ItVenR4

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Venetian Republic ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1565 CE ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1565-1797 CE ♥

Part Two on The Imperial Expansion begins with the election of Pietro as the Doge of Venice in 1205 CE. Part Three on A Power in Europe ends in 1530 CE with the Coronation of Charles V by the Pope as Holy Roman Emperor.[1] In 1530 CE "The peninsula was at peace - at least by Italian standards, and though the peace had been bought about by imperial-papal agency and all Italy still lay under the shadow of the Eagle's wing, Venice had managed to safeguard not only her political independence but even the integrity of her mainland dominians."[2] Part Four is on Decline and Fall, last date 1797 CE.[3]

"Its republican constitution, which took shape in the late thirteenth century ... stood for five hundred years, until its fall to Napoleon on 12 May 1797."[4]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Venice ♥


♠ Language ♣ Italian ♥

General Description

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ [2,000,000-2,500,000]: 1565 CE ♥ People.

"At the height of its power in the sixteenth century, the city of Venice counted nearly 170,000 souls, with a population of more than two million in its subject territories."[5]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 170,000: 1565 CE ♥ Inhabitants. Venice.

"At the height of its power in the sixteenth century, the city of Venice counted nearly 170,000 souls, with a population of more than two million in its subject territories."[6]

Venice was a cosmopolitan city of merchants. "At the end of the fifteenth century, for example, the French diplomat Philippe de Commynes observed that in Venice 'most of the people are foreigners.'"[7]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 5 ♥ levels.

1. Capital (Venice)

2. Overseas Colonies(eg. Candia)[8]
3. Large or capital cities of overseas colonies
2. City-States
3. Large Towns (Inferred from description of local governments)[9]
4. Small Towns (Inferred from description of local governments)[10]
5. Rural Outposts/Villages (inferred)

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [5-6] ♥ levels.

Reference to a closing of a Great Council 1297 CE?


1. Doge of Venice

The position of Doge was a life appointment.[11]
2. Magistracy of the Avogaria di Comun.[12]
2. Maggior Consiglio
3. Council of Ten
'Plebian' nobility.[13] Council of Ten is part of the Maggior Consiglio.
Council of Ten was created in 1310 CE.[14]
3. Ducal chancery
"Toward the early fourteenth century the ducal chancery was established. In the first instance it served as a bureaucratic arm of the Maggior Consiglio, bringing into the sphere of government the active participation of the citizen class."[15]
2. Consiglio dei Pregadi
The office of Doge of Crete "was not for life, as in Venice, but only for two years, renewable at the discretion of the Lesser Council or Senate, which made the appointment in the first place."[16]
"the Senate, or Consiglio dei Pregadi, was made up of 120 permanent members."[17]
3. Sestiers associated with any official?
3. Podesta (with the Captain, one of the Rectors) of large town or city
3. Captain (with the Podesta, one of the Rectors) of large town or city
4. Municipal councils
4. Local police
4. Schools
3. Podesta, Capitano or Povveditor of a small town
"In each of the more important dependent cities she placed a civil governor, called the Podesta, and a military commandant, called the Captain, whose duty it was to raise levies and look after the defence of the city; these two when acting together were called the Rectors. The local municipal councils, varying in numbers, were left undisturbed and retained the control of such matters as lighting, roads, local taxation. The police and imperial taxation were in the hands of the Rectors, and they were in constant communication either with the Senate, or, in very grave emergencies, with the Council of Ten. The smaller towns were governed by a Podesta, a Capitano, or a Provveditore. Each town possessed its own special code, called the Statuto, which the Rectors swore to observe. The Statuto dealt with octroi dues, roads and bridges, wells, lighting, doctors, nurses, fires, guilds, santitary matters, - in short with all the multifarous details of municipal and even of private life. ... In the Courts of Justice the Podesta or one of his three assessors merely presided; the did not constitute the Court, which was composed of citizens. Provision was made for public instruction in the humanities, in canon and civil law, and in medicine; primary education was supplied by what were called schools of aritmetic. The cost of education was charged on the revenues of the province."[18]
2. Doge of Candia
In Crete a "simplified model of the Venetian home government" was used. "This allowed Venetian residents abroad to enjoy accustomed roles on governing boards and councils, while centralized conrol was assured by entrusting principal executive powers to officers appointed from Venice, usually for a term of two years. This practice dated from 1208, before Crete had been conquered, when the Venetians appointed a doge of Candia (the main city of the island) to act as chief magistrate and military commander."[19]
2. Greater Council (of Crete)
3. Fief holders in sestiers (administrative areas) of Crete
"The first doge of Candia, Giacomo Tiepolo, divided the island into six administrative areas and named them after the sestiers into which Venice itself was divided. Fief holders from the sestiers acted as members of a Greater Council, modeled on the Maggior Consiglio of Venice, to which all nobles belonged."[20]


"In 1297, culminating reorginization attempts that had begun in the late 1280s, the Maggior Consiglio (Great Council) set up a regularized system of membership, accepting as member those who had previously served in the council and the legitimate male descendants of all part and present members. The immediate effect was to increase the size of the council, but ultimately it limited access to a discrete group of families."[21]

Magistracy of the Avogaria di Comun.[22] "The college of the three avogadori could intromettere [introduce an appeal] into the government council which seemed most suitable to the typology of the case: the Quarantia civile or the Quarantia criminale - courts of justice composed of 40 nobles each, destined during the course of the 15th century to become state's highest courts of appeal; the Senate or Consiglio de' Pregadi - the principal Venetian legislative organ at the center of the production of norms regarding foreign and domestic policy, civil and military; the Minor Consiglio - a restricted and elite body represented by the doge's councilors, six nobles nominated by the Senate; or the Maggior Consiglio - composed, instead, of all the the nobles who had reached their majority."[23] "in the 15th century ... the role of this magistracy took center stage in the political and constitutional history of Venice."[24] "Decrees of the Senate or sovereign letters signed by ducal councilors, sentences passed by the plethora of republican institutions with their seat in the capital, pronouncements or acts of government of the Venetian rectors in the terraferma or envoys in the colonies of the stato da mar; every type of act produced in the course of the activities of government, from the least important magistracy to the Doge himself, no matter how solemn or banal it might have been, could be brought by appeal before the Avogaria."[25] "The ever-increasing interventions of the Avogaria in the years 1440-60 represent a true turning point in Venetian political history. The apex of the constituional system - the doge, the Provveditori di San Marco, the ducal councilors, the Savi del Consiglio - thus came to be subjected to a form of continuous supervision. In 1453, for example, the avogadori were able to block an order from the Doge to the Giudici di Petizion."[26]

"The much enlarged imperial territories that thus accrued to the Venetian state after 1204 had to be governed somehow. In Corfu briefly, and in Crete more permanently, the Venetians resorted to the form of military administration used by all the Latin crusading states. That is, the city granted fiefs to knights and serjeants who undertook to build castles and defend the land in return for the income to be derived from territories granted to them. Holders of these fiefs were all Venetian citizens; their lands came by confiscation from Greek magnates."[27]

1200 CE: "a bailo was appointed to supervise Venetian affairs along the entire Syrian and Palestinian coast."[28]

♠ Religious levels ♣ 5 ♥ The Venetian religious policy "expected the Greeks to abandon their traditional form of Christianity and accept Latin rites and doctrines."[29]

Using same code as for Papal States of this period, which was coded and referenced by our expert Joe Figliulo-Rosswurm.

Pope; Cardinals and legates; archbishops; bishops and abbots; parish priests and members of the religious orders; deacons.

1. Pope: The pope was, of course, the universally-acknowledged leader of Latin Christendom. This does not contradict the fact that who exactly was the legitimate pope was often contested during the period 1378-1418, during the Great Schism. During this period the papacy arrogated to itself the right to appoint bishops, negating the tradition of bishops being elected by their flock in conjunction with the priesthood.[30]

2. Cardinals and legates: The cardinalate was crucial in theological decision-making and the religious aspects of papal government; legates, similarly, handled religious matters abroad on occasion.
3. Archbishops: To a certain extent, archbishops were equivalent to cardinals, but there were more of them, distributed throughout Christendom. They supervised their suffragan bishops and bishoprics, while also overseeing their own (a good example is the Archbishop of Milan).
4. Bishops and abbots: Bishops were the crucial link between local religion and the papacy. There were 263 bishoprics in 14th century Italy.[31] Abbots sometimes played a role beyond the walls of their monasteries, although by this point once-powerful regional centers such as Farfa were in decline in Lazio.
5. Parish priests and members of the religious orders: These constituted the mundane religious level. Parish priests embodied Christianity for their flock, for the most part, since they said Mass, heard confession and, in general, were (supposed to) serve as the quotidian face of the organized Church. Members of the religious orders (Franciscans, Dominicans, and so forth) also were a common part of the Church's presence, especially in the towns.[32]

♠ Military levels ♣ 11 ♥ levels.

Military Administration 1509-1617[33]

1. Doge (inferred)
2. Heads of the Council of Ten
3. Council of Ten
3. Senate
4. Proveditor of Artillery (until 1588)
4. Proveditor of Fortifications
4. Collateral (inferred)
5. Savi
5. Camerlenghi
5. Arsenal Rector of Brescia
6. Rector, Proveditor, Military Governor, Senior Officer, Spies, Captain, Commissaries, Castellans
6. Paymaster
6. Engineers, Commander in Chief, Rector
7. Condottieri:
8. Men-at-arms (Lancers)
9. Militia officers
10. Lower level officers
11. Infantry Troops

Navy: "Venetian overseas colonies depended to a great extent on the defensive shield provided by Venice’s fleet, and the role of the Provveditore General dell’Armata, who acted not only as a navy commander but also as supreme authority over the colonies in peacetime as well as during wars, was another idiosyncratic feature of the overseas colonies.[34].

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ present ♥ For example, officers: "In the last two wars with the Ottomans, a greater number of non-Italian soldiers and officers was employed" [35]. Naval commanders: "Venetian overseas colonies depended to a great extent on the defensive shield provided by Venice’s fleet, and the role of the Provveditore General dell’Armata, who acted not only as a navy commander but also as supreme authority over the colonies in peacetime as well as during wars, was another idiosyncratic feature of the overseas colonies.[36].

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred present ♥ "Since professional soldiers were rather expensive to maintain, Venice embarked from the 1520s onward on a systematic organization of civil militias (cernide, ordinanze), mostly peasant militias, in its overseas territories, on the model of a similar organization that had already been established in the Venetian terraferma."[37]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ eg. archbishops, bishops, chief priests and cantors (in Candia, La Canea, Rettimo, and Sitia) [38]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ Shifts in the Venetian government in the period 1509-1660: "The growth of a non-patrician bureaucracy serving central government ran parallel to the tighter definition of criteria for its recruitment, with more extensive insistence on the requisite of Venetian citizenship—something immigrants to Venice could acquire, but which confirmed the exclusion of ordinary terraferma subjects."[39] The central government was run by nobles, but work was carried out by minor bureaucrats in central government magistracies: "It is opportune to remember that the Venetian “bureaucratic” system functioned on two levels: the first, constituted substantially by members of the Ducal Chancellery, was occupied by civil servants attached to the great political councils; the second, clearly separated from the first, was made up of a plethora of secretaries, notaries, and others who in each single magistracy carried out the tasks of conserving the official acts and transmitting orders and mandates." [40]

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ No mention in sources: offices held through election or promotion.[41]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred present in terms of minor bureaucrats and civil servants: "It is opportune to remember that the Venetian “bureaucratic” system functioned on two levels: the first, constituted substantially by membersof the Ducal Chancellery, was occupied by civil servants attached to the great political councils; the second, clearly separated from the first, was made up of a plethora of secretaries, notaries, and others who in each single magistracy carried out the tasks of conserving the official acts and transmitting orders and mandates." [42]. Absent for nobles: "Venetian nobles, elected to office for a period of 18 or 24 months, would have had little impact on the ordinary mechanisms by which these offices functioned"[43]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ The central administrative, executive, and judicial government was based inside the Ducale Palazzo, the palace of the doge. [44]. However, due to the complexity of regional governments and number of minor offices in the central government, we infer the presence of separate government buildings.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ "Each town possessed its own special code, called the Statuto, which the Rectors swore to observe. The Statuto dealt with octroi dues, roads and bridges, wells, lighting, doctors, nurses, fires, guilds, santitary matters, - in short with all the multifarous details of municipal and even of private life."[45]

"The Venetian constitution in fact froze in the form it attained early in the fourteenth century and survived externally unaltered until the demise of the Republic in 1797."[46] "Its republican constitution, which took shape in the late thirteenth century ... stood for five hundred years, until its fall to Napoleon on 12 May 1797."[47]

"Leze might at first appear a term both clear and neutral, but if we stop to consider the ways in which it was translated, the multiple realities this term might encompass (i.e., collections of statutes of the subject cities, customary laws, and a generally regulative idea of justice, charged with ethnical and religious meanings) and the close identification of leze and the defense of legality with the republican constitution, that first and oversimplified perception is replaced by the awareness of a far more complex system."[48]

"On the one hand, the Roman law-based tradition of terraferma statutes, sources of law in general, and judicial practice was a tradition much dependent on the legal expertise of jurists organic to local elites. On the other hand, Venice's own, separate legal and judicial tradition was characterized by the space for empirical, informal, 'political criteria of equity in judging and by assignment of judicial posts to patricians with no legal training. Though much mainland judging remained the business of local courts with local judges, the uneasy reconciliation of these thwo approaches was evident in the dual options of mainland governors: they an entourage of legal professionals, judging by local law, but were also empowered to override the usual priority in sources of law. ... Local statutory traditions continued essentially intact, with periodic renewal of statues subject to Venetian approval, which entailed no drastic interference. Such codes were generally not significantly updated by new laws formulated by mainland legislators once under Venetian dominion, nor did they include as statutory norms the heterogeneous accumulation of Venetian laws and rulings, referred to single territories or (more rarely) to the whole of the mainland."[49]

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥

"On the one hand, the Roman law-based tradition of terraferma statutes, sources of law in general, and judicial practice was a tradition much dependent on the legal expertise of jurists organic to local elites. On the other hand, Venice's own, separate legal and judicial tradition was characterized by the space for empirical, informal, 'political criteria of equity in judging and by assignment of judicial posts to patricians with no legal training. Though much mainland judging remained the business of local courts with local judges, the uneasy reconciliation of these thwo approaches was evident in the dual options of mainland governors: they an entourage of legal professionals, judging by local law, but were also empowered to override the usual priority in sources of law. ... Local statutory traditions continued essentially intact, with periodic renewal of statues subject to Venetian approval, which entailed no drastic interference. Such codes were generally not significantly updated by new laws formulated by mainland legislators once under Venetian dominion, nor did they include as statutory norms the heterogeneous accumulation of Venetian laws and rulings, referred to single territories or (more rarely) to the whole of the mainland."[50]

Need to confirm exact time period this quote relates too: "The local nobilities acted as judges in courts of first instance, including the basic inquests of criminal cases, and when they were the accused, intimidated testimonies and influenced inquests and verdicts by using patronage and violence..."[51]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ "In the Courts of Justice the Podesta or one of his three assessors merely presided; the did not constitute the Court, which was composed of citizens."[52]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred present ♥

Need to confirm exact time period this quote relates too: "Maintaining this coherence was a diverse class of jurists made up of scholars, lawyers, and judges, who provided a practical and theoretical framework capable of assuring the effectiveness and continuity of the system."[53]

Need to confirm exact time period this quote relates too: "... the defendant's father presented the peace agreeement and a defense document, clearly drafted by a lawyer. In the end, the judge imposed on all the defendants only small monetary penalties."[54]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred present ♥ 1509-1630 CE: "Grain needs and profit opportunities driven by demographic increase - the price revolution - stimulated extension of the acreage tilled through drainage of marshy areas and cultivation of marginal land, much more than higher productivity via better agronomic practice - irrigation, water-meadows and fodder crops, high-yielding rice fields, stock-raising to balance agriculture etc."[55] 1509-1630 CE: "Action concerning watercourses and marshes brought diversion of rivers to avoid silting up the Venetian lagoon, attempts to prevent them flooding, authorization and support for sometimes massive land drainage schemes, and concession of irrigation rights. Policy toward woodland aimed to reserve much timber for state arsenal use and to counter deforestation."[56]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred present ♥ "Yes, for centuries, the Venetians developed a providential design of their own destiny: only God could allow life to thrive in the midst of salt water. ... For centuries, the community gave no priority to efforts at coastal defense. It was necessary to build, create, and beautify, to organize the supply of drinking water. Here the rare documentary evidence is consistent with the narrative sources. The city thus initially focused on growing and resolving day by day the difficulties related to the site." [57]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ "Renaissance Venice was one of the most developed financial markets in Europe, and even in the public sector it was unrivalled." [58]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ Warehouses and shipyards.[59]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ "The local municipal councils, varying in numbers, were left undisturbed and retained the control of such matters as lighting, roads, local taxation. The police and imperial taxation were in the hands of the Rectors, and they were in constant communication either with the Senate, or, in very grave emergencies, with the Council of Ten."[60]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ "Each town possessed its own special code, called the Statuto, which the Rectors swore to observe. The Statuto dealt with octroi dues, roads and bridges, wells, lighting, doctors, nurses, fires, guilds, santitary matters, - in short with all the multifarous details of municipal and even of private life."[61]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ Canals.[62]
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Warehouses and shipyards.[63] "A maritime power, Venice served as an entrepot for trade between Europe and the Middle East".[64]


Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Account books.[65]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Bible.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Account books and maritime contracts.[66]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ "In the late sixteenth century, Padua was the official university of the Venetian republic".[67] c14th century?: "The rising tide of humanism and the historical vision that accompanied it resulted in an upsurge in the writing of history, as well as the involvement of both patricians and nonpatricians in the activity of chronicle writing, which now featured a vernacular component."[68]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ 16th century philosophers mentioned in the text: "In the late sixteenth century, Padua was the official university of the Venetian republic".[69]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred present ♥ "In the late sixteenth century, Padua was the official university of the Venetian republic".[70]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ "Medieval and early modern Venice was also one of the great cultural capitals of Europe. It was home to scores of artists, musicians, and writers of international stature."[71]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Venetian gold ducats
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥


Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ ♥
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ General reference for medieval warfare: Mail armor "was formed from rings of iron (or, more rarely, steel)".[72]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ General reference for medieval warfare: Mail armor "was formed from rings of iron (or, more rarely, steel)".[73]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ ♥
♠ Slings ♣ ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ ♥ Illustration shows a cavalryman "Stradiot c.1500" with a spear, bow and curved sword.[74]
♠ Composite bow ♣ ♥ Illustration shows a cavalryman "Stradiot c.1500" with a spear, bow and curved sword.[75]
♠ Crossbow ♣ present ♥ General reference for medieval warfare: crossbow bolts.[76] Illustration shows "N. Italian crossbowman, c. 1330" with a crossbow.[77] Illustration shows "N. Italian crossbowman, late 15th C."[78]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ General reference for medieval warfare: "catapults and other siege engines".[79]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ General reference for medieval warfare: "catapults and other siege engines".[80]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ present ♥ Important towns "normally defended by strong walls and canons".[81]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ present ♥ Illustration shows "Venetian militiaman, late 15th C." with a firearm and dagger.[82] Illustration depicts a pistol early 17th century.[83] Illustration shows "Tommaso Morosini, c1647" with a pistol and sword.[84] Illustration shows "Venetian arquebusier, early 17th C." holding an arquebus, carrying a sword, wearing plate armour covering the torso and a helmet.[85]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ General reference for medieval warfare: battle axes.[86] Illustration shows "'Scappoli' volunteer, early 17th C." with what looks like a battle axe.[87]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ General reference for medieval warfare: daggers.[88] Illustration shows "Italian armoured infantryman, c.1320" with dagger, sword, helmet, guantlets.[89] Illustration shows "Knight, Collato family, c.1340" with a helmet, guantlets, sword, dagger, limb protection including plate armour for the feet, lower legs and knees.[90] Illustration shows "Venetian militiaman, late 15th C." with a firearm and dagger.[91] Illustration shows "Venetian light cavalryman, c.1500" wearing full plate armour, holding a sword and carrying a dagger.[92]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ General reference for medieval warfare: During the Late Middle Ages (c1000-1500 CE) reknowned production centres of military equipment in Italy included: "Aquileia (helmets), Benevento (spear-heads), Brescia and Milan (swords), Otranto (helmets), Pavia (helmets, spears, swords), and Sardinia (helmets, shields, coats of mail)".[93] Illustration shows "Venetian infantryman, late 14th C." with a spear, sword, helmet, shield, guantlets, and plate armour for lower legs.[94] Illustration shows "Venetian man-at-arms, late 15th C." in full plate armour holding a spear and carrying a sword.[95] Illustration shows "Venetian light cavalryman, c.1500" wearing full plate armour, holding a sword and carrying a dagger.[96] Illustration shows a cavalryman "Stradiot c.1500" with a spear, bow and curved sword.[97] Illustration shows "Venetian knight, c.1600" with a sword, full plate armour and shield.[98] Illustration shows "Tommaso Morosini, c1647" with a pistol and sword.[99] Illustration shows "Venetian arquebusier, early 17th C." holding an arquebus, carrying a sword, wearing plate armour covering the torso and a helmet.[100]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ General reference for medieval warfare: During the Late Middle Ages (c1000-1500 CE) reknowned production centres of military equipment in Italy included: "Aquileia (helmets), Benevento (spear-heads), Brescia and Milan (swords), Otranto (helmets), Pavia (helmets, spears, swords), and Sardinia (helmets, shields, coats of mail)".[101] General reference for medieval warfare: lances.[102] Illustration shows "Venetian infantryman, late 14th C." with a spear, sword, helmet, shield, guantlets, and plate armour for lower legs.[103] Illustration shows "Venetian man-at-arms, late 15th C." in full plate armour holding a spear and carrying a sword.[104] Illustration shows a cavalryman "Stradiot c.1500" with a spear, bow and curved sword.[105]
♠ Polearms ♣ ♥ Illustration shows "Dalmatian infantryman, c.1440" with a halberd.[106]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ 2000-2500 stradioti: "A group peculiar to the Venetian defense system were the so-called stradioti, who were light cavalrymen, mostly of Greek or Albanian descent but sometimes also Dalmatians (Crovati)."[107]
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ General reference for medieval warfare: Mail armour was normally worn with "everday garments or special, padded clothes that helped to cushion heavy blows and provide additional protection."[108] General reference for medieval warfare: "Alongside the use of mail armor, various quilted textile defenses were also worn from the second half of the twelfth century - the pourpoint, the aketon, and the gambeson".[109] General reference for medieval warfare: "Though later always made from iron, early plate defenses could also be made from hardened leather called cuir boulli."[110] General reference for medieval warfare: "The increasing use of gunpowder weapons as well as changes in tactics and the increasing sizes of armies led to the demise of armor in the seventeeth century."[111] Illustration shows horse armour which includes non-metallic (quilting, leather?) and metallic (plate) elements.[112]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ General reference for medieval warfare: During the Late Middle Ages (c1000-1500 CE) reknowned production centres of military equipment in Italy included: "Aquileia (helmets), Benevento (spear-heads), Brescia and Milan (swords), Otranto (helmets), Pavia (helmets, spears, swords), and Sardinia (helmets, shields, coats of mail)".[113] Illustration shows "Venetian infantryman, late 14th C." with a spear, sword, helmet, shield, guantlets, and plate armour for lower legs.[114] Illustration shows "Venetian knight, c.1600" with a sword, full plate armour and shield.[115]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ General reference for medieval warfare: During the Late Middle Ages (c1000-1500 CE) reknowned production centres of military equipment in Italy included: "Aquileia (helmets), Benevento (spear-heads), Brescia and Milan (swords), Otranto (helmets), Pavia (helmets, spears, swords), and Sardinia (helmets, shields, coats of mail)".[116] General reference for medieval warfare: "The increasing use of gunpowder weapons as well as changes in tactics and the increasing sizes of armies led to the demise of armor in the seventeeth century."[117] Illustration shows "Venetian infantryman, late 14th C." with a spear, sword, helmet, shield, guantlets, and plate armour for lower legs.[118] Illustration shows "Venetian arquebusier, early 17th C." holding an arquebus, carrying a sword, wearing plate armour covering the torso and a helmet.[119]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ General reference for medieval warfare: "From about 1340, the plates covering the chest were combined to form a rudimentary breastplate, which first covered only the upper chest area. ... By about 1370 the breastplate was extended downward by means of an attached skirt of hoops, a fauld, so that the whole torso was protected."[120] General reference for medieval warfare: "The increasing use of gunpowder weapons as well as changes in tactics and the increasing sizes of armies led to the demise of armor in the seventeeth century."[121]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ General reference for medieval warfare: "Plate gauntlets and gorgets, plates protecting the neck and chin, appeared at the end of the thirteenth century. From about 1300 poleyns and greaves, the armor for the lower legs, became more common, and sabatons, armor for the foot often made in the shape of the shoe in fashion at the time, first emerged around 1320."[122] General reference for medieval warfare: c1320 CE "Full plate arm defenses appeared".[123] General reference for medieval warfare: "The increasing use of gunpowder weapons as well as changes in tactics and the increasing sizes of armies led to the demise of armor in the seventeeth century."[124] Illustration shows "Venetian infantryman, late 14th C." with a spear, sword, helmet, shield, guantlets, and plate armour for lower legs.[125]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ General reference for medieval warfare: "The most common form of armor available after the fall of Rome was mail. It had been in use for a very long time and continued in use into the early modern period as it was relatively easy to produce and did not require large masses of iron for its manufacture."[126] General reference for medieval warfare: "Scale armor, made from small plates of iron riveted to a backing, was common throughout eastern Europe until the seventeenth century but was rare elsewhere in Europe."[127] General reference for medieval warfare: "The increasing use of gunpowder weapons as well as changes in tactics and the increasing sizes of armies led to the demise of armor in the seventeeth century."[128] Illustrations show chainmail worn from to early 13th century to early 17th century.[129]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ inferred present ♥ General reference for medieval warfare: "By the late thirteenth century, a new defense had been developed, the coat of plates - textile or leather coat with small iron plates attached to the inside."[130] General reference for medieval warfare: "The increasing use of gunpowder weapons as well as changes in tactics and the increasing sizes of armies led to the demise of armor in the seventeeth century."[131]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ General reference for medieval warfare: "Plate armor was developed beginning in the thirteenth century."[132] General reference for medieval warfare: Full-plate armor.[133] General reference for medieval warfare: c1320 CE "Full plate arm defenses appeared".[134] General reference for medieval warfare: "From about 1340, the plates covering the chest were combined to form a rudimentary breastplate, which first covered only the upper chest area. ... By about 1370 the breastplate was extended downward by means of an attached skirt of hoops, a fauld, so that the whole torso was protected."[135] General reference for medieval warfare: "The increasing use of gunpowder weapons as well as changes in tactics and the increasing sizes of armies led to the demise of armor in the seventeeth century."[136] Illustrations show plate armour covering the torso for "Dalmatian knight, mid-15th C."[137] and "Venetian man-at-arms, late 15th C."[138] Illustration shows "Venetian man-at-arms, late 15th C." in full plate armour holding a spear and carrying a sword.[139] Illustration shows "Venetian light cavalryman, c.1500" wearing full plate armour, holding a sword and carrying a dagger.[140] Illustration shows "Venetian knight, c.1600" with a sword, full plate armour and shield.[141] Illustration shows "Venetian arquebusier, early 17th C." holding an arquebus, carrying a sword, wearing plate armour covering the torso and a helmet.[142]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ 1310 CE after an insurrection "100 armed men in boats were deputed to patrol the lagoon and canals".[143]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ Venetian ships.[144] "The size of the navy in peacetime was fixed in 1523 at 25 galleys, but it generally comprised no more than 24, of which 18 were commissioned in Venice and 6 in Crete and Cyprus. Cyprus had a small squadron of 2-4 galleys to protect its coasts and the commercial shipping, and a few other colonies, such as Cerigo and Zante, also had one or two galleys ... By the end of the 16th century the peacetime navy already numbered 33 galleys, four of which were manned in Crete."[145]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ "Watch towers were built along the coasts".[146] Port towns in Crete refortified from 1540s CE. One fortress was built on a hill overlooking the town of Rettimo. Island fortresses were built to protect shipping.[147]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ A Venetian town was surrounded by a ditch at the time it was attacked by the Ottomans c 1571 CE.[148]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred present ♥ We can probably include Venice itself?
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ Important towns "normally defended by strong walls and canons".[149]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ inferred present ♥ "Venice's strategy of defense of its overseas territories was based on fortified cities and system of forts, provided with victuals and ammunition that were meant to enable resistance of long sieges (up to two years) until reinforcement arrived by sea. ... changes in military technology, especially the more effective use of artillery, necessitated a renewal of the systems of defense."[150]

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