ItRomRg

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Dan Hoyer ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Roman Kingdom ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Rome; Kingdom of Rome; Regal Period ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 535 BCE ♥ Under the last king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. Represented by the building of the Temple of Jupiter. [1] Or after the reforms of Servius Tullius (578-535 BC) - since the last king was overthrown.


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 716-509 BCE ♥

In terms of earliest habitation, there is archaeological evidence for the permanent occupation of Rome “centuries before 754 BCE” [2] perhaps from 1000 BCE. [3] In 2014, "The daily Il Messagero quoted Patrizia Fortini, the archaeologist responsible for the Forum, as saying that a wall constructed well before the city's traditional founding date had been unearthed." Examination of ceramic material found beside the wall suggested a date "between the 9th century and the beginning of the 8th century." [4]

First king of Rome may be Numa Pompilus (716-674 BCE) and a palace found on Palatine Hill dates to the late 8th century BCE. But was Numa Pompilus really the first king? Romulus, the official founder, was mythical but could be representative of an earlier date (753 BCE?).

The Hellenisation of Latium began in the 8th Century. [5] This timeframe (730-580 BCE) was an “orientalising period” marked by increasing social stratification shown by burial evidence of wealth, armour and chariots. [6]

Not a peak date but a notable moment: the period of rule under Etruscan monarchs, beginning with Lucius Tarquinius Priscus from 616 BCE, saw a step-up in hierarchization of the Roman polity, and dates the moment when two groups known as patricians and plebians became more distinguishable. The first paving of the Roman Forum (meeting-place, market and civic centre) occurred around 625-575 BCE.[7] The first senate building, the Curia Hostilia, existed from about 600 BCE.[8] Monumental architecture was present from the end of the 7th Century[9] and included a sanctuary constructed in 580 BCE.[10] Etruscan monarchs were responsible for large building projects such as the Cloaca Maxima (sewer system), the Circus Maximus and in 535 BCE the last king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (another Etruscan) built the Temple of Jupiter.[11]

Last king is Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (534-509 BCE). He was expelled from Rome by the aristocrats who set up Rome as a Republic. [12]


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Latium - Iron Age ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Early Roman Republic ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Hellenistic Civilization ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [1,000,000-1,500,000] ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Rome ♥

♠ Language ♣ Latin ♥

General Description

The Regal Period refers to the period at the end of the Iron Age during which Rome developed as a uncleared settlement in the heart of Latium (modern-day Lazio), ruled over by 'Etruscan kings'. Although there is archaeological evidence for the permanent occupation of Rome from the Iron Age 'centuries before' the city's mythic foundation date of 754 BCE,[13] perhaps from as early as 1000 BCE,[14] we have chosen to begin this polity in 716, with the traditional death date of the city's legendary founder Romulus.[15] The city prospered during this time, which saw the development of many of the institutions - political administration, legal system, religious practices - characteristic of the later Roman Republic. The last king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (534-509 BCE), was expelled from Rome for his and his family's tyrannical excesses. In his place, the leading Roman elites established an aristocratic city-state, ushering in the Republican period.[16]

Population and political organization

By end of the Regal Period, Rome was a well-developed city-state, boasting civic infrastructure (marsh drainage, roads), political institutions (assemblies, Senate), monuments (temples), and a powerful military. It held at least one third of the area of Latium vetus (Old Latium)[17] and had a population of 20,000-50,000 people.
According to legend, Rome became a city when the eponymous founder Romulus slew his twin brother Remus, both outcasts from a nearby Latium settlement, in a contest over where to found their new city. Numa Pompilius (r. 715-673 BCE), of Sabine origin, was the next king. Pompilius is traditionally credited with establishing 'all the major religious institutions of the state, including the calendar and the priesthoods'.[18] Starting with Tarquinius Priscus (r. 616-579 BCE), Rome was ruled by a series of kings of Etruscan descent, who could thus draw on the legacy of this powerful and complex culture from north-central Italy (around modern-day Etruria). The Roman king served as chief legislator, military commander, highest judge and chief priest.[19][20] Archaeological remains found on the Palatine Hill dating to the late 8th century BCE suggest that the king lived in a palace from the earliest times. Rome's relationship with other settlements in Latium, particularly on military matters, were important.[21] The hereditary clan system (gens) formed the basis of the Roman nobility,[22] likely serving first as the king's advisors, although administrative structures gradually became more institutionalized (for example, through the establishment of a formal senate and voting assemblies) throughout the late 8th and 7th centuries BCE.
The city of Rome, with a population somewhere between 14,000 and 57,000 during this period, fared well in military and economic terms. Several kings claimed important victories over nearby settlements in Latium and Etruria, expanding Rome's sphere of influence and establishing economic connections throughout central Italy. The Via Salaria ('salt road') and the Sacra Via in Rome were in existence from the beginning of the Roman Kingdom[23] - although at this time the roads would not have been paved. A port known as Caere was situated 50 kilometres northwest of Rome.[24] The first bridge, thought to be the Pons Sublicius, may have been built in 642 BCE under Ancus Marcius.[25] Roman kings also reclaimed marshland and carried out drainage works.[26]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 1,000 ♥ [27]

By end of the Regal Period, Rome held about one third, or more, of the area of Latium Vetas. [28]

"as a consequence of Rome's urban development during the sixth century, which involved increased economic activity, a rise in population from growth and incorporation of foreigners as new citizens, and the increase in the territorial extent of the Roman state, a new military organization was introduced to take advantage of these economic, demographic, and geographical changes, and the result was a hoplite phalanx recruited from new territorial districts called tribes."[29]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [20,000-50,000] ♥

20,000-25,000 (Beloch). 40,000-50,000 (De Martino). 35,000 at most (Ampolo). 25,000-40,000 (Cornell). [30] Previous estimate: {[20,000-30,000]; [40,000-50,000]}

"as a consequence of Rome's urban development during the sixth century, which involved increased economic activity, a rise in population from growth and incorporation of foreigners as new citizens, and the increase in the territorial extent of the Roman state, a new military organization was introduced to take advantage of these economic, demographic, and geographical changes, and the result was a hoplite phalanx recruited from new territorial districts called tribes."[31]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [4,000-16,000]: 700 BCE; [14,250-57,000]: 600 BCE ♥

[4,000-16,000]: 700 BCE; [14,250-57,000]: 650 BCE

100,000: 509 BCE [32] In this period city was growing from a low baseline. Can reasonably infer population was less than 100,000 in 600 BCE. In the 150 years between c700 BCE and 550 BCE Rome acquired c200ha. On the basis of urban area, and a roughly proportional decrease based on Modelksi's 509 BCE estimate (we should remember that as cities acquire more area they generally acquire greater population density), we could infer a population in the region of 15,000-25,000 for 700 BCE.

The highest officers in the Roman military system were not professionals. Not until 406 BCE did "Romans introduce pay for military service." [33] This is the earliest possible start date for professional soldiers.

Urban area of Rome[34]

early 8th Century BCE: 50 ha. 2500-10,000 using an estimate of 50-200 people per hectare.
late 8th Century BCE: 80 ha. 4000-16,000 using an estimate of 50-200 people per hectare. Previous estimate: 15,000-20,000.
mid 6th Century: 285 ha. 14,250-57,000 using an estimate of 50-200 people per hectare.

Previous estimates: [4,000-16,000]: 700 BCE; [60,000-90,000]: 600 BCE

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [2-3] ♥

1. Rome.

2. Satellite town.
3. Villages (need to be checked).

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 3 ♥

Before the Roman Principate there was no formal bureaucracy. The old Roman treasury - the aerarium Saturni - was housed in the basement of the Temple of Saturn [35] The state treasury of the Roman Republic was kept in the custody of the priesthood inside the temple of Saturn, and was managed by elected aristocratic officials called quaestors.[36] Work on this temple is only thought to have been begun by the last king of the Regal Period, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. During the Roman Kingdom, therefore, the treasury must have been held somewhere else; one might speculate within the court of the monarch. King Servius Tullius (578-535 BCE) - presumably with the resources of his court - may have used this to administer the first census of Rome.

1. King

"while the urban community at Rome may have begun to develop a distinct, community-based identity from the eighth century onwards, the gentilicial elite of Rome, even as late as the early sixth century, would probably be best characterized as simply 'Latin,' or possibily even 'central Italian'. The presence of this pan-central Italian gentilicial aristocracy would have had a dramatic impact on how Rome interracted with other Latin settlements as it may have blurred man of the assumed settlement-based divisions, particularly with regard to military matters, which seem to have been almost entirely under the purview of the more mobile gentilicial elite."[37]
"After Romulus, the position of king was held by men of Sabine, Latin and Etruscan extraction. The kingship was not hereditary."[38]

_Central government_

2. Senate and an assembly.[39]
from tradition we can "infer an early elective monarchy, the king being elective by vote of the heads of all the Roman families; (i.e., voting under the form of suffrage known as the comitia curiata), and having as merely advisory council, the Senate."[40]
2. Senior magistrates of the Assembly (comitia curiata) [41]
Rome was similar to a Greek polis.[42]
3. Scribes (inferred - working for senior magistrates)

_Clan system (gens)_

2. Tribal leader
Tribes were the basis of political and military organization in middle 7th century BCE.[43]
The gens became established in Latium before c600 BCE.[44]
The gens system was reformed under Servius Tullius (578-534 BCE).[45] New tribes were created to replace the old three tribes with the division based on wealth. [46]


♠ Religious levels ♣ [1-2] ♥

Lavinium was an important religious centre and place of pilgrimage. The Penates, the cult of the ancestral gods was located here. [47] Cult of Vesta and Capitoline Jupiter attested from middle 7th Century.[48] "The reforms of Servius Tullius, as presented in the literary sources, represented a seismic shift in the organization of Roman society, changing not only how the early Roman army was recruited and equipped, but also the social, politicial, and possibly religious divisions of early Roman society."[49]

1.King (ritual specialist along with other functions; e.g. Numa noted as founding many Roman ritual practices during Regnal period)

public auspices rituals "formed the basis of regal and then, in the Republic, magisterial power"[50]

2. Priest in temple

♠ Military levels ♣ [4-5] ♥ "the military organization of the thirty curiae and three archaic tribes can perhaps best be dated to the period of Rome's early unification, during the second half of the seventh century B.C".[51] "while the urban community at Rome may have begun to develop a distinct, community-based identity from the eighth century onwards, the gentilicial elite of Rome, even as late as the early sixth century, would probably be best characterized as simply 'Latin,' or possibily even 'central Italian'. The presence of this pan-central Italian gentilicial aristocracy would have had a dramatic impact on how Rome interracted with other Latin settlements as it may have blurred man of the assumed settlement-based divisions, particularly with regard to military matters, which seem to have been almost entirely under the purview of the more mobile gentilicial elite."[52] "The reforms of Servius Tullius, as presented in the literary sources, represented a seismic shift in the organization of Roman society, changing not only how the early Roman army was recruited and equipped, but also the social, politicial, and possibly religious divisions of early Roman society."[53]

1. King

2. Leaders of the three tribes
Three tribes: Tities, Ramnes, Luceres, each subdivided into 10 curiae, formed the basis of military organization. [54]
3. Leaders of a curiae
Three tribes: Tities, Ramnes, Luceres, each subdivided into 10 curiae, formed the basis of military organization. [55]
4. Individual soldier


1. King

2. Leaders of a century
The Centuriate organisation of Servius Tullius (578-534 BCE) had five categories based on wealth. Century was the basic unit. Each curia had 100 men. [56]
3. Leaders of a curiae
4. Individual soldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ absent ♥ The highest officers in the Roman military system were not professionals.

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ absent ♥ Not until 406 BCE did "Romans introduce pay for military service." [57] This is the earliest possible start date for professional soldiers.

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ Early Roman cults were funded by regular public offerings, large individual donations, and payment for services. The hierarchy could also profit from land ownership. Professionalism of the priesthood likely pre-dates the Roman era as similar patterns are evident in Greek and Egyptian civilization. When the state provided gifts, it was often in the form of a lavish construction, such as a new temple. Examples: priests of Isis were "full-time religious professionals" [58]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ absent ♥ Before the Roman Principate there was no formal bureaucracy. The old Roman treasury - the aerarium Saturni - was housed in the basement of the Temple of Saturn [59] The state treasury of the Roman Republic was kept in the custody of the priesthood inside the temple of Saturn, and was managed by elected aristocratic officials called quaestors.[60] Work on this temple is only thought to have been begun by the last king of the Regal Period, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. During the Roman Kingdom, therefore, the treasury must have been held somewhere else; one might speculate within the court of the monarch. King Servius Tullius (578-535 BCE) - presumably with the resources of his court - may have used this to administer the first census of Rome.

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ There was no examination system.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥ Roman administration was typically formed out of a class of hereditary aristocrats. Within the army, distinctions between classes of legionary and distinctions between age and experience were not eliminated until Marius in 105 BCE. [61]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ The first senate building, the Curia Hostilia, existed from about 600 BCE. [62] The first paving of the Roman Forum occurred around 575-625 BCE. [63] The first coin minted in Rome occurred about 269 BCE (one in Neapolis produced coins slightly earlier, around 281 BCE) and the first state archives was created in 78 BCE. Other possible buildings include: granaries and storehouses.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ [present; absent]: 716-600 BCE; inferred present: 600-509 BCE ♥ A formal legal code was first founded in the Twelve Tables of 450-449 BCE. Law thereafter was based on precedent. Our sources of knowledge of Roman law include the forensic speeches of Cicero; the Institutes of Gaius textbook (from 160 CE); and, much later, the sixth century CE Corpus Ius Civilis of Justinian. Wax tablets and papyri (contracts and wills etc.) also provide information on Roman law. [64] However, before this time restrictions on funerary extravagance, from the start of the 6th century, may suggest the Twelve Tables laws (of the Early Republic) codified an existing body of law and legal practices. [65] At which time in the history of the polity did it become present?

♠ Judges ♣ absent ♥ Professional judges did not exist until the Roman Dominate although at that time their precise role vis-a-vis that of Imperial officials is a matter of debate.[66] Before this time there were no judges as a distinct profession in the Roman system of law. Local magistrates dealt with local matters, provincial governors dealt with provincial matters, and the praetors often dealt with cases in Rome. The Roman people could be duly convened as a final court of appeal in cases involving citizens.

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥ During the Roman Dominate administration of justice was "thoroughly bureaucratized" and "regular courts, special courts were established to deal with particular matters and categories of persons." [67] Before this time there was no specialised court building. Courts could be held in the basilicas[68] (introduced by the 3rd Century BCE[69]) where a provincial governor could an hold audience or in the Roman forum. Basilicas were multi-purpose buildings a place for banking and money-changing and town hall activities. The forum was a multi-purpose building which had existed since the Roman Kingdom.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥ Law specialists first existed during the Principate when they commanded fees for their expertise. We know this because Emperor Claudius attempted to "limit the fees of advocates, which had become intolerably heavy" to protect "women and other helpless litigants from the rapacity of their lawyers." [70] The first law school in Rome, for persons who wished to pursue career in the Imperial civil service, was established late second century CE. "Professional" lawyers replaced orators during the Roman Dominate period.[71]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ Possibly unnecessary within Italy at this time due to sufficient rainfall. [72]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ absent ♥ A pipe network that connects the drinking water to individual settlements is not known to exist / not thought to be present. First aqueduct commissioned by Appius Claudius Caecus 312 BCE. "The wall, made from blocks of volcanic tuff, appeared to have been built to channel water from an aquifer under the Capitoline hill" [73]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Cities of Latium were Hellenistic (Hellenisation of Latium beginning in the 8th Century [74]): walls, streets, market places, temples, monumental buildings.” [75] [76] The multi-function forum building also functioned as a marketplace.
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ Stored in the forum building. Rome's mayoral office which supervised the import of grain, dates back to early days of the Roman Republic. [77] "The Republican stages of the Roman attempt to deal with storage problems are to some extent lost, because the material remains of most of the warehouses we have found belong to the Imperial period, but there are some clues." [78] From literary sources [Livy] it seems that the major development of Rome's river port and its attendant warehouses did not take place until the early second century B.C. Earlier the old Forum Boarium and Forum Holitorium in the centre of Rome seem to have coped with the main flow of imports which had probably come down the Tiber from the Italian hills." [79]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ The Via Salaria, “salt road,” and the Sacra Via in Rome, were in existence from the beginning of the Roman Kingdom. [80] The first paved road was the probably the Appian Way which dates to 312 BCE. In about 450 BCE the laws of the Twelve Tables, dated to approximately 450 BCE, issued regulations for the dimensions of roads. So at least from 450 BCE the pre-paved roads had maintenance work done of them. Due to the importance of the "salt road", however, it is likely this mud track had maintenance work during the Roman Kingdom.
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ The first bridge thought to be the Pons Sublicius possibly in built 642 BCE under Ancus Marcius.
♠ Canals ♣ absent ♥ The first canal is thought to have been built by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (consul 187 BCE) to drain the lower Po region.
♠ Ports ♣ {absent; present} ♥ There was a port known as Caere 50km north west of Rome during the Roman Kingdom. [81] A port is thought to have been built under Ancus Marcius. However, another source says: "The port of Cosa, the earliest Roman port thus far known, was founded in 273 B.C." [82]


Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ Art. E.g. Black-figure pottery painting.
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Western alphabet developed c800 BCE and by 700 BCE had arrived in Italy. [83]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Western alphabet developed c800 BCE and by 700 BCE had arrived in Italy. [84]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Servius Tullius (578-534 BCE) carried out the first Roman census. [85]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ First Roman calendar thought to be the 8th century BCE "Calendar of Romulus." Numa Pompilius reformed this calendar in 713 BCE>
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Religious inscriptions discovered at Lavinium. [86]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ The Sibyl of Cumae reportedly offered nine books of prophecies to the Roman Kingdom monarch Tarquin. Three books were purchased and kept in the Temple of Jupiter.
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Government related instructional literature?
♠ History ♣ ♥ Intellectual culture and Greek cultural inheritance might make this a possibility.
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥ Intellectual culture and Greek cultural inheritance might make this a possibility.
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥ Presence of weights and measures, intellectual culture and Greek cultural inheritance might make this a possibility.
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥ Intellectual culture and Greek cultural inheritance might make this a possibility.


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Salt was used as payment to soldiers from 406 BCE and was an essential commodity with the "Salt Road" being in existence from the start of the Roman Kingdom period.
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥ Greek coinage was present in Rome and the first Roman coin was based on the Greek style. Coin production spread from Asia minor, where it originated in the late 7th BCE, "to Greek colonies in southern Italy by 500 BC. These coins came to be made of pure silver formed between obverse and reverse dies. Bronze coins were first minted in the Greek areas of southern Italy."[87] However this was after this polity's temporal span, currency not present in this period.
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ Rome produced its first coin about 281 BCE, a Greek-style silver didrachma, minted in Neapolis (and twelve years later coins were minted in Rome.) [88]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ The Romans did not use paper currency in any period.

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥ "Before Augustus, Romans wanting to post a letter had to find a courier wherever they could, and work out the arrangements for delivery ad hoc.[89]
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥ No general postal service until the Cursus Publicus, established by Augustus during the Principate.
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥ No general postal service until the Cursus Publicus, established by Augustus during the Principate.

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Copper is used to make bronze.
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ [90] "Whereas clansmen were best equipped for and accustomed to cattle raids and skirmishes, hoplites were armoured spearmen who fought shoulder to shoulder in a phalanx formation. These citizen-soldiers were now protected by helmet, corselet and greaves, all of bronze, and wielded a long spear and large shield."[91]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Sword blades made of bronze iron being "comparatively rare." [92] Used in spearheads.[93]
♠ Steel ♣ inferred present ♥ "By the time of the Roman Republic (c.509—44BC), the use of steel in the manufacture of swords was well advanced and Roman swordsmiths smelted iron ore and carbon in a bloomery furnace (the predecessor of the blast furnace)." [94] However, this source is not very academic, so a better source is needed to be sure.

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ [95] "Other weapons included the javelin" [96]
♠ Atlatl ♣ inferred absent ♥ RA couldn't find relevant information, but don't appear in book on warfare [97]. Expert advice is needed.
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ According to a military historian (can a Roman expert confirm whether the data applies to this polity?) many ancient armies used slingers. Vulnerable to counter-attacks, slinger units were usually small and used at the start of the battle. Because of the training required to produce and effective slinger they were often hired mercenaries.[98] Stones. [99] Perhaps carried by Servian classes IV and V.[100]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Arrowheads found in earlier period. Expert advice is needed as to whether bows used during the Roman Kingdom period were used in a military capacity.
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in earlier periods.[101] RA couldn't find relevant information, but don't appear in book on warfare [102]. Expert advice is needed.
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not at this time: "the hand-held crossbow was invented by the Chinese, in the fifth century BC, and probably came into the Roman world in the first century AD, where it was used for hunting."[103] The crossbow also developed after the Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE.[104]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ In Anatolia siege warfare was mentioned in Old Hittite records.[105] Presumably at this time the catapult was not used? In India, according to Jain texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone".[106] Marsden (1969) said archaeological records exist before the 4th century BCE.[107] The Achaemenids (c400 BCE?) are assumed to have had the catapult because the Macedonians did.[108] Pollard and Berry (2012) say torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE.[109] The Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE which encouraged the development of large tension-powered weapons.[110]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ The counter-weight trebuchet was first used by the Byzantines in 1165 CE.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet.

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ An aklys isa small club, sometimes with spikes on one end and often attached to the arm with a leather strap, estimated to have been used by the Osci tribes of prehistoric Italy.[111] Illustration of a Villanovan chieftain and weapons does not show a war club. [112]. Don't appear in book on warfare [113]. Expert advice is needed.
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ "Other weapons included ... the axe" [114]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "Other weapons included ... the dagger." [115]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Hoplite was equipment used from about 600 BCE. [116]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Spears [117] Hoplite was equipment used from about 600 BCE. [118] "Hoplite panoplies have been discovered in the so-called Tomb of the Warrior at Vulci, dating to c. 530 B.C., as well as in a tomb at Lanuvium in Latium dating to the early fifth century" (citing Torelli 1989 and Drummond).[119]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ Lances were buried along with the remains of an elite male at Castel di Decima [120].

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ inferred absent ♥ RA couldn't find relevant information, but don't appear in book on warfare [121]. Expert advice is needed.
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred absent ♥ RA couldn't find relevant information, but don't appear in book on warfare [122]. Expert advice is needed.
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ [123]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ Ash-wood spears. Wooden shields. [124]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Leather lined shields. Linen and composite corselet armour. [125] "Hoplite panoplies have been discovered in the so-called Tomb of the Warrior at Vulci, dating to c. 530 B.C., as well as in a tomb at Lanuvium in Latium dating to the early fifth century" (citing Torelli 1989 and Drummond).[126]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Round shields used by Servius class I (wealthiest). Oblong shields used by classes II-IV. [127]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Worn by classes I-III. [128] "Disc-and-stud helmet (Bologna, Museo Civico Archeologico) from the Necropoli sotto la Rocca-Lippi la Tomba Principesca N.85, 7th century BC ... made of a wickerwork cap reinforced with bronze discs, the gaps between these discs being filled with bronze studs."[129] - example from Lippi Necropolis, Verruchio. "Hoplite panoplies have been discovered in the so-called Tomb of the Warrior at Vulci, dating to c. 530 B.C., as well as in a tomb at Lanuvium in Latium dating to the early fifth century" (citing Torelli 1989 and Drummond).[130]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ Worn by class I. [131] Probably "based upon the elaborate poncho-type cuirass discovered at Narce (Tomb 43) in Etruria." [132] "Hoplite panoplies have been discovered in the so-called Tomb of the Warrior at Vulci, dating to c. 530 B.C., as well as in a tomb at Lanuvium in Latium dating to the early fifth century" (citing Torelli 1989 and Drummond).[133]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ Greaves, worn by classes I-II. [134] "Hoplite panoplies have been discovered in the so-called Tomb of the Warrior at Vulci, dating to c. 530 B.C., as well as in a tomb at Lanuvium in Latium dating to the early fifth century" (citing Torelli 1989 and Drummond).[135]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Possible. Already introduced by the Assyrians.
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred absent: 716-700 BCE; suspected unknown: 699-601 BCE; present: 600-509 BCE ♥ By 600 BCE early Greeks and Romans had introduced the bronze cast bell muscle cuirass.[136] This is a military historian's opinion. Do Roman specialists agree?

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ RA couldn't find relevant information. Expert advice is needed
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ inferred absent ♥ RA couldn't find relevant information. Expert advice is needed
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred absent ♥ RA couldn't find relevant information. Expert advice is needed

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ This concept of defense, ditch and mound, is an old one, as the defenses of Ardea, Decima, Acqua Acetosa, Laurentina and Gabii demonstrate. [137]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ This concept of defense, ditch and mound, is an old one, as the defenses of Ardea, Decima, Acqua Acetosa, Laurentina and Gabii demonstrate. [138]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred absent ♥ no fortresses to moat?
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred present ♥ "Romans were so fond of the texture effect of opus quadratum that they continued to use this technique even after having developed more effective kinds of masonry." [139]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ unknown ♥ opus caementicium - Roman concrete. Stone walls have been dated to the 8th Century. [140]Archaeologist Patrizia Fortini dated an earlier wall from nearby ceramic remains "between 9th century and the beginning of the 8th century." [141] There was no complete fortification of Rome in the 6th Century. Parts had walls. [142]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ KM. There were no long walls.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine; Edward A L Turner ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ present ♥ King could not declare war without the approval of the Senate and Curiate Assembly. The Senate "judged the legislation and actions of the king to make sure that they accorded both with the constitution and with traditional custom; while the Senate seems to have ratified just about everything the king decided, they still exercised an important check on monarchical power. In this respect, the early Roman Senate served largely the same function that the Supreme Court serves in the United States."[143] "The literary evidence is unanimous on the existence of the rex and the inscription from the archaic cippus beneath the Lapis Niger in the Forum Romanum provides archaeological support for its presence in Rome from at least the sixth century and likely earlier. The power of the rex, particularly as embodied by the grant of imperium..."[144]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Gentilicial elite status was inherited certainly by 509 BCE (perhaps should coded inferred present for the beginning of the period). "After Romulus, the position of king was held by men of Sabine, Latin and Etruscan extraction. The kingship was not hereditary."[145] "the clear division in Roman society between the gens-based aristocracy and the settled, proto-urban and urban populations, in addition to the dual nature of Rome's 'patrician' and 'plebeian' elements during the early Repbulic (albeit variously construed) hint that Rome, and Latium more generally, was composed of two distinct groups."[146] "while the urban community at Rome may have begun to develop a distinct, community-based identity from the eighth century onwards, the gentilicial elite of Rome, even as late as the early sixth century, would probably be best characterized as simply 'Latin,' or possibily even 'central Italian'. The presence of this pan-central Italian gentilicial aristocracy would have had a dramatic impact on how Rome interracted with other Latin settlements as it may have blurred man of the assumed settlement-based divisions, particularly with regard to military matters, which seem to have been almost entirely under the purview of the more mobile gentilicial elite."[147]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred present ♥ Kings acting as priests and augurs to assess divine pleasure in their activities

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ "And, with the exception of the founders - Aeneas, Romulus and perhaps Latinus (the mythical king of the Latins) - men did not become gods, either when alive or after death; even these three exceptions are equivocal, because it is not clear how far they themselves became gods, or how far they became identified with gods which already existed (Aeneas with Indiges, Romulus with Quirinus, Latinus with Jupiter Latiaris)." [148]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Although archaeological evidence declines substantially during this period, archaic Latium’s kinship-based, gentilicial elite seem to have formed the basis for what might be dubbed a “proto-patrician” aristocracy in Rome, which is also evident in the literary record for the period.32 It is always hazardous to ascribe these types of labels to early groups but, looking at the behavior of the patrician aristocracy in the literary evidence and its strong association with kinship and hierarchy (which even their name declares), the connection is plausible at the very least. Although various developments, which will be discussed later, led to this regional aristocracy becoming increasingly sedentary during the late sixth and early fifth centuries, the “proto-patricians” remained at least potentially mobile with an extramural identity, and dominated the region’s warfare throughout the archaic period. Conversely, the settled, community-based population of the lower socio-economic classes may have ultimately developed into what could be plausibly called the “proto-plebeians.” Again, the use of this label and the connection to the ple- beians of the middle and late Republic is extremely problematic, but the behavior of this group does seem to bear a resemblance to the early behavior of the historical plebeians. These archaic “proto-plebeians,” for whom kinship-based identification seems to have assumed an increasingly secondary role by the late sixth century, likely represented the same population which had occupied Rome in the previous centuries. With a focus on community-based, agrarian principles (along with growing indus- trial capabilities) and maintaining strong associations with particular pieces of land, the plebeians operated along completely different lines from Rome’s gentilicial elite." [149]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Although archaeological evidence declines substantially during this period, archaic Latium’s kinship-based, gentilicial elite seem to have formed the basis for what might be dubbed a “proto-patrician” aristocracy in Rome, which is also evident in the literary record for the period.32 It is always hazardous to ascribe these types of labels to early groups but, looking at the behavior of the patrician aristocracy in the literary evidence and its strong association with kinship and hierarchy (which even their name declares), the connection is plausible at the very least. Although various developments, which will be discussed later, led to this regional aristocracy becoming increasingly sedentary during the late sixth and early fifth centuries, the “proto-patricians” remained at least potentially mobile with an extramural identity, and dominated the region’s warfare throughout the archaic period. Conversely, the settled, community-based population of the lower socio-economic classes may have ultimately developed into what could be plausibly called the “proto-plebeians.” Again, the use of this label and the connection to the ple- beians of the middle and late Republic is extremely problematic, but the behavior of this group does seem to bear a resemblance to the early behavior of the historical plebeians. These archaic “proto-plebeians,” for whom kinship-based identification seems to have assumed an increasingly secondary role by the late sixth century, likely represented the same population which had occupied Rome in the previous centuries. With a focus on community-based, agrarian principles (along with growing indus- trial capabilities) and maintaining strong associations with particular pieces of land, the plebeians operated along completely different lines from Rome’s gentilicial elite." [150]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [151] [152] [153]

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