromachi bakufu; Ashikaga period; Ashikaga Shogunate; Ashikaga bakufu ♥ 'Ashikaga refers to the Ashikaga family, who served as shoguns during this time, while Muromachi is the district of Kyoto, from where the Ashikaga family ruled. [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1368-1394 CE ♥ 'Yoshimitsu’s reign is deemed the pinnacle of Muromachi bakufu authority and prestige.'[2] 'Yoshimitsu also fostered positive strides in Japanese politics, society, and culture, brokering the unification of the Northern and Southern Courts, reducing the fearsome raids of Japanese pirates (wako), and reestablishing trade with China’s Ming dynasty. Further, Yoshimitsu indulged in lavish patronage of the arts, including his monastic retreat, the Temple of the Golden Pavilion... Considering these accomplishments... After his death in 1408, there was a noticeable decline in Ashikaga leadership, and provincial chiefs such as lords and governors quickly filled the power void created as the bakufu attended to their military campaigns.'[3] or 1392-1467 Kitayama epoch: a period of stable balance among court, shogun, and shugo [4]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1336-1467 CE ♥ 'While most scholars of Japanese history agree upon names used to identify various periods, the dates specified for each era can vary a great deal. Generally, the years 1185-1615 are designated Japan’s medieval era, identified as such due to the advent of rule by the warrior class, feudal system of land allocation and administration, and characteristic political unrest.' [5] 'In some schemes for denoting periods, the Muromachi/Ashikaga era also includes subperiods: the Northern and Southern Courts and the Warring States. Other schemes treat these subperiods as historical eras of their own.'[6] I am still weighing up the advantages/disadvantageous regarding the best way to divide up this period.

"The Onin War marked the final collapse of even the pretense of central authority under the Kamakura bakufu, and ushered in the Japanese Warring States period (1467-1568). ...Without a dominant political actor, warlords all over Japan felt free to pursue their ambitions for greater power, or even to become the new dominant power." [7]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ confederated state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ nominal allegiance ♥ 'The Muromachi shogunate's trade with China had taken the standard form of sending tribute to the Ming emperor. But this ended in the 1540s, and with the decline of the Ming empire and its antimaritime policies'[8] 'Yoshimitsu expressed fealty to the Chinese Emperor. In a letter to the Ming court in 1403 he termed himself ‘Your subject, the King of Japan’.51 This self-designation may well have compromised Japanese sovereignty, but it also established a basis for the sho¯gunate to deal with foreign powers independently of the imperial court.' [9]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Japan - Kemmu Restoration ♥ The Kemmu Restoration 1333-1336CE
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ Regime change: 'Emperor Go-Daigo’s three-year usurpation of power was overturned by Ashikaga Takauji, who thereafter established the Ashikaga shogunate inaugurating the start of the Muromachi period.' [10]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Japan - Sengoku Jidai ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Japanese ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 3,900,000 ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Kyoto ♥ Kyoto was the official capital of the Japanese empire, and residence of the imperial family, from 794 until 1868. [11] For much of Japanese history, however,, the imperial family were figureheads and in practice did not control the country there were a number of other cities which were set up as administrative capitals which were inhabited by these wielding power. 'At the end of the Kamakura period, Kyoto once again became the political center of Japan when the Ashikaga shoguns took up residence in the Muromachi section of the city and established the military government that is commonly referred to as the Muromachi period.'[12] During the Northern and Southern Courts (1336-92[CE]) The Northern Court situated at Kyoto. The Southern Court was located at Yoshino 'Both claimed to be the legitimate imperial line. It was not until 1392 that Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (1358-1408), Takauji’s grandson and third Ashikaga shogun, was able to reconcile the two courts and reinstate imperial succession through the Northern Court line.'[13]

♠ Language ♣ Middle Japanese (12th-16th century)♥ [14]

General Description

The period between 1336 and 1467 CE in Japan is known by several different names but is referred to here as 'Muromachi Ashikaga', a combination of two designations used in isolation in some sources. Muromachi, a district of Kyoto, was the base of the shogunate's power, while Ashikaga is the name of the family who served as shoguns throughout the period.[15] The Muromachi Ashikaga period sometimes includes the sub-periods known as 'the Northern and Southern Courts' and the 'Warring States', although we have decided to separate the Warring States period into its own polity.[16]
The period begins with the disintegration of Emperor Go-Daigo's brief 'Kenmu Restoration', an unsuccessful attempt to restore direct imperial control in Japan, and the appointment of Ashikaga Takauji as shogun by another branch of the imperial line with the support of other disillusioned lords.[17] This initiated the divide between the Northern and Southern Courts (1336-1392 CE), both of which claimed to be the legitimate ruling authority. The Northern Court was located in Kyoto and headed by Emperor Komyo (from the senior imperial line) and the Ashikaga shoguns. The Southern Court was located at Yoshino and was the seat of the Emperor Go-Daigo (from the junior imperial line) and his supporters.[18]
The peak of the Ashikaga period corresponds to the reign of Shogun Yoshimitsu (r. 1368-1394 CE), who helped to broker the unification of the Northern and Southern Courts (1392 CE), with imperial succession reinstated through the Northern line. An able statesman, he helped advance many aspects of government and policy and was an active patron of the arts.[19] His death in 1408 left a power vacuum that enabled provincial lords to gain greater independence from the court and shogunate.
The Onin War (1467-1477 CE) effectively brought an end to this period, although the Ashikaga shogunate remained in power nominally until the overthrow of their last shogun by Oda Nobunaga in 1573.[20] This civil war, precipitated by economic problems, famine and conflicts over succession (both to the shogunate and to provincial military offices) initiated the period of instability known as the Warring States period. The conflict destroyed much of Kyoto, and spilled out into the provinces.[21]
Initially, the power of the Ashikaga Shogunate had theoretically extended throughout the main islands of Japan; however, by the time of the Onin War, the area under its direct control had shrunk to Kyoto and its hinterland.[22][23] Despite this territorial disintegration, the 'idea' of a larger unified culture did not disappear.[24]

Population and political organization

During the period of the Northern and Southern Courts, the respective imperial heads were nominally in power, while the Ashikaga shogunate controlled the government. In contrast to the preceding Kamakura military regime, the Ashikaga shoguns did not have absolute control: their power was in tension with 'other court families, other members of the military aristocracy, and the religious orders'.[25] Initially the Ashikaga shogunate retained much of the Kamakura administrative structure, even continuing to occupy the government buildings in Kamakura before moving their administration to the Muromachi district in 1378 CE.[26] Because the Ashikaga clan 'lacked significant landholdings and military might', these shoguns relied on their relationships with powerful vassals and provincial military governors to enforce their policies and keep other lords in line. However, as personal ties of loyalty deteriorated over time, the control of the shogunate over powerful provincial lords loosened and the latter were able to increase their independence from the central government.[27][28]
Population estimates for this period range from roughly 10 million around 1300 CE to approximately 17 million in 1500 CE.[29][30]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Gréine Jordan ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 295,000 ♥ KM2. 295,000: 1336 CE. At the beginning of the Muromachi period the shogunate’s authority encompassed the whole country therefore I have provided the gross land figure for Japan’s three main islands Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku.[31]'By the time of the last shogun, the scope of the bakufu's control had been reduced almost solely to the city of Kyoto and its close environs. Control of Kyoto, in and of itself, was an important achievement, and the fact that Kyoto became subject to bakufu administration was of major significance for the Ashikaga house's staying ability.' [32] These trends reached a peak during the so-called sengoku or ‘warring states’ period (1467-1568) when the Japanese state itself began to fragment, causing the old borders to lose their original meaning as they were supplemented and replaced by a new system of ‘internal’ borders.[33] 'regional powers became more and more independent after the Onin War of the mid fifteenth century. During the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries these warlords, known as sengoku daimyo¯, consolidated their rule over domains that were essentially sovereign ‘mini-states’. Admittedly, they were not necessarily conceived as such at the time: the idea of ‘Japan’ as a single country remained fairly strong in the sengoku period, as is clear from the writings of the various Europeans who visited Japan during the sixteenth century.[34]

♠ Polity Population ♣ 12,500,000: 1400 CE; 17,000,000: 1500 CE ♥ a number of different estimates exist for this time period. I have coded 9,750,000: 1300CE; 12,500,000: 1400CE;17,000,000: 1500CE; Population estimate by McEvedy and Jones as it provides estimates throughout the period. [35] 9,600,000-10,500,000: 1450CE population estimate by Farris [36]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 150,000: 1400-1450 CE; 40,000: 1500 CE; 100,000: 1550 CE ♥ Kyoto[37]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 6 ♥

6. Cities (palace, monumental structures, market, central government buildings, military fortifications, transport hubs, shrines, temples)

Population:???

‘Between 1550 and 1700 Kyoto was the first city to surpass a population of 100,000 people.' [38]

5. Castle Town /Market Town (market, regional government buildings, military fortifications)

Population:

'Castle towns trace their origin to the Muromachi period and the construction of wooden defenses typically located on hills for reasons of protection and surveillance. These fortifications were the precursors to the castles and castle-building styles that grew more elaborate during the Warring States period. As the military and political significance of castles grew, they also became the focal point for economic activity within their local region. With the rise of commerce around castles, merchants, artisans, and peasants joined the warrior class in taking up residence within a castle’s sphere of influence. Castles became castle towns as a result.'[39] ‘During the 16th century, castle towns (joka machi) began their transformation into town and city complexes. This occurred in part because castle towns served as government administration centres. Many daimyo and almost all samurai lived within the castle town complexes. Merchants, traders, artisans, craftspeople, and others were eventually incorporated into these towns and cities to provide the labor and market activity needed to support the work conducted there and to further build and maintain the infrastructure. As a result of this dynamic, castle and market towns came to occupy the same location.’[40]

4. Port Towns (accommodation, trade, transport hubs)

Population:???

'Port towns grew up around sea ports that developed flourishing trading centers in the medieval and early modern periods'[41]

3. Temple/Shrine Towns (shrines, temples, accommodation)

Population:???

‘Temple and shrine towns (monzen machi) originated in the vicinity of Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines, usually along the roads leading to these religious sites. These towns served the needs of pilgrims visiting the temples and shrines. Establishments that developed along these routes provided food and lodging to pilgrims, and sold amulets and other religious items. As religious sites grew in size, so did the permanent infrastructure needed to support this activity.’[42]

2. Post-Station Towns (accommodation, shops, entertainment, transport hubs)

Population:???

‘Post-station towns (shukuba machi or shukueki) grew up along the medieval and early modern road systems that connected cities and towns to each other.’[43] Their presence in the Muromachi period is referenced in (Yamamura 2008:p251) 'the shugosho were frequently located in post towns and port cities, areas of strategic importance in communications.' [44]

1. Village (residential)

Population:10-100

‘Besides farm villages, fishing villages were a feature of medieval and early modern rural life.’[45]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [6-7] ♥

Needs more work done to illustrate chain-of-command. Coded same as Kamakura.


'For the nearly 700-year span of Japan’s medieval and early modern periods, warriors-with varying levels of effectiveness and hegemony-ruled the country. Although the fortunes of particular extended warrior families waxed and waned, only members of the warrior class could serve as shoguns, the military rulers. Their governments, known commonly as shogunates, were often challenged by the interests of other powerful warrior families in various parts of Japan and by the imperial family in Kyoto. Although the warrior bureaucracy largely controlled the affairs of the state, the emperor and the imperial court were still the formal head of government. Warrior governments typically sought out- or forced-the formal imperial decrees that gave legitimacy to the shoguns. Occasionally emperors would attempt to reassert direct imperial rule. They were, however, always suppressed in favor of warrior rule... Warrior governments functioned as a lord-vassal system of loyalty. This is reflected in the political structures of the different shogunates. Although they varied greatly in their organization, the notion of loyalty, whether earned or forced, always laid the foundation on which the warrior government was built.'[46] 'The Ashikaga shoguns of the medieval period, for all the noble status they had acquired, were obliged to share political power with other court families, other members of the military aristocracy, and the religious orders. Theirs was a national command limited by the fragmentation of sovereignty and by the precedents and structures of the court-centered institutions of governance.' [47]

'The Ashikaga shogunate inherited much of the administrative structure of the Kamakura government. Key offices such as the Mandokoro (Administrative Board), Samurai-dokoro (Board of Retainers), and the Monchujo (Board of Inquiry) remained. The following description of individual positions and offices only covers those not already dealt with in the section on the Kamakura administrative structure. The only exception is when a particular office or position underwent significant change in the Muromachi period. [48]


_Central Administration_

6. Shogun

5. Shogunal Deputy (Kanrei)
"The office of kanrei was instituted by the Ashikaga shogunate. The role of the shogunal deputy was to assist the shogun in administering the warrior government. One importantbetween the shogunate and the shugo (military governors). Military governors had grown more powerful by this time and posed a threat to the governing authority of the shogunate. Three warrior families— the Shiba, the Hosokawa, and the Hatakeyama — shared this position on a rotating basis."[49]"The office of kanrei was instituted by the Ashikaga shogunate. The role of the shogunal deputy was to assist the shogun in administering the warrior government. One importantbetween the shogunate and the shugo (military governors). Military governors had grown more powerful by this time and posed a threat to the governing authority of the shogunate. Three warrior families— the Shiba, the Hosokawa, and the Hatakeyama — shared this position on a rotating basis."[50]
4. Council of State (Hyojoshu)
"The Hyojoshu was established in 1225 by Hojo Yasutoki as a way to share the responsibility for governance. The council included the most important statesmen, warriors, and scholars. Matters were decided by a simple majority vote.’ The council continued under the Ashikaga shogunate."[51]
3. High Court (Hikitsuke)
"The Hikitsuke was established as a judicial court by shogunal regent Hojo Tokiyori in 1249. It was intended to supplement the responsibilities of the Hyojoshu (Council of State). Among the legal issues dealt with by this body were land claims and taxation.’ The High Court continued under the Ashikaga shogunate."[52]
2.
3. Administrative Board (Mandokoro)
"Established in 1191 by Minamoto no Yoritomo, the Mandokoro took over the functions of the Kumonjo as the main executive and general administrative office of the Kamakura shogunate. After Hojo family regents assumed real control over the shogunate, they transformed the Mandokoro into an office whose sole responsibility was to oversee the government’s finances." [53]
2.
3. Board of Retainers (Samurai-Dokoro)
"This office was established by Minamoto no Yoritomo in 1180. It functioned as a disciplinary board to regulate the activities of Yoritomo’s expanding network of warrior vassals (gokenin). Its main responsibility was overseeing the police and the land stewards (jito). In the Muromachi period, added duties included security for the capital at Kyoto, and administration of shogunal and other property."[54]
2. e.g. head of police inferred
1. e.g. policeman inferred
3. Board of Inquiry (Monchujo)
"See above under 'Kamakura Shogunate.' In the Muromachi period, many of the responsibilities formerly carried out by the Monchujo were reassigned to the Mandokoro (Administrative Board), and the Board of Inquiry was reduced to record keeping."[55]
2.

Scribes?


_Local Administration_

4. Kamakura Governor-General (Kamakura Kubo)
"During the Muromachi period, the term kubo referred both to Ashikaga shoguns and to their governors- general. The post of Kamakura kubo was established in 1336 to monitor the interests of the shogunate in Kamakura and eastern Japan. To this end, the Kamakura kubo was responsible for governing affairs in this region. The Kamakura governorgeneral became a hereditary position within the Ashikaga family."[56]
4. Kanto Deputy (Kanto Kanrei)
"The Kanto kanrei was a position initiated by the Ashikaga shogunate in 1349. Headquartered in Kyoto, the shogunate needed an overseer in the Kanto region, which included Kamakura. The Kanto deputy fulfilled this role, especially in providing assistance to Kanto area governors-general (Kamakura kubo). From the latter half of the 14th century, members of different branches of the Uesugi family held the position of Kanto kanrei."[57]
4. Kyushu Deputy (Kyushu Tandai)[58]
4. Oshu Deputy (Oshu Tandai)[59]
4. Ushu Deputy (Ushu Tandai)
As part of the Ashikaga shogunates’ effort to maintain control over political and military affairs, regional deputies (tandai) were appointed in parts of Japan that were deemed strategically important. The Muromachi-period government placed deputies in northwestern Honshu (the Oshu and Ushu tandai) and in Kyushu (Kyushu tandai). See also “Rokuhara tandai” and “Chinzei tandai” above under “Kamakura Shogunate.” [60]
2. Military Governors (Shugo)
"The shugo rank was established by Minamoto no Yoritomo to maintain control over the provinces. The position became a formal part of the administrative structure of the Kamakura shogunate. Although Yoritomo handselected the first shugo, this title became hereditary over time. Duties of this office included general police and peacekeeping activities and administrative responsibilities such as investigating crimes and judging legal cases." [61]
2. Deputy Military Governors (Shugodai)
"The position of shugodai existed during the Kamakura period. Up until the Mongol invasions in the latter half of the 13th century, shugo infrequently lived in the provinces they were assigned to govern. This responsibility fell to the shugodai. In the Muromachi period, the shugodai became a more formal part of the shogunate’s administrative structure."[62]
4. Land Stewards (Jito) -- since Jito collected taxes may also be a low level in the central government chain of command e.g. treasury (if it was called that)
"Land stewards, or jito, were officials appointed by the Kamakura shogunate from among its most trusted vassals to serve as estate (shoen) supervisors. Jito were responsible for overseeing the shogunate’s tax interests on these private estates. As such, jito handled the collection of taxes and ensured correct distribution. The jito system, however, was also a means whereby the Kamakura shogunate could reward its loyal vassals (gokenin) for their service to the military government. Over time, jito became an inherited office.’ still present in the Muromachi period."[63]
3. Deputy Land Stewards (Jitodai)
"Within the jito system, some shogunal vassals received appointments to oversee multiple estates. When this occurred, deputy land stewards were used to govern these additional regions. This position was significant enough to become a formal part of the Ashikaga shogunate’s administrative structure."[64]

Village level leadership/government?


♠ Religious levels ♣ 2 ♥

Inferred continuity with preceding polity.

1. Master

2. Disciple

♠ Military levels ♣ [5-6] ♥

6. Emperor

5. Council of state
4. Shogunate?
3. Shugo?
2. Gokenin?
1. Individual soldier


below are two alternate and concurrent command chains

--Chains of command in the late Kamakura military 1 —

5. Council of State
4. Shogunate
3. Shugo
2. Gokenin
1. Provincial warriors

--Chains of command in the late Kamakura military 2—

4. Council of State
3. Provincial government
2. non-gokenin warrior leaders
1. Provincial warriors

‘Thus the organizational structure under which late thirteenth- and early fourteenth-century warriors served looked something like the system depicted in Figure 2.3. The command structures of the Kemmu regime and the Muromachi shogunate (during the Nambokuchō era) remained essentially the same, at least in theory.[65] ‘Warrior allegiances were further circumscribed by the multi-tiered, hierarchical structure of the military networks to which they belonged. Most of the provincial warriors in the organizations of prominent bushi had vassals of their own, and many of the members of these, in turn, had followers.’ [66]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ ‘by the middle of the medieval era in the 14th century, armies grew increasingly privatized and professionalized, in part due to this effective system of reciprocal values.’ [67]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ [68]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ ‘The generic term for a Shinto priest is kannushi. However, Shinto in the medieval and early modern periods was not a centrally organized tradition. Hence, there is great variation in terminology used to denote Shinto priests. Historically, the office of shrine priest was typically passed down through a priestly family from father to son.’ [69]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ 'By contrast, Tadayoshi was in charge of what Sato called the more "bureaucratic," or administrative and judicial, functions of government. Under Tadayoshi was organized the deliberative council, consisting of selected professional bureaucrats, and a number of offices that kept land records, adjudicated lawsuits, and handled relations between the bakufu and the imperial court and the religious orders.' [70] 'Throughout the Muromachi period there were more than fifty families of professional administrators available for service, many of whom had served the imperial court and the Kamakura bakufu. Such families were now brought into Ashikaga service because of their special administrative skills. In time they formed the Corps of Administrators, the bugyonin-shu. At any one time, between fifteen and sixty members might be assigned to the finance, justice, and administrative organs of the bakufu'[71]

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ the professional bureaucrats of the Muromachi period were hereditary administrators [72] ‘There was no examination system as in China; rather, the positions were hereditary, limited to the same small group of families.’[73]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥ within the confines of the elites who were eligible to hold office there does appear to be a certain amount of recognition of merit, however this operated in a very limited sense and cannot be said to be a meritocracy. the granting of positions was not always based on the merits of the applicants as can be seen from the numerous complaints against officials detailing incompetence. [74]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ For example'To carry out its functions, Kamakura-fu created a full assemblage of administrative offices based on the model of the Muromachi headquarters.' [75] 'Therefore, the shugosho had an urban function as the nucleus of provincial administration, but their economic functions were important as well. One was the function of the district deputy's administrative office as a centralized base for mobilizing labor for military corvee (gunyaku) and ordinary corvee (buyaku). Post horses, too, were initially requisitioned at the district deputy's office and then sent to the shugoshos main castle or to neighboring provinces, as needed. Thus the number of people and horses that might gather at the district deputy's office must have been considerable.'[76]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ 'This first legal code [Joei Shikimoku, was issued in 1232] remained relatively unchanged throughout the Kamakura reign with only a few amendments made in the form of supplementary edicts called tsuika. It was the primary national legal code of this period. After assuming power from the Kamakura government, the Ashikaga family of Muromachi shoguns continued to support legislation delineated in the Joei Shikimoku, considering their own edicts to be merely supplemental to the primacy of the original code. With the consultation of a board of scholars and advisers, Ashikaga Takauji included the major addition made by the Muromachi in 1336. This supplemental edict, the Kemmu Shikimoku, was based on a seventh century constitution written by Prince Shotoku and consisted of 17 articles dealing with the attitudes and behaviors expected of the warrior class. These items dealt with issues ranging from personal habits to the attention a ruler should pay the courtiers and peasants. Another major contribution of the Muromachi period to the legal structure of Japan was the development of principles of group responsibility known as renza and enza... Legal disputes were discouraged with the promotion of the kenka ryoseibai policy, which stated that the factions on either side of any argument were to be held equally accountable for the disagreement... shogunal succession leading to the Onin War caused a destabilization within the Muromachi government resulting in a decentralization of power starting as early as the 1460s. As the governmental structure fell into disarray, the legal system again became fragmented as local daimyo rose to power, enacting individual laws for their personal domains.' [77]

♠ Judges ♣ ♥ unknown. I have yet to find definitive evidence in this period but as judges were present in the proceeding and succeeding periods it is likely they were present in the Muromachi period. there is a reference under administrative levels to military governors who judged cases. they would be non-specialists.

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ I have yet to find definitive evidence in this period but as courts were present in the proceeding and succeeding periods it is likely they were present in the Muromachi period.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥ professional lawyers were not present until the Meiji Restoration. [78]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ 'During the early medieval period, the shoen proprietor (or his administrator) normally coordinated present corvee and constructed and maintained irrigation facilities, built reservoirs, dammed rivers or streams, and constructed ditches or canals. Peasants using the water were required to pay the proprietor an iryo or water charge on the theory that "every drop of water belonged to the proprietor". by the late medieval period, such was not the case. The construction and maintenance of reservoirs and irrigation ditches was undertaken collectively by peasants either from a single village community of from several village communities banded together as a unit for the task.'[79]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ 'with the building of the castle towns from the late sixteenth century on, water supply systems were constructed in various regions, no longer primarily for irrigation but to supply drinking water to urban populations. [80]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ ‘Markets served as places of exchange on the shoen and on large shoen were held on prescribed days each month. Through these grant lands and markets, the shoen acquired the commodities it did not produce. It is clear that shoen were not self sufficient and that the division of labor was quite advanced.’ [81]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ 'The shugosho also functioned as the central location for grain reserves' [82]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ ‘The bakufu in time developed a number of other commercial and transport taxes derived from the patronage of merchant guilds, the establishment of toll barriers on highways, and the sponsorship of foreign trade.’ [83]'During the Warring States period, the road network fell into disrepair and became very fragmented. In some areas, travel was treacherous, if not impossible, due to both the bandits who often found easy prey along the roads, and the barrier stations meant to restrict access and communication into and out of domains.'[84]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ 'In the 1430's, a Korean envoy was surprised to discover the prevalent use of money in Muromachi Japan. Even those traveling from one end of the country to the other, he noted, did not carry provisions because coins were accepted everywhere at inns and post stations and even by toll collectors at bridges [85]
♠ Canals ♣ present♥ [86]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ 'the main port cities of the Muromachi period such as Sakai, Hyogo, Yodo, and Muro were built around shugosho'[87]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥ ‘Gold was an important Japanese export to China during the Kamakura era and much of the Muromachi era (via Ryukyu).During the second half of the sixteenth century, however, these gold mines were depleted and this metal was the first whose export was prohibited.[88]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources.
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ The earliest known written Japanese texts date to the eight century. Although the spoken languages have no relationship Chinese characters were borrowed to enable Japanese to be written ‘Over time the Japanese writing system developed into a complex use of Chinese characters along with two different phonetic scripts to represent the sounds of spoken Japanese. The two phonetic scripts—hiragana and katakana—represented the same sounds but were used in different contexts reflecting, among other things, class and gender.’[89]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ present ♥ The earliest known written Japanese texts date to the eight century. Although the spoken languages have no relationship Chinese characters were borrowed to enable Japanese to be written ‘Over time the Japanese writing system developed into a complex use of Chinese characters along with two different phonetic scripts to represent the sounds of spoken Japanese. The two phonetic scripts—hiragana and katakana—represented the same sounds but were used in different contexts reflecting, among other things, class and gender.’[90]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥ The earliest known written Japanese texts date to the eight century. Although the spoken languages have no relationship Chinese characters were borrowed to enable Japanese to be written ‘Over time the Japanese writing system developed into a complex use of Chinese characters along with two different phonetic scripts to represent the sounds of spoken Japanese. The two phonetic scripts—hiragana and katakana—represented the same sounds but were used in different contexts reflecting, among other things, class and gender.’[91]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ ‘In the medieval and early modern periods, the Japanese utilized the traditional lunar calendar. Dates on this calendar represented the day, month, and year, the last of which could be determined by several methods. Two such methods included the 60-year time cycle and the use of the era name, or nengo. Nengo was a unit of time comparable to an era, commonly employed to date events or chronological periods. The use of this measure of time began in the seventh century. The change of emperor included a change in era name. However, in the early modern period, the nengo did not simply represent the duration of a governmental regime. New era names might be declared when auspicious events occurred or at certain points in the traditional 60- year (sexagenary) calendar cycle... Despite the official use of the lunar calendar, the solar calendar was also employed and was very important for farmers.’[92]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ [93]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥
♠ History ♣ present ♥ There is a long tradition of historical recording in Japan. Japan’s oldest extant text is Kojiki (Record of ancient matters) written in 712CE although it deals with what today would be considered mythological themes it was treated as a historic text.[94]
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred absent ♥ 'Unless we make the claim that Buddhism is a philosophy, Japan did not have philosophical systems separate from explicit religious affiliations until the early modern period.'[95]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ ‘In medieval and early modern Japan, the natural sciences—including such disciplines as medicine, mathematics, and astronomy—were largely influenced by Chinese systems of science and classification of the natural world.’[96]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ One of the world’s oldest extant novels was written in Japan c.1000 in the Heian period. Genji monogatari (Tale of Genji) written by a noblewoman lady-in-waiting Murasaki Shikibu.[97]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ 'rice was principally a means of paying dues'[98]
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ ‘for several centuries [before 1600], Japan’s monetary circulation depended mainly on the import of Chinese bronze coins, making Japan a peripheral zone in a China-centered monetary sphere that extended across East and Southeast Asia.’ [99] 'The importance of trade with Ming China to the political, cultural, and economic life of Muromachi Japan has been dealt with extensively elsewhere. It has been suggested that in addition to the "enormous profits" derived from it, the trade gave to the bakufu monopoly control over the Chinese coins imported into Japan and thereby a status equivalent to that of a central mint.'[100]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ 'Money had not been minted in Japan since the twelve imperial coins (kocho junisen) of Nara times, and from late Heian, Sung [Chinese dynasty 960-1280CE] coins circulated unchecked by legislative action.'[101]' a situation that remained largely unchanged until 1588CE when Hideyoshi commissioned the Goto family to mint oban gold coins.'[102]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ 'The Fukui domain was the first to issue paper currency, doing so in 1661, and other domains followed this practice.’[103]

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ 'the use of couriers dates back to the early medieval period.'[104]
♠ Postal stations ♣ present ♥ there were post stations which were established to provide services to couriers. 'coins were accepted everywhere at inns and post stations' [105] 'Post horses, too, were initially requisitioned at the district deputy's office and then sent to the shugosho's main castle or to neighboring provinces, as needed.' [106]
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred present ♥ There were post stations which were established to provide services to couriers: 'coins were accepted everywhere at inns and post stations'.[107]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Gréine Jordan; Thomas Cressy ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ required for bronze
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ [108]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥[109]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥[110]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Could not find any evidence of use
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Could not find any evidence of use. Weapon of the Americas, extremely unlikely to be in use here
♠ Slings ♣ absent ♥ absent, although they had been present in the much earlier Yayoi period (c.300BCE-300CE).[111]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred absent ♥ although single piece bows were used in earlier times, and could technically have been used, the composite bow had been standard military equipment since the 9th century.
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ ‘From the Kamakura period, bows were constructed in layers utilizing bamboo slats for added strength and flexibility. The core of the bow was made of stiff wood and was combined with laminated pieces of bamboo. After the 15th century, the sides of the bow were laminated with bamboo slats, and the wooden core of the bow was thus completely encased in bamboo. For added strength, cane was wound around the stave of the bow. While in theory the cane bow was finished with lacquer for additional protection, this was not always the case in practice.’[112] "Japanese bows began as simple wooden staves and gradually gained laminates of bamboo first on the outside face, then the inside face (early thirteenth century), then on the two sides (fifteenth century)."[113]"The bow remained the primary combat weapon until the arquebus replaced it in the sixteenth century."[114]
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "The bow staves of Chinese crossbows were composites of wood, bone, sinew and glue ... But, as we have observed, the Japanese lacked supplies of animal products, and fashioned their bows from wood and bamboo instead, which required that the weapons be long. Manufacturing crossbows with composite bow staves of wood and bamboo comparable in length to those of regular bows would have resulted in a weapon too unwieldy to be practical". However some crossbows were imported.[115]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred absent ♥ "The celebrated exploits of Kusunoki Masa-shige made the Nanbokucho Wars (the ‘Wars Between the Courts’), which lasted until 1392, into something of a golden age of siege warfare in Japan. Yet, once again, these operations were conducted against isolated fortresses rather than walled towns, and, although the sieges of Akasaka and Chihaya involved certain siege machines that are compared in the Taiheiki to devices of Chinese origin, there is no specific mention of either catapults or crossbows. There are, however, several references in war reports and casualty lists to samurai being killed or wounded by stones. ... It may well be that the stones were simply dropped from the castle walls, an impression strengthened by the fact that so many of the victims were flag bearers, who traditionally would be the first to approach the enemy defences. It is not until 1468 that we find an unambiguous reference to the use of traction trebuchets in Japan."[116] ‘sporadic accounts of stone-throwing catapults occur in the Japanese chronicals over the next two centuries [1400-1600s].’[117]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ traction trebuchets were powered by human muscle not gravity. "Japan appears never to have adopted the counterweight trebuchet, making the leap direct from traction trebuchets to cannon, although even these saw little use until the very end of the age of the samurai."[118]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Thunderclap bomb 1468 CE. ‘explosive weapons were rarely used in Japan before the 19th century. Evidence indicates that samurai eschewed most forms of heavy artillery until the last major campaign of the Tokugawa shogunate, in which cannons were used against lingering Toyotomi loyalists at Osaka Castle between 1614 and 1615.’[119] Thunderclap Bombs the only account we have of thunderclap bombs in Japan concerns the exploding bombs thrown by traction trebuchets in 1468... similar bombs were probably used in Japan as late as in 1614 during the defence of Osaka castle.’[120]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ 1543 CE. ‘even if firearms (teppo) were already known in Japan, their use was not widespread in Japanese battles until after European guns were formally introduced to Tanegashima Tokitaka, daimyo of an island domain off the southern coast of Kyushu, in 1543.’[121] ‘early in the 16th century, firearms were introduced to Japan and quickly adapted for use in battle. By the end of the Warring States period in 1568, gunnery began to replace archery as the most prominent weapon in the military arsenal. Foot soldiers learned to use the newly acquired weapon to best advantage in various foot stances and on horseback.’[122] "Portuguese introduced them in 1543 CE. ... The Portuguese arquebus, and the far more widely available Japanese reproductions of it, became prominent at just the time when Oda Nobunaga began to unify Japan." [123]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ Kanabou (金棒) is noted as being a club weapon in use: 'Sort of iron club used by warriors in ancient times, and a favorite weapon of some monk-warriors (Heisou) in the Heian and Kamakura periods' [124] Photographs exists as late as 1868 with samurai still being equipped with this [125]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Thomas Cressy: Changed to present from a blank code. Was used to batter down castle gates in the Northern and Southern Court wars according to Japanese sources. [126]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ [127]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ ‘The curved-profile Japanese sword originated in approximately the eighth century, coinciding with the earliest steel production in Japan and the emergence of the first professional military figures.' [128] 'Muromachi-period swords decreased in length but were heavier, wider, and less curved. These changes were probably intended to improve the effectiveness of swords against the heavier armor developed in the late medieval era.' [129]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ ‘The yari [spear] was one of the most important weapons in the samurai arsenal, especially in infantry units during the Warring States period (1467-1568).’[130] ‘Spears (yari) have a long history in Japan, as the two earliest extant Japanese histories, the Kojiki (712 C.E.) and the Nihon shoki (720 C.E.) recount that the Japanese islands emerged from drops created when the gods Izanami and Izanagi used a jeweled spear to stir the cosmic brine mixture that constituted the universe.[131] ‘The yari is also sometimes called a lance to underscore that in Japan spears were not thrown as in other military traditions where these arms served as projectile weapons.’[132] "the yari that became prominent in the late fifteenth century with the rise of infantry, was designed to be used by groups of men standing in formation."[133]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ ‘First used by the early Kamakura period, the naginata is closest to a European glaive in form, with an elongated shaft, and a single-edged blade curved more than that of a Kamakura-period Japanese tachi. Most likely, the naginata was based upon similar weapons introduced from China by 300 C.E. which have been unearthed in graves.'[134] ‘From the 11th until the mid-15th century, the naginata was the primary weapon wielded by foot soldiers....From the end of the 15th century, most troops serving on foot were provided with a straight, thrusting spear (yari) that produced more effective results in destroying opposing forces.’[135]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ inferred absent ♥ I could find no evidence of dogs - but no sources saying that they were not used either
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred absent ♥ I could not find references to Donkeys being used - this does seem odd so I would triple check
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Horses from the 8th century cavalry played an often vital part in Japanese . The importance place about cavalry shifted throughout time falling in and out of popularity but always remaining present.[136] "Although the samurai would be defined by the "way of the sword" in the Tokugawa period (1600-1867) prior to that the class of professional warriors continued to practice the "way of the horse and bow."[137]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ I could find no evidence of camels - but no sources saying that they were not used either (although I think this is a very safe bet)
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ I could find no evidence of elephants - but no sources saying that they were not used either (although I think this is a very safe bet)

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ ‘Japanese armorers did not confine themselves to metal, and instead incorporated lighter and more malleable materials such as leather and silk (or other fibers) along with iron or steel parts.’ [138] ‘The preferred type of leather was cowhide, and the preferred part of the hide was the animal’s back, as this was the thickest. But because it was uneconomical to waste the rest of the hide, craftsmen also made sane from the belly leather, which was thinner and softer. This meant that the lamellae in most armors were of uneven.’ [139]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ 'Chinese dynastic histories include descriptions that indicate shields were in use by the third century in Japan...From the Nara period to the early medieval period, military shields were standing wooden barriers about eye-level in height and roughly the width of human shoulders... They were attached to poles, or feet, which were hinged so that the support could be collapsed and stored or transported flat. Approximately one and a half meters tall and less than half a meter wide, mostly such shields were made of several planks joined vertically. Although shields could withstand more force if each was made from a single board, this was the exception rather than the rule. Protective substances such as lacquer could also prolong the life of such standing shields; however, by the end of the Kamakura period, decoration usually consisted solely of a family crest.' [140]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ 'The basic form of helmet (kabuto) that dominated medieval and early modern armor was shaped generally like a skull cap with an opening at the front top and flaps at the sides intended to protect the neck and face. In addition, the neck was shielded by a series of three or five metal plates. By the end of the Muromachi period, most ordinary helmets were made from iron and/or steel. The helmet was formed from individual plates fastened with rivets or simply joined together. The top portion of the helmet, shaped like the pate of a human head, was called the hachi. In the early medieval period, from the 11th to 14th centuries, hachi were almost invariably rounded.' [141]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ if meaning a metal breastplate present if meaning armor that covers the torso.
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ ‘Including [142] "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[143] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[144]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[145] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[146]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[147] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[148]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ ‘lames in English, or sane in Japanese, and remained a central component of the relatively flexible armor developed in Japan throughout the medieval period... Even armor made during the early feudal era in Japan typically consisted of modular steel scales called lames atop leather laced together with leather, various types of cord, and silk.’ [149] "Japanese armor was built up from small iron lamellae, 7-8 cm long by 3-4 cm wide, laced together into larger plates. These were combined together to form an extremely effective suit that offered good protection from arrows and swords."[150] "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[151] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[152]
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ Beginning in the end of the period. ‘Such suits, called nambando gusoku in Japanese, often incorporated two single-ridged, hammered iron sheets which were hinged on one side and fastened with cord on the other.’ [153] "The earliest armor used in Japan, as elsewhere, was padded or made of scales or rings sewn on cloth. The armor found in the grove mounds of prior to 400 B.C. is made by riveting together small pieces of iron to make helmets and cuirasses. Some of the latter give quite the effect of plate armor but are built up of small pieces. By the 10th century, the earliest time of which we have definite knowledge, it had assumed a characteristic form which it retained until armor was abandoned in the middle of the 19th century. A Japanese suit, fig. 78, consists of a helmet, kabuto, usually made of a large number of narrow plates riveted together with raised edges at the joints. It has a small peak, maizashi, in front and a wide neck guard, shikoro, made of strips of steel or of scales of leather or steel laced together with heavy silk or leather cords. One or more of these pieces is turned back in front to form ear guards, fukigayeshi. The front is usually decorated with two horn-like pieces, kuwagata, representing the leaves of a water plant; between them is an ornament, maidate, corresponding to the European crest. The face is covered by a steel mask, menpo, to which a laminated neck guard, yodare-kake, is attached. There are five varieties of menpo - covering the entire face - all of the face below the eyes - the forehead and cheeks only - and two for the cheeks and chin only. Of these, the second is much most used. A gorget, nodowa, was sometimes worn but was not considered as a regular part of the suit. The body was enclosed in a corselet, do, made of plates or strips laced together with silk or leather cords. It either opened at the side, do-maru, or at the back haramaki-do. Attached to it were shoulder pieces, watagami, from which it hung. The taces, kusazuri, made of strips laced together, hung from the do. Under these was worn an apron, hai-date, of brocade covered with mail or mixed plate and mail. The legs below the knee were protected by close fitting greaves, sune-ate, of plate; and the feet were covered with bearskin shoes, tsurumaki, or with mail or plate tabi. The arm guards, kote, were brocade sleeves covered with mixed plate and mail. They usually ended in guantlets which covered only the backs of the hands and thumbs. Mail guantlets were rare but were sometimes used. Large guards, sode, were hung on the shoulders. They were either single plates, two hinged together or made up of strops or rows of scales laced together."[154] "The Japanese made more varieties of mail than all the rest of the world put together."[155]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ ‘The atake-bune was a type of naval warship that was used in battles during the Warring States period and into the early Edo period. These vessels were anywhere from about 20 to 65 feet in length. Atake-bune included a wooden tower from which arrows or matchlock guns could be fired at the enemy. Twenty to 25 oarsmen were needed to propel these large ships.’ [156] ‘Seki-bune was a type of Japanese warship used in the Warring States period and at the beginning of the early modern period. Unlike its contemporary, the atake-bune, the seki-bune was much smaller and faster’. [157]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ 'elevated shiro built during the late Muromachi and Momoyama periods'.[158] "Unlike the walled towns of China and Korea, fortified places in Japan tended to be isolated military outposts. These yamashiro (mountain castles) were hilltop fortresses consisting only of wooden stockades, gates and towers, joined to one another across valleys and peaks to form a complex defensive arrangement."[159]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥ "Unlike the walled towns of China and Korea, fortified places in Japan tended to be isolated military outposts. These yamashiro (mountain castles) were hilltop fortresses consisting only of wooden stockades, gates and towers, joined to one another across valleys and peaks to form a complex defensive arrangement."[160]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Present with evidence in both previous and succeeding polities, no reason to believe this stopped here
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ Present with evidence in both previous and succeeding polities, no reason to believe this stopped here
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥ 'Connected by the singular artery of Muromachi Road and surrounded by a patchwork of walls, moats, and guardhouses, these small enclaves served as makeshift fortresses within which residents sought to secure a level of stability, safety, and commercial viability despite the violence and lawlessness of the age (see Figure 6.2). Politically, they organized into “neighborhood federations” (chō-gumi) through which they engaged in corporate defense and self-government [161]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ 'Castle towns trace their origin to the Muromachi period and the construction of wooden defenses typically located on hills for reasons of protection and surveillance. These fortifications were the precursors to the castles and castle-building styles that grew more elaborate during the Warring States period. [162]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ 'Castle towns trace their origin to the Muromachi period and the construction of wooden defenses typically located on hills for reasons of protection and surveillance. These fortifications were the precursors to the castles and castle-building styles that grew more elaborate during the Warring States period. [163]‘the acquisition, possession and loss of a castle were common events during the Sengoku Period, but once the trend towards larder armies developed, the castle became not only a barracks for the troops, but a symbol of the daimyo’s authority. [164]
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ no evidence of these type of fortifications, but no source explicitly saying they were absent

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Thomas Cressy ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ present ♥ The Shogun was reliant on the provincial constables to provide soldiers and taxes, there are several examples of these provincial lords refusing to cooperate and even supporting the Shogun's opponents - such as the emperor's faction in the first half of the polity's existence. "The Ashikaga shoguns, however, had less support from this inheritance and were required to depend more upon institutions of their own making; hence their reliance on the provincial constables to whom they delegated much local authority. Under the Muromachi bakufu, the shugo acquired political influence by combining the authority the post had commanded under the Kamakura bakufu with that customarily available to the civil provincial governors under the imperial system. The chain of command among shogun, shugo, and provincial retainers now carried almost the entire burden of government, both nationally and locally." [165] "As chiefs of the military estate, the Ashikaga shoguns did maintain a private bureaucracy and a guard force drawn from their extensive but individually weak jitō-grade vassals. But these direct retainers were limited in number, and in regard to serious military action, or to the staffing of important bakufu offices, the Ashikaga were heavily dependent on the shugo support." [166] "Under the Kamakura bakufu, shugo had been given three specific functions: (1) enrolling bakufu retainers for guard duty at Kyoto and Kamakura, (2) suppressing major crimes like murder and piracy, and (3) punishing treason. In 1346, the Muromachi bakufu added twomore important powers. The first conferred the right to deal with the unlawful cutting of crops - a favorite act of akuto bands. The second, in practical terms, meant the right to carry out the bakufu's orders to confiscate or redistribute land rights. Together, these legal provisions gave the shugo the authority to exercise major judicial and fiscal powers that heretofore had been exercised by organs of the central government." [167]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ present ♥ The Shogun also had to keep nobles and religious groups on his side, especially as several still legally owned estates that provided taxes and troops, despite many of these provinces being managed by provincial constables in practice. "During the first half of the Muromachi era, however, the Ashikaga shoguns, by occupying the middle ground between these two positions, managed to stave off the demise of the shoen-based nobility for yet another two centuries." [168] "The first supplementary law, issued in 1337, shows that the bakufu's principal concern was to recall the previously awarded "temporary" tax powers to protect the interests of the most highly placed noble and priestly proprietors. It demanded that lands held by shugo and other military officers for commissariat support "be immediately returned to the estate agents of the civil proprietors." A directive issued in 1338 accused the shugo of abusing this privilege, by taking permanent possession of lands occupied for military support and even distributing them among their own retainers. The bakufu was clearly in a bind. Its primary interest in the provinces was to build up the strength of its shugo; yet it could not deny entirely the interests of the capital nobility and priesthood." [169]
♠ Impeachment ♣ absent ♥ As discussed above, there was no legal system to sanction an executive that acted above the head of state and certainly not one to replace the Shogun who now decided every aspect of government. "Takauji had now played the supreme role of having installed an emperor with his military power. He further legitimized himself by taking high court rank and adopting the role of chief of the warrior estate. The secretariat he had established three years before had remained in operation and was now turned into a bakufu in all but name." [170]

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ 'The Ashikaga shoguns of the medieval period, for all the noble status they had acquired, were obliged to share political power with other court families, other members of the military aristocracy, and the religious orders. Theirs was a national command limited by the fragmentation of sovereignty and by the precedents and structures of the court-centered institutions of governance.' [171]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ "The Kojiki, Japan’s earliest extant written text, recounts the story of the creation of the Japanese islands by Izanagi and Izanani (both brother and sister and husband and wife). It tells the story of the birth of the kami, especially the birth of Amaterasu, the sun goddess, from whom the Japanese imperial family - and by extension the Japanese people - are descended. The narrative tells of how Ninigi no Mikoto, grandson of Amaterasu Omikami, was sent to establish sovereignty over the Japanese islands. It was Ninigi’s great grandson, Jimmu, who became, according to the narrative, the first emperor of Japan. All Japanese emperors are said to descend from this sacred line beginning with Amaterasu. The three regalia - mirror, sword, and jewel - the symbols of imperial ruling authority, are said to have originated with Amaterasu who started the tradition of passing these symbols to each subsequent ruler. In the medieval and early modern periods (in fact, up until 1945), this Kojiki narrative was used to argue the legitimacy of the imperial family as rightful rulers." [172]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ present ♥ “What remains constant throughout history is the emperor’s identity as a deity (‘’kami’’) in the Japanese sense.” [173] However, it is worth noting that “the fluid cosmology of the Japanese, humans, including shamans, and deities do not constitute clear-cut categories”, meaning that the kami have, or can have, human attributes [174]. And since “the ‘’kami’’ are like humans, emperors too have been human to most Japanese” and, throughout history, “there have been many folktales pointing to the humanness of the emperors”, for example ones centering on an eighteenth-century crown-prince’s love for soba noodles [175].

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ "The primordial Shinto ethos seems to have been essentially egalitarian." [176] Buddhism is also fundamentally egalitarian: every human being has a potential to achieve what Buddha achieved, regardless of class or ethnicity [177].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ The emperor was thought to be a god [178].
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [179] [180]

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