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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Joe Figliulo-Rosswurm ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Republic of St Peter I ♥ "The term 'Papal State' is a modern one, hardly used by contemporaries to refer to the papal patrimony in the long period with which this book is concerned."[1] The term "Papal States" was not adopted until around 1200.[2] "It is still a matter of contention at what period the term 'papal states' may be used to describe those areas where the pope was traditionally overlord, but certainly by the beginning of the thirteenth century popes were great feudatories in central Italy."[3] Eighth century popes called their state "The Republic of St. Peter". Terms such as "Papal States" are anachronistic when applied to the eighth and ninth centuries. Terms such as this only appear in late middle ages. [4]

♠ Alternative names ♣ Papal States; Pontifical States; Ecclesiastical States; Roman States; States of the Church; territorium Sancti Petri ♥ "The term 'Papal State' is a modern one, hardly used by contemporaries to refer to the papal patrimony in the long period with which this book is concerned."[5] The term "Papal States" was not adopted until around 1200.[6] "It is still a matter of contention at what period the term 'papal states' may be used to describe those areas where the pope was traditionally overlord, but certainly by the beginning of the thirteenth century popes were great feudatories in central Italy."[7] Eighth century popes called their state "The Republic of St. Peter". Terms such as "Papal States" are anachronistic when applied to the eighth and ninth centuries. Terms such as this only appear in late middle ages. [8]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 850-900 CE ♥ Under nominal Byzantine suzerainty until 781 CE. In the early eighth century Charlemagne (reign 800-814 CE) added three cities to the holdings of the Papal State (Imola, Bologna, Ferrara; the details of which are given in the Vita Hadriani of the Liber Pontificalis).[9] However, the late eighth and early ninth centuries was the highpoint politically and in terms of construction and the economy.[10] The papacy lost power and prestige during the ninth century, despite its gradual emancipation from Carolingian domination as the Frankish empire began to break up.[11] Between the end of the ninth century and the 960s, the papacy had no powerful protectors outside Italy. Political power in Rome and Lazio lay in the hands of the Theophylacti and other powerful Roman baronial families.[12]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 711-904 CE ♥ There is no clear beginning or end to this polity. There are, however, major turning points in coherence of the polity and its self-governance. See general description below.

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ nominal ♥ The archbishops of Ravenna resisted papal claims to suzerainty long and well.[13] The territories of the Papal States were mountainous which made it difficult for the Popes to exercise its sovereignty, so the region preserved its old system of government, with many small countships and marquisates, each centred upon a fortified rocca. Reference needed

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ nominal ♥ During the first half of the eighth century, Rome was technically a Byzantine Exarchate, but in practice the area was autonomous, and increasingly left to its own devices for defence.[14] The Byzantines appeared to abandon Liguria, the Lazial and Tuscan Maremma in the 640s CE which left Rome on the extreme periphery of Byzantine Italy.[15] Formal recognition of nominal Byzantine authority persisted until 781 CE, when Charlemagne asserted Frankish suzerainty over the region. After this time, the years of the Byzantine Emperor's reign were no longer used for dating Papal documents or on the minting of imperial coins in the mint of Rome. [16]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Exarchate of Ravenna ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ vassalage ♥ This needs a bracket, to reflect the extraordinarily tentative hold the Byzantines had on Rome from the early eighth century on; by the beginning of the polity period, the papacy was effectively independent, or at least left to its own devices for defence, due to the Byzantine focus on defending Constantinople from Arab attacks, especially before the last Arab siege of Constantinople, in 717-718 CE.[17]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Rome - Republic of St Peter II ♥ * There was no major break between this polity and the next.
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Latin Christendom ♥ Area of Latin Christendom needs to be defined - do we include the Eastern Orthodox world, even though this distinction did not exist then, or the maximum reach of Christianity in Latin language?
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ 17,000,000 ♥ km squared. Latin Christendom was roughly equivalent to the maximum extent of the former Roman Empire? The rough limits of Christianity in this period: the area that is now northeastern Germany would be converted by force under Charlemagne, while the area south of Rome, in particular Calabria, Puglia, and Basilicata, was as much part of the Eastern Orthodox world as that of Latin Christendom, although these distinctions did not exist then.

♠ Capital ♣ Rome ♥ The Republic of St Peter (711-904 CE) was under nominal Byzantine suzerainty until 781 CE when the capital of the Byzantine exarchate was at Ravenna.[18] Ravenna was connected to Rome by the thin strip of Byzantine territory running across the Appennines and through Perugia. However, the capital of the Republic of St Peter was Rome.

♠ Language ♣ Latin ♥

General Description

The Papal State originated in the Patrimony of St. Peter, which initially included over four hundred estates, many of them in Sicily. These came from donations from wealthy Christians, whose philanthropy accelerated after Emperor Constantine.[19] The eighth century popes called their state "The Republic of St. Peter". The popular name "Papal States" was only used from the late middle ages.[20]

The Republic of St Peter (711-904 CE) was under nominal Byzantine suzerainty until 781 CE when the capital of the Byzantine exarchate was at Ravenna[21] which was connected to Rome by the thin strip of Byzantine territory running across the Appennines and through Perugia. The Pope was elected by citizens and the army - usually based on the choice of the clergy. Representatives would the certify the choice to the Exarch in Ravenna for imperial approval. The Exarch could make the choice himself in case of disagreement. [22]

In 781 CE Charlemagne asserted Frankish suzerainty over the region. After this time, the years of the Byzantine Emperor's reign were no longer used for dating Papal documents or on the minting of imperial coins in the mint of Rome.[23] During the ninth century the Papacy was released from Carolingian influence as the Frankish empire began to break up.[24]

This also meant that between the end of the ninth century and the 960s, the papacy had no powerful protectors outside Italy. Political power in Rome and Lazio lay in the hands of elite families, such as the Theophylacti and other powerful Roman baronial families.[25]

Papal governmental administration was small-scale but effective and organized into departments, with separate heads for the chancery and archives.[26] Notaries were career bureaucrats with the primicerius notariorum the head of college of notaries.[27] The governance of the wider mountainous region was characterised by small countships and marquisates centered upon a fortified rocca.

The population of the polity is hard to estimate but it is likely the city of Rome lost half its population between 800 CE and 900 CE when it held a mere 40,000 people.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Joe Figliulo-Rosswurm ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 50,000 ♥ KM2. The Papal State originated in the Patrimony of St. Peter, which originally included over four hundred estates, many of them in Sicily.[28] These came from donations from wealthy Christians, which accelerated after Emperor Constantine.[29]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [440,000-1,333,000]: 800 CE; [335,000-1,500,000]: 900 CE ♥ Inhabitants. [30] Estimated from McEvedy and Jones "Italy" which had 4,000,000 in 800 CE and 4,500,000 in 900 CE. [31] Figures divided by three to roughly approximate population ruled by this polity would be 1,333,000: 800 CE; 1,500,000: 900 CE. The "Latium: Medieval Era (500-1500 CE)" coding page currently estimates the population of the Latium region only as: 265000: 650 CE; 385000: 750 CE; 440000: 800 CE; 445000: 850 CE; 440000: 867 CE; 335000: 904 CE. These estimates support the magnitude of the crude estimate based on the McEvedy and Jones figures given that this polity covered only major two city regions, Ravenna and Rome, and what was in between.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [70,000-100,000]: 800 CE; 40,000: 900 CE ♥ Inhabitants.

[100,000-125,000]: 711 CE; [70,000-100,000]: 800 CE. Estimate for Rome. [32] Like all pre-modern population numbers, this is an approximation. Last estimate in Modelski: 125,000 in 600 CE. By the latter 8th Century, 20,000 - 30,000 able-bodied men living within Rome's walls.[33] Can we use this last estimate for 800 CE (+ women, children, old)?

Rome. 40,000: 900 CE [34]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 5 ♥

1. Large cities: Rome and Ravenna

Rome and Ravenna were most likely the largest settlements within the Duchy/Republic, although reliable population figures do not exist for this period.
2. Cities of duchies e.g. Perugia
Until 756 CE, under the Exarchate of Ravenna, the Italian polities subscribing to a nominal Byzantine suzerainty were organized into city-based Duchies (Duchy of Rome, Duchy of Venetia, Duchy of Calabria, Duchy of Naples, Duchy of Perugia, Pentapolis, Lucania etc).
After 756 CE, the duchies were officially controlled from Rome through Papal government administration. Every major city had a bishop. Regional governors. Bishops in joint session with provincial magnates elected the governor of each province and helped choose city officials. [35]
Cities such as Perugia, an important garrison town securing the route between Ravenna and Rome, would have had a population of at least a few thousand people.[36]
3. Towns
Agrotowns and surviving Roman-era towns, such as Tres Tabernae or Centum Cellae (now Civitavecchia).
4. Villages, fortified settlements, rocche
these ranged from scattered houses with only vague association to quasi-military encampments. The first castles (castra, castella) began appearing in the tenth century. Fortified settlements, the predecessors of these castles, were walled towns such as Albano, Ariccia, and Tuscolo.[37]
5. Villages, fortified settlements, rocche


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 6 ♥

1. Exarch of Ravenna

In the early years of the period the Pope was elected by citizens and the army usually based on the choice of the clergy. Representatives would the certify the choice to the Exarch in Ravenna for imperial approval. However, the Exarch could make the choice himself in case of disagreement. [38]

1. Pope

By 781 CE (Charlemagne agreement) "what had been the Dutchy of Rome was, somewhat enlarged, recognised as St. Peter's and the Pope's own principality." Authority over Ravenna "shared in ill-defineded tandem." [39]
Bishop of Rome, the Pope, took responsibility for feeding Romans and refugees from Lombard war. [40]
Pope was head of the senate. [41]
Pope, sovereign and "universal bishop", symbolically crowned with tiara. [42]


_Central government (Ravenna - 781 CE)_

2.
3.
4.


_Central government (Rome)_

2. Senators?
Pope was head of the senate. [43]
Rome's governmental infrastructure was remarkably complex, a fact that Wickham attributes to the degree of continuity between 10th-century Rome and the Byzantines and of course, before them, the Roman Empire.[44]
At times during this period, it possessed three different official hierarchies, military, judicial, and clerical.[45]


2. Administrative subdivisions - Chief of Papal chancery / Papal archives etc.
arcarius [46] - treasurer
Papal chancery [47]
Archives held in Lateran Palace with other paperwork. However, very important documents were kept in tomb of St Peter. [48]
High-ranking ecclesiastical officials (legates, papal representatives, etc.): The Papal state had administrative subdivisions, loosely conceived. Noble has argued that through its extensive landholding, charitable actions, and diplomatic role as a negotiator with the Lombards, the Roman Church significantly impacted most residents of Byzantine Italy.[49]
Regional elites "sought and gained grants of land and jurisdiction from the popes." [50] Described as feudal in the ninth century. [51]
3. Head of Sub-division within an administrative subdivision
Some scholars have claimed that it was the most effective government in Western Europe by the end of the seventh century (although this isn't saying much, given how small-scale papal administration was).[52]
Lower-ranking administrative officials: A nomenclator was probably assisted by ordinator. Vicedominus was steward of the papal Lateran palace. Vicedominus more involved in central administration than a major domus.[53]
Amoner (financial controller).
Major-domo (treasurer and controller of wardrobe).
Pilgrims to the city of Rome was a source of income for the popes. [54]
4. primicerius defensorum
Defensores defended "the rights of the Roman church ... and the oppressed. The formula of appointment was vague enough to allow them to undertake virtually any duty on behalf of the church." There was a college of defensores headed by a primicerius. [55]
Officials Constantine I took with him on his 710 CE visit to Constantinople included: 2 bishops, 2 priests, a deacon, a secundicerius notariorum, the primicerius defensorum, the sacellarius, the nomenclator, the scriniarius, and two subdeacons. Archdeacon, archpriest and primicerius notariorum were left behind. Other officials, vicedominus, arcarius, ordinator and abbot. [56]
5. defensorum
4. primicerius notariorum (head of college of notaries) [57]
Officials Constantine I took with him on his 710 CE visit to Constantinople included: 2 bishops, 2 priests, a deacon, a secundicerius notariorum, the primicerius defensorum, the sacellarius, the nomenclator, the scriniarius, and two subdeacons. Archdeacon, archpriest and primicerius notariorum were left behind. Other officials, vicedominus, arcarius, ordinator and abbot. [58]
5. secundicerius notariorum
A college of notaries headed by primicerius, later joined by college of defensores headed by primicerius, and a college of subdeacons. Notaries were the staff of the papal chancery, career bureaucrats. [59]
Clerical officers (acolytes and guardians) [60]
6. notariorum
By this period, the popes had been caring for orphans, widows, and others as part of their pastoral duties.[61]


_Regional government_

2. Regional governor of a Dutchy
After 756 CE, the duchies were officially controlled from Rome through Papal government administration. Every major city had a bishop. Regional governors. Bishops in joint session with provincial magnates elected the governor of each province and helped choose city officials. [62]
The popes became increasingly involved during this period in appointing the duke for the Dutchy of Rome. [63]
On several occasions, indeed, papal authority over the imperially-appointed dukes was demonstrated when popes had to save dukes from the irate Roman mob, or were able to defy the duke or Exarch of Ravenna with the aid of militia totius Italiae, "the entire army of Italy.[64]
Regionary guardians. Regional notaries.[65]
3. Bishop of a City
Every major city had a bishop. Bishops in joint session with provincial magnates elected the governor of each province and helped choose city officials.[66]
Under the Lombards, a system of episcopal immunities emerged that made the bishops virtually local temporal sovereigns and enabled them to preserve the local spirit of municipal independence and organization (e.g., consuls, guilds). The urban population was free, and the town walls (often built by the bishops) were refuges. [67]
The Roman bishop administered lands of the Church and lands of Roman basilicas, classified as tituli. [68]
4. Rectors of the Patrimony (in a Diaconate?)
Ecclesiastical government contained other important regional officials. Rectors of the Patrimony were appointed for each major territory. These were drawn from subordinate Roman officials: sub-deacons or notaries and guardians, among them whom could be laymen.[69]
Diaconates were established to store and distribute grain, and be centers of social welfare. [70]
5. Granary worker
5. Town / village leader
A more informal, often ad hoc, stratum but probably the most important on a day-to-day level. They included local landholders in particular. The aristocratic, land-holding stratum of Byzantine Italy emerged following Justinian's 6th-century reconquests.[71]
By the late seventh century, many sources speaks of this stratum, which Noble has described as forming "the key social class in late Byzantine Italy."[72]
These landholders, often of eastern origin, acquired land through leasing them from bishops contractually.[73]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels.

At time of Concordat of Worms (1122 CE). "Now the clergy were organized in a hierarchical line under the direction of the pope, who could trump the power of local custom, tradition, and even episcopal power. Below the pope stood the bishop. Responsible for maintaining clerical discipline and for overseeing the property of the church, he was answerable only to the pope. Only he could perform all the sacraments; he alone performed the sacrament of confirmation and by the sacrament of ordination passed on his power to others. Theoretically, canon law held that he would be elected by the clergy and people of his diocese. In practice, he was elected only by the canon priests attached to the cathedral. Considered high clergy, the canons aided the bishop in furthering his agenda, administering the diocese and performing rituals at the cathedral church. At their head was the dean, the highest officer in the diocese. A diocesian chancellor supervised the cathedral school and issued licenses allowing clerics to teach and preach in the diocese. A treasurer oversaw finances, while a precentor managed the choir and organized the cathedral's musical program. Each diocese was divided into administrative districts, over which presided the archdeacons. Practically, these were powerful men; they were the bishop's legates, charged with enforcing discipline among the lower clergy, and therefore they were often quite unpopular. ... The parish priests were answerable to them."[74]

1. Pope

2. Archdeacon, of a dianocal college
Archdeacons became popes, Archpriests did not. [75] Following the 1059 decree Decretum in Nomine Domini, only cardinals could elect a new pope.[76]. Furthermore, only cardinals could become popes. Silvester IV (1105-1111), an anti-pope, was the last pope who was not a cardinal before his elevation.[77]
3. Deacons, of a dianocal college
There were seven regional deacons of Rome.[78]
4. Subdeacon, of a college of subdeacons
There was a college of subdeacons.[79] Regionary sub-deacons.[80]
5. Acolytes
Rome's ecclesiastical structure contained a diaconal college with seven regional deacons of Rome, possessing in turn a staff of subdeacons and acolytes. These subdeacons dealt with property and relief for poor. The number increased as responsibilities of Papacy increased. 19 by Gregory I.[81]
2. Archpriest, of a college
Papal administration was collegiate: priests formed a college, headed by the archpriest, which was less important than dianocal college headed by archdeacon. Archdeacons became popes, Archpriests did not. [82]
3. Priests, of a college
2. Metropolitan see
"Santiago was in 1120 made a metropolitan see by the pope." [83]
Metropolitan had authority over a province [84]
3. Bishops in diocese
4. Dean
5. Canon priests attached to cathedral
5. Diocesian chancellor
6. Diocesian clergy
"After 2015 ... cathedral chancellors were required to furnish their diocesan clergy with some instruction in theology."[85]
5. Treasurer
5. Precenter
4. Archdeacons of administrative districts
5. Priests in Parish
There were multiple parishes in each episcopal diocese, and dozens or hundreds in larger dioceses such as the city of Rome.
"by the year 1000 it was the priest who really emerged as the religious and even educational leader of the local church." [86]

_Proprietary Churches_

"In 1000 CE ... western Europe had not yet been clearly divided into well-defined territorial parishes with resident priests chosen, ordained, and supervised by the local ordinary, who was in turn directed by the papacy. Indeed, the parish in the year 1000 was far from that ideal, ordered, hierarchical model. Instead, many different (often competing) churches, structures, and people overlapped in the organization of local religious life." [87] "Actually, the most common type of church in the year 1000 was one founded - and governed - by a local lay lord rather than a bishop. ... It is impossible to calculate precisely how many of these churches there were, but they surely numbered in the tens of thousands. Indeed, they far outnumbered the Baptismal churches controlled by the bishops (many of which had passed into the hands of lay lords). ... Because of the force exerted by the ancient, hierarchical, episcopal Roman tradition, this model, which was based on German property law, never took root in central and southern Italy. ... Proprietary churches served very small communities, encompassing perhaps a village or two."[88]


♠ Military levels ♣ 5 ♥

1. Pope

Pope was commander of the army. [89]
Army of Rome.[90]
Army of Rome consisted of: inhabitants; small landowners in surrounding region; the magnates; the domuscultae, that is, military colonies on papal lands.
2. Superista of a Domuscultae
Domuscultae first known in Pontificate of Zacharias. Four of five domuscultae mentioned. Large agrarian estates where farmer-soldiers were responsible to a superista, a Papal official. [91]
Transformation in army structure in eighth century. (Do not have access to pages which explain what happened) [92] but presumably it changed from Byzantine structure.
2. Dukes/Post-Byzantine equivalent
Italian manpower in imperial Byzantine army "raised up a new aristocracy with increasingly assertive local interests." There was secular support for the popes' efficient administration. [93]
Within the Byzantine exarchate, dukes in theory had political and military authority in the dutchies. [94]
3. Tribunes/Counts of a numeri
Tribunes/Counts lead troop detachments called numeri. In practice, the armies of the separate dutchies within the exarch were autonomous.[95]
4. Militia leaders?
Major cities had an urban militia of adult male citizens, who would volunteer or be pressed into service. [96]
5. Individual soldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent ♥ The commanders were aristocrats.

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ absent ♥ Army of Rome consisted of farmer-soldiers from the domuscultae.[97] Major cities had an urban militia of adult male citizens, who would volunteer or be pressed into service.[98] Neither of these are professional soldiers.

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Churches, convents, monasteries. [99]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ Notaries were career bureaucrats. [100]

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Hospitals, orphanages, hospices for pilgrims. [101] Archives held in Lateran Palace with other paperwork.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥

♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ Civil judges. Bishops were a court of appeal, their decision final. [102]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred present ♥ Rome had its own magistracy. [103]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ present ♥ Consilarius, a non-papal job, was a legal adviser.[104]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Paulinius' ? aqueduct also irrigated crops. [105]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ Water channels used for fresh water in Early Medieval Italy. However, not necessarily built by state. "From the fourth century onward, in fact, water evergetism in the peninsular survived by assuming new forms. Much as was the case in ninth-century Le Mans, in late antique Italy bishops replaced secular builders of aqueducts. Indeed, by Aldric's day, Italy had developed a distinguished tradition of episcopal involvement in urban water supply. [106] In 770s CE Pope Hadrian restored four ancient aqueducts [107] Aqueduct waters made available outside church compound. Rome, Benevento, Milan benefited from aqueducts in eighth century. Byzantine Ravenna and Naples had maintained aqueducts to eighth century. [108] Aqueduct maintenance became a Papal responsibility by end of seventh century. [109]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ "Huge quantities of corn ... were shipped from the southern estates of the Church and stocked in her Roman granaries - not only corn but all manner of food." [110]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Papal revenue was spent on maintenance.[111]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Papal revenue was spent on maintenance.[112]
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Fossa Augusta. Inland to coast, Ferrara-Padua. Was it still maintained?
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ Importation of corn into Rome. [113]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥ use of mnemonic devices in Latin instruction in the late Middle Ages.
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Liber Pontificalis [114] Constitutum Constantini imperatoris (known as "Donation of Constantine", fictional historical document created to justify paper rule). [115] 817 CE Ludovicianum, example of Frankish-Papal treaty which assured military protection for the Papal state. There were earlier ones. [116]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Paulinus II of Aquileia (born c726 Premariacco). However, outside boundaries of Papal State, within Carolingian Empire. Was a priest and the patriarch of Aquileia.
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥
♠ History ♣ inferred present ♥ In Italy, there was Paul the Deacon. [117] Born, Fruili Italy 720 CE, he was the first important medieval historian. A member of the Lombard nobility. [118]
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ In Latin Christendom, this was the era of Alcuin who was based in Carolingian France, Leo the Mathematician who was the archbishop of Thessalonica. In Italy, there was Paul the Deacon. [119] Born, Fruili Italy 720 CE, he was the first important medieval historian. A member of the Lombard nobility. [120]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred present ♥ In Latin Christendom, this was the era of Alcuin who was based in Carolingian France and Leo the Mathematician who was the archbishop of Thessalonica, and the Irish churchman Vergilius of Salzburg (a geographer). Adelberger of Lombardy (daughter of the last king of the Lombards) was a known medical women who was a student of Paul the Deacon.
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred present ♥ Poems.


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred present ♥ inferred present for Exarchate of Ravenna for same region.
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Papal and Papal-Imperial coins 735-980 CE [121]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ The papacy had its own specialist couriers [122]
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Slings ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥
♠ Crossbow ♣ unknown ♥ Certainly being used in the 15th CE but it is perhaps too long a time gap to infer presence at this time: “In the Papal States Spoleto had developed a considerable arms industry and supplied crossbow bolts, shields and lances to the army.”[123]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ unknown ♥ Use unknown but we know that catapults could be used to throw fire, diseased men or animals over walls.[124]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ absent ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ absent ♥
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ Code for Lombard Kingdom.
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ Code for Lombard Kingdom.
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ Code for Lombard Kingdom.
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥
♠ Breastplates ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ unknown ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ absent ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ General reference for Western Europe 11th and 12th centuries CE: fortifications typically consisted of earth ramparts and timber palisades which were generally surrounded by dry ditches (rather than water-filled for a moat). In the early 12th century CE stone began to replace earth-and-timber defences for walls and for castles (previously often wooden).[125] Since palisades are a very ancient form of fortification we could code inferred present for the period earlier than the 12th century (when it is known they were still used).
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ General reference for Western Europe 11th and 12th centuries CE: fortifications typically consisted of earth ramparts and timber palisades which were generally surrounded by dry ditches (rather than water-filled for a moat). In the early 12th century CE stone began to replace earth-and-timber defences for walls and for castles (previously often wooden).[126] Since earth ramparts are a very ancient form of fortification we could code inferred present for the period earlier than the 12th century (when it is known they were still used).
♠ Ditch ♣ inferred present ♥ General reference for Western Europe 11th and 12th centuries CE: fortifications typically consisted of earth ramparts and timber palisades which were generally surrounded by dry ditches (rather than water-filled for a moat). In the early 12th century CE stone began to replace earth-and-timber defences for walls and for castles (previously often wooden).[127] Since ditches are a very ancient form of fortification we could code inferred present for the period earlier than the 12th century (when it is known they were still used).
♠ Moat ♣ present ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ Maintenance of Rome's walls became a Papal responsibility by end of seventh century. [128]. City wall restoration after 708 CE [129]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ KM. 847-848 CE Pope Leo IV built 3.2 KM Leonine Wall [130] after sack by Saracens of the Old St. Peter's Basilica. However, since it circumvents the city it does not count as a "long wall."
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present: 711-849 CE; present: 850-904 CE ♥ Top official - Pope - was selected and presumably the Bishops were selected, but were the 'senators' hereditary? The administrators? The Exarch? There were powerful elite families end of ninth century. In the early years of the period the Pope was elected by citizens and the army usually based on the choice of the clergy. Representatives would the certify the choice to the Exarch in Ravenna for imperial approval. However, the Exarch could make the choice himself in case of disagreement. [131] This also meant that between the end of the ninth century and the 960s, the papacy had no powerful protectors outside Italy. Political power in Rome and Lazio lay in the hands of elite families, such as the Theophylacti and other powerful Roman baronial families.[132]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “The popes are the direct, legal (Leo I) successors of the apostle Peter, who had obtained primacy among the apostles from Christ himself. The most famous of the Petrine passages is ‘You are Peter and on this rock (‘’petram’’) I shall build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against her. And I shall give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven. And whatever you shall bind upon earth will also be bound in heaven, and whatever you shall loose on earth will also be loosed in heaven’ (Matthew 16:18-19). However, even this passage was not free of ambiguity, especially in contrast with other New Testament passages that indicate equality in contrast with other New Testament passages that indicate equality among the apostles, or variations in the understanding of the term ‘rock’. For the historical development of the papacy and thus of papal primacy (implied in the western understanding), therefore, tradition precedes doctrine in importance.” [133]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ “The popes are the direct, legal (Leo I) successors of the apostle Peter, who had obtained primacy among the apostles from Christ himself. The most famous of the Petrine passages is ‘You are Peter and on this rock (‘’petram’’) I shall build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against her. And I shall give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven. And whatever you shall bind upon earth will also be bound in heaven, and whatever you shall loose on earth will also be loosed in heaven’ (Matthew 16:18-19). However, even this passage was not free of ambiguity, especially in contrast with other New Testament passages that indicate equality in contrast with other New Testament passages that indicate equality among the apostles, or variations in the understanding of the term ‘rock’. For the historical development of the papacy and thus of papal primacy (implied in the western understanding), therefore, tradition precedes doctrine in importance.” [134]

Normative ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ Jesus' message "envisages a universal society bound together by divine love in which the limited human ties of affection based on kinship, cultural identity, and self-interest give way to the unlimited love of God. It calls for an egalitarian kingdom of love without limits. Jesus likens it to a family in which all are brothers and sisters of one another and children of the one Father (‘Abba’, an informal word for father, is Jesus’ preferred name for God)." [135] However, it is worth noting that, for example, social inequality and inequality between the sexes were often justified theologically [136][137].

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “Medieval society was hierarchical, not merely in social reality but as a matter of principle. Its hierarchical character was understood in cosmological terms. It was taken for granted that the universe was designed in such a way that some of God’s creatures were intended to be at the topand some below them. Human beings were a ‘higher’ form of being than cattle. Cattle were ‘higher’ than the grass they ate. The grass was ‘higher’ than the earth it grew in. So thoroughgoing was the sense that this was how the universe worked that the nine orders of angels identified by the fifth-century Greek authors Pseudo-Dionysus began to be lined up alongside their human ‘counterparts’ on the understanding that each person’s place in heaven would be related to that of the equivalent angel. So the seraphim and cherubim, the contemplatives among the angels, would be accompanied for eternity by members of the contemplative orders, their human equivalents. In modern terms, this was like suggesting that post-men and motorcycle messengers would spend eternity in the company of ordinary angels, while diplomats and emissaries could expect to find themselves among archangels.//Within human society itself no premium was put upon equality. Until late in the Middle Ages, few appear to have seen anything wrong with the idea that there should be rulers and ruled, for hierarchical arrangements of parts within wholes were a normal way of making an organism ‘work’. A body needs a head but it also needs feet (I Corinthians 12.20). In fragmentary survivals of the teaching which was given in the cathedral school at Laon at the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth centuries, there is a discussion of the passage in Ephesians 6.5 where servants are told to obey their masters. ‘It is no sin to have a servant or to be a servant.’ It was argued at Laon that there are two reasons why ‘servitude is given by God.’ It may be a punishment for the sins of those who are slaves or servants. Or it may have a purpose of proving or testing them, so that, humbled, they may be better people.” [138]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ “Medieval society was hierarchical, not merely in social reality but as a matter of principle. Its hierarchical character was understood in cosmological terms. It was taken for granted that the universe was designed in such a way that some of God’s creatures were intended to be at the topand some below them. Human beings were a ‘higher’ form of being than cattle. Cattle were ‘higher’ than the grass they ate. The grass was ‘higher’ than the earth it grew in. So thoroughgoing was the sense that this was how the universe worked that the nine orders of angels identified by the fifth-century Greek authors Pseudo-Dionysus began to be lined up alongside their human ‘counterparts’ on the understanding that each person’s place in heaven would be related to that of the equivalent angel. So the seraphim and cherubim, the contemplatives among the angels, would be accompanied for eternity by members of the contemplative orders, their human equivalents. In modern terms, this was like suggesting that post-men and motorcycle messengers would spend eternity in the company of ordinary angels, while diplomats and emissaries could expect to find themselves among archangels.//Within human society itself no premium was put upon equality. Until late in the Middle Ages, few appear to have seen anything wrong with the idea that there should be rulers and ruled, for hierarchical arrangements of parts within wholes were a normal way of making an organism ‘work’. A body needs a head but it also needs feet (I Corinthians 12.20). In fragmentary survivals of the teaching which was given in the cathedral school at Laon at the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth centuries, there is a discussion of the passage in Ephesians 6.5 where servants are told to obey their masters. ‘It is no sin to have a servant or to be a servant.’ It was argued at Laon that there are two reasons why ‘servitude is given by God.’ It may be a punishment for the sins of those who are slaves or servants. Or it may have a purpose of proving or testing them, so that, humbled, they may be better people.” [139]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “Almsgiving and other forms of charity have played a central role in Muslim and Christian societies, especially in the Mediterranean world. [...] Indeed, one of the early markers of Christian identity was the explicit injunction among members of early Christian communities to provide alms for the poor, function taken up in the third and fourth centuries by large urban basilicas [...] These charitable functions multiplied during the urban economic crises of the fourth and fifth centuries. [...] In addition to the charity provided by basilicas in the Latin west, the Benedictine rule provided a model for monastic charity from the sixth century on in Italy as well as in the rest of Europe, when it prescribed that monks greet weary pilgrims and other travelers, wash their feet, and take them in. Even so, medieval monasteries in Italy, and elsewhere in Europe, made clear that their primary duties involved prayer for the salvation of souls rather than nourishment of the bodies of strangers. Monastic charity was itself liturgical and ritualistic, often restricted to certain feast days with deliberate limits on the types and numbers of poor assisted.” [140]

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ absent/present/unknown. Public Goods refer to anything that incurs cost to an individual or group of individuals, but that can be used or enjoyed by others who did not incur any of the cost, namely the public at large. They are non-excludable and non-rivalrous goods. Examples are roads, public drinking fountains, public parks or theatres, temples open to the public, etc.

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [141] [142] [143]

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