ItRomMR

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Dan Hoyer ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Middle Roman Republic ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Middle Roman Republic ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 133 BCE ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 264-133 BCE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Early Roman Republic ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Late Roman Republic ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Roman ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Rome ♥

♠ Language ♣ Latin; Greek ♥ Indoeuropean, Italic. Latin and Greek, Italic languages within Italy itself, such as Etruscan or Oscan. Map of languages in pre-Roman Italy which shows the then distribution of Etruscan and Oscan languages [1]. Latin, Osco-Umbrian, Venetic, Messapian (Stearns 2001). "In Africa, Punic was widely spoken as well as Latin, and in a famous passage of The City of God Augustine reminds the reader that the imperious Roman capital had not only placed the yoke of dominion on defeated peoples; it had also imposed Latin as the official language (Augustine, The City of God, 19, 7)."[2]

General Description

The last of the Roman kings, the tyrannical Lucius Tarquinius Superbus ('the Arrogant'), was expelled by a revolt of some of the leading Roman aristocrats in 509 BCE. Vowing never again to allow a single person to amass so much authority, the revolutionaries established in place of the monarchy a republican system of governance, featuring a senate composed of aristocratic men and a series of elected political and military officials. The Roman Republic was a remarkably stable and successful polity, lasting from 509 BCE until it was transformed into an imperial state under Augustus in 31 BCE (though the exact date is debated, as this was not a formal transformation). We divide the Republic into an early (509-264 BCE), a middle (264-133 BCE), and a late (133-31 BCE) period.
During the 3rd century BCE, Rome fought two separate wars (264-241 BCE and 218-201 BCE) against the Punic people, inhabitants of a former Phoenician colony in North Africa, Sicily, and southern Spain. The latter conflict featured a bitter contest against the famous Punic general Hannibal, who nearly defeated the Romans on his dramatic march through Italy from 218 to 216 BCE. However, Rome recovered, won control of Punic holdings in Sicily and Spain, and established what were essentially vassal kingdoms in North Africa. In the early 2nd century BCE, Rome became embroiled in another series of wars in Greece, Macedonia, and Anatolia. The 3rd and 2nd centuries were a somewhat chaotic time in the eastern Mediterranean, following the fragmentation of Alexander the Great's Macedonian Empire after his death in 323 BCE. Alexander's Empire had essentially dissolved into a series of successor states, which engaged in near-constant warfare in their attempts to expand at the others' expense.[3] By 148 BCE, at the conclusion of the fourth and final Macedonian War, Rome was either in possession of or was firmly established as hegemon over the entire Mediterranean basin, from Spain in the west to Anatolia in the east, and France in the north to Libya and Egypt in the south. This position brought new territory along with a flood of new peoples, culture, and wealth from the ancient civilizations in Greece, Egypt, and Anatolia. By the end of the Middle Republic period, Rome was virtually unchallenged by external enemies, although this newfound wealth and power was accompanied by the period of internal turmoil that characterized the Late Republic.

Population and political organization

Rome during the Republican period possessed no written constitution, but was governed largely through the power and prestige of the Senate, with a clear respect for precedent and for maintaining Rome's traditions.[4] A primary goal of the early Republic was to establish clear checks on the power of any single ruler - the military office of chief commander was in fact split between two generals (consuls), while the chief priestly and legislative posts were split among different people (individuals were restricted from holding multiple offices at once) - and popular assemblies voted on new laws.
Romans of this period did not distinguish between what is today termed 'secular' and 'sacred' authority; although individual magistracies had distinct functions, the same person often held both religious and political offices over the course of their lifetime, as they were thought to be part of essentially the same sphere of governance. The Republic featured a substantial array of religious offices and institutions intended to determine the will of the gods or to please them through the proper performance of rituals and the maintenance of large public temples.[5] These public auspices were the basis of magisterial power in the Republic.[6] Auspices were sometimes taken by consuls and other officials, for example before important military engagements,[7] but were mainly managed by specialist elected priests and full-time priestesses (such as the Vestal Virgins) and other priestly offices supported by the state.[8]
The Middle Roman Republic saw many firsts in Rome's economic development. The first paved road was the likely the military road to Capua known as the Appian Way, commissioned around 312 BCE. The first Roman coins (large cast bronze coins) appear around 270 BCE, followed by struck bronze and silver coins imitating Greek forms.[9][10]​​​​ This period also saw a further population increase in the total population of Roman-controlled Italy to between about three and five million people, with Rome itself likely supporting over 200,000 people by the end of the 3rd century BCE.[11]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [130,000-730,000] ♥ KM2. In 265 BCE Roman territory was approximately 50,000 square miles and still growing.[12]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [3,500,000-4,000,000] ♥

3,750,000 around 220 BCE. [13]

"Roman and Italian pool of men on which Rome could draw was of the order of 1-2 million." [14] Crawford's reference is to men only. Including women, old people and children the population may have been about the level suggested by Dupuy and Dupuy.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 210,000: 200 BCE; 400,000: 100 BCE ♥ Rome.

Rome (reported census tallies) [15] census numbers refer to state, not city, and even then not the full population. ideally we should use scholar reconstructions here.

c250,000: 300 BCE
c210,000: 200 BCE
c400,000: 100 BCE


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 5 ♥

1. Capital 'Rome'

2. Provincial capitals
3. tributary communities, not necessarily urbanized
4. village/vici
5. pagi (rural settlements). Hierarchy varied with population density.

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [3-4] ♥

Before the Roman Principate there was no formal bureaucracy. The old Roman treasury - the aerarium Saturni - was housed in the basement of the Temple of Saturn [16] The state treasury of the Roman Republic was kept in the custody of the priesthood inside the temple of Saturn, and was managed by elected aristocratic officials called quaestors.[17]

1. Consuls (two)

presided over the Senate
(minimum 42 years old) both also commanders. Elected by comitia centuriata, an aristocratic assembly.
Until 363 CE consuls may have been called praetors [18].
Two consuls, appointed for one year terms.[19]

_Governing institutions_

1. Senators in the Senate

Three hundred senators (no minimum age) elected for life, and ten tribunes to represent plebians (created 471 BCE).
2. Quaestors in the State treasury
Treasury called aerarium or aerarium Saturni (treasury of Saturn). This was used for "depositing cash and archives of the Roman state and was situated in the temple of Saturn below the Capitol. It was controlled by the quaestors under the general supervision of the Senate."[20] This treasury still existed during the empire period when revenues "were increasingly diverted into the fiscus (imperial treasury). The aerarium eventually became the treasury of the city of Rome."[21]
elected position. "financial and administrative officials who maintained public records, administered the treasury (aerarium), acted as paymasters accompanying generals on campaigns and were financial secretaries to governors."[22] In 2nd century BCE the quaestorship (a provincial appointment?) "was an entry-level office; it had limited powers, and in this period was usually held around age 30."[23]
3. Assistants or scribes?
3. Equites managerial class who hold public contracts
The equites, the plebeian "middle class", "were also able to take on public contracts, such as road building and supplying equipment to the army."[24]
4. Workers for Equites

1. Censors (two)

elected position. Two magistrates "that involved some especially important sacral and civic duties".[25] The office of the censor (censorship) from 443 BCE but not always present were two officials who enrolled citizens into military service.[26]

1. Aediles (two)

elected by comitia tributa. "Two plebeian magistrates administered temple of Ceres, function later "extended to public buildings and archives (of the plebiscita and senatus consulta). From 367 BC two curule aediles were elected from the patricians. The plebeian and curule aediles had similar functions at Rome; they were in charge of the maintenance and repair of public buildings (such as temples, roads and aqueducts), of markets (especially weights and measures), of the annona (to the time of Julius Caesar), and of public games and festivals (to the time of Augustus, when games were transferred to praetors)."[27]

1. Praetors (six?)

elected by comitia centuriata. "In 366 BC the praetor urbanus (city praetor) was introduced, who was almost exclusively concerned with the administration of law at Rome. The praetor ... was the supreme civil judge. By the middle republic the praetors' powers were restricted to law and justice... By 241 BC a second praetor ... was established to deal with legal cases in which one or both parties were foreigners. ... there were eight by 80 BC. Praetors issued annual edicts that were an important source of Roman law."[28] "A third magistracy, the praetorship, was also established in 367."[29] The first plebeian praetor was in 336 BCE.[30]


_ Provincial administration _

2. Provincial governors
3. quaestors
2. Municipal government
3. Decurions in the townships
4. Scribes?
2. Client rulers and Colonies
Colonies of citizens - 8 coastal by 264 BCE. Latin colonies established by military. They had a devolved government modelled on the system at Rome. [31]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 4 ♥ [32][33] [34]

1. Pontifex maximus

2. Colleges (flamines, augurs, pontifices, vestals)
Three colleges of religious officials. 1. augurs 2. decemviri sacris faciundis 3. pontifices
3. high priests of imperial cult in provinces
4. priests for a deity (running a specific temple or sanctuary)
"Freelance" religious officials (soothsayers, oracles, seers, etc). This hierarchy refers to the state religion only.


Six Vestals, appointd by pontifex maximus. Girls 6-10 with two living parents served 30 years during which time had to remain chaste. After 30 released and free to marry. Duties included: tend sacred fire and sacred objects "on which the survival of Rome depended (such as the 'palladium')"; making salt cakes used at sacrifices; various rituals and ceremonial appearances. Vestals had unique "old-fashioned and heavy" costumes and impressive hairstyles "which other women only wore on their wedding".

"Because a vestal's person was sacrosanct, she could not be executed. Instead, she was entombed in an underground chamber with a bed, a lamp, and some food and water, and left to die. Male accomplices were publicly flogged to death."[35]

"The vestal virgins were responsible for maintaining the temple of Vesta and performing the rites of the goddess. They ensured that her holy flame, said to have been brought from Troy, was not extingished."[36]

The vestal virgins had many privileges: "Wills and treaties were in their keeping, and they themselves could make a will. They could conduct business in their own name. They could give evidence in court without taking an oath. ... If they accidentally met a criminal on his way to execution, he was spared."[37]; "any injury to them was punishable by death; they could own and administer their own property ...; when they went out they were preceded by a lictor and had complete right of way on the streets; they could even drive in carriages within the city limits (otherwise only permitted to empresses)."[38]; given prominent seats at games.[39]

♠ Military levels ♣ 6 ♥

"The earliest contemporary description of a Roman legion was written by the Greek writer Polybius in c.150-120 BC. He describes a military organization that is distinctively Roman, and specifically refers to it as a 'legion'. It consisted of 4,200 infantry (5,000 in times of emergency), subdivided into units of 120 or 60 men called maniples ('handfuls'), and so modern scholars often refer to it as the 'manipular' legion, to distinguish it from later legions organized in larger subunits called cohorts." "It perhaps emerged in the 4th century BC (as Livy suggests), due to problems the Romans encountered fighting against enemies who fought in looser formations than the phalanx and in rougher terrain, to which the phalanx was unsuited."[40]

1. Two Consuls, field commanders. [41]

2. Quaestors, senior officers. [42]
3. Legion (4,200 men) lead by six Tribunes
"Polybius (6.22-23; 25) describes how the legion in this period was divided into four types of infantry. There were three different groups of heavy infantry: 1,200 hastati ('spearmen'), 1,200 principes ('leading men') and 600 triarii ('third line men')."[43]
Legion "headed by six officers called tribunes, who had to have completed a minimum of five or ten years' military service before appointment."[44]
4. Maniple (120 or 60 men) commanded by two Centurions
"The hastati and principes were divided into ten maniples of 120 men, the triarii into ten of 60 men. The velites were also organized into ten subunits, and assigned to the heavy infantry.
"The officers who commanded the maniples, two for each, were centurions, elected by the soldiers themselves."[45]
5. Two Optio
Page 16 Pollard and Berry (2012): an "optio" is present in graphic but not described in text. [46]
6. Individual soldiers

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ absent ♥ The highest officers in the Roman military system were usually senators not professionals. There were, however, professional junior officers at least from the Roman Principate.

"Typically the men who commanded armies and legions were senators. There were no military specialists in Roman government and no imperial high command. All senators alternated brief periods of military command with administrative posts, participation in domestic politics and careers as legal advocates. As military commanders they were, to a great extent, amateurs, even though most did a brief spell as a junior officer (tribune) in a legion. They would have depended on the professional junior officers (tribunes and centurions) as well as the training and discipline of the legionaries themselves to win battles.""[47]

"Tribunes, like the legionary legate (commander), were drawn from Rome's social and political elite, the senatorial and equestrian orders, and were not professional soldiers. They alternated military service with political, judicial and administrative duties."[48]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ {present; absent}: 200 BCE ♥

Army pay introduced at the start of a campaign against Veii 406 CE: "According to Livy (4.9.11), the Senate introduced army pay (stipendium) to compensate the men serving in this struggle for the labor they lost on their family farms." For the same reason it is widely agreed that pay was introduced due to prolonged campaigns "from the later fourth century onwards, during the wars against the Samnites, the Etruscans, and Gauls." The tributum tax, which is mentioned "from roughly 400 BC onwards" is thought to have been introduced for citizens to pay for soldiers. [49]

Professional soldiers were certainly present from the beginning of the Roman Principate. "Augustus' main military reforms had the effect of turning the army into a standing force of long-service professionals, instead of the part-time citizen force of the Republic."[50] It is also argued that a professional corps developed from the reforms of Marius in 105 BCE. Some further maintain that the pre-existing citizen militia was "essentially professional" by 220 BCE.[51]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Early Roman cults were funded by regular public offerings, large individual donations, and payment for services. The hierarchy could also profit from land ownership. Professionalism of the priesthood likely pre-dates the Roman era as similar patterns are evident in Greek and Egyptian civilization. When the state provided gifts, it was often in the form of a lavish construction, such as a new temple. Examples: priests of Isis were "full-time religious professionals" [52]; Vestals were "supported by the state and were full-time professional clergy, along with the Priestess of Ceres and Proserpina." [53]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ absent ♥ Before the Roman Principate there was no formal bureaucracy. The old Roman treasury - the aerarium Saturni - was housed in the basement of the Temple of Saturn [54] The state treasury of the Roman Republic was kept in the custody of the priesthood inside the temple of Saturn, and was managed by elected aristocratic officials called quaestors.[55]

During the Roman Principate there were salaried officials who worked in the Imperial Bureaux (scrinia) [56] but before this time any bureaucrats are thought to have been unpaid aristocrats.

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ There was no examination system.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥ Roman administration was typically formed out of a class of hereditary aristocrats. Within the army, distinctions between classes of legionary and distinctions between age and experience were not eliminated until Marius in 105 BCE. [57]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ The first senate building, the Curia Hostilia, existed from about 600 BCE. [58] The first paving of the Roman Forum occurred around 575-625 BCE. [59] The first coin minted in Rome occurred about 269 BCE (one in Neapolis produced coins slightly earlier, around 281 BCE) and the first state archives was created in 78 BCE. Other buildings include: granaries and storehouses.

The Curia Julia was one of the main meeting places of the Roman Senate (later rebuilt under Diocletian after a fire in 283 CE).[60] The Senate also often met in appropriate temples.[61] The old Roman treasury - the aerarium Saturni - was housed in the basement of the Temple of Saturn. There were lots of multi-purpose government buildings: basilicas, imperial fora, and porticos, which were utilized for government functions, such as official meetings or court hearings.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ A formal legal code was first founded in the Twelve Tables of 450-449 BCE. Law thereafter was based on precedent. Our sources of knowledge of Roman law include the forensic speeches of Cicero; the Institutes of Gaius textbook (from 160 CE); and, much later, the sixth century CE Corpus Ius Civilis of Justinian. Wax tablets and papyri (contracts and wills etc.) also provide information on Roman law. [62]

"ius honorarium, the law contained in the Edict of the praetor, who, under the Republic and Early Empire administered law in Rome; this form of law derived its name from the praetor's magistracy (honos) and was held to 'assist, supplement or amend' the ius civile.".[63]

♠ Judges ♣ absent ♥ Professional judges did not exist until the Roman Dominate although at that time their precise role vis-a-vis that of Imperial officials is a matter of debate. [64] Before this time there were no judges as a distinct profession in the Roman system of law. Local magistrates dealt with local matters, provincial governors dealt with provincial matters, and the praetors often dealt with cases in Rome. The Roman people could be duly convened as a final court of appeal in cases involving citizens.

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥ During the Roman Dominate administration of justice was "thoroughly bureaucratized" and "regular courts, special courts were established to deal with particular matters and categories of persons." [65] Before this time there was no specialised court building. Courts could be held in the basilicas[66] (introduced by the 3rd Century BCE[67]) where a provincial governor could an hold audience or in the Roman forum. Basilicas were multi-purpose buildings a place for banking and money-changing and town hall activities. The forum was a multi-purpose building which had existed since the Roman Kingdom.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ {absent; present} ♥ Law specialists first existed during the Principate when they commanded fees for their expertise. We know this because Emperor Claudius attempted to "limit the fees of advocates, which had become intolerably heavy" to protect "women and other helpless litigants from the rapacity of their lawyers." [68] The first law school in Rome, for persons who wished to pursue career in the Imperial civil service, was established late second century CE. "Professional" lawyers replaced orators during the Roman Dominate period.[69]

Brennan (2004) refers to "specialists in jurisprudence" during Republican Rome.[70] "Certainly by c. 200 B.C. the Roman elite was taking an academic interest in the city-state's legal history."[71] "In the developed Republic ... some important colleges of priests maintained books of precedents; the senate's part decrees could be consulted in written form."[72] Latin legal literature began to develop c.200 BCE.[73]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ For irrigation systems, particularly North Africa, read Andrew Wilson.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ The Aqua Marcia aqueduct was built between 144-140 BCE.
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Urban markets appeared in the 2nd century BCE [74] The Basilica Aemilia, built 179 BCE, is "considered one of Rome's most impressive public monuments." [75] Markets were held outside the Basilica Aemilia. [76] The multi-function forum building also functioned as a marketplace.
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ Rome's mayoral office, which supervised the import of grain, dates back to early days of the Roman Republic. [77] "The Republican stages of the Roman attempt to deal with storage problems are to some extent lost, because the material remains of most of the warehouses we have found belong to the Imperial period, but there are some clues." [78] From literary sources [Livy] it seems that the major development of Rome's river port and its attendant warehouses did not take place until the early second century B.C. Earlier the old Forum Boarium and Forum Holitorium in the centre of Rome seem to have coped with the main flow of imports which had probably come down the Tiber from the Italian hills." [79]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ The first paved road was the probably the military road to Capua called the Appian Way commissioned by Appius Claudius Caecus around 312 BCE.[80] Via Aurelia 241 BCE, Via Flaminia 220 BCE. [81]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ The first bridge thought to be the Pons Sublicius possibly in built 642 BCE under Ancus Marcius. In 179 BCE the first stone bridge was constructed. [82] Ponte San Lorenzo at Bulicame, Ponte di Nona in Rome, both 174 BCE. Pons Aemilius 142 BCE. Ponte dell'Abadia near Vulci 90 BCE. "The maximum span of Roman bridges increased from 80 feet (24 meters) in 142 BCE to 115 feet (35 meters) by Augustus' reign (27 BC - 14 CE) and was not exceeded until about 605 CE, by the span of 120 feet (37 meters) of the bridge at Zhao-Zhou in China."[83]
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ The first canal is thought to have been built by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (consul 187 BCE) to drain the lower Po region.
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ For example, the port of Cosa founded in 273 BCE [84] and the 177 BCE Port of Luna.[85]


Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ The 303 CE civil law by Flavius. [86]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Greek, Latin for official documents. [87]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Twelve Tables laws of 450 BCE.
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Existing calendar of Numa, and the reform of Lex Acilia in 191 BCE.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ E.g. The Sibyl of Cumae reportedly offered nine books of prophecies to the Roman Kingdom monarch Tarquin. Three books were purchased and kept in the Temple of Jupiter. According to Tacitus (Tacitus 6.12) after the temple was destroyed in a fire in the 1st century BCE efforts were made to reconstruct their contents.
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Farming practices were mentioned by Cato. [88]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Cato (234-149 BCE) "Origines" was the first history written in Latin. [89] Previous to the Greek language historians included Pictor, Alimentus, Albinus and Acilius. [90] Polybius (200 - 123 BCE).
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ Intellectual culture and Greek cultural inheritance.
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Weights and measures, intellectual culture and Greek cultural inheritance.
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ 240 BCE Latin translation of a Greek play. Satires of Lucilius, tragedies of Pacuvias (220-131 BCE). Greek inspired work, Ennius "Annales", Plautus's comedies, poetry and drame of Naevius (270-200). [91]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Slaves were acquired by means of exchange: "we are told that some Gallic chiefs were so fond of Italian wine they would give a slave for a single jar, and there is literary evidence for Gallic slaves in Italy."[92] Salt was used as payment to soldiers from 406 BCE and was an essential commodity with the "Salt Road" being in existence from the start of the Roman Kingdom period.
♠ Tokens ♣ absent ♥ Spintria may have been used in the Principate to pay prostitutes although it is also argued that these were gaming pieces.
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ gold was used as a store of wealth (cf J.-M. Carrié 2003 "Solidus et Credit") and conceivably was used for payment.
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ Rawson states "Rome did not ... impose a common coinage over her sphere of influence, unlike Athens."[93]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Rome produced its first coin about 281 BCE, a Greek-style silver didrachma, minted in Neapolis (and twelve years later coins were minted in Rome.) Prior to end of Second Punic War (end 201 BCE) many coins were produced by communities other than Rome. Monetary and economic unity from Rome was achieved by the early 1st century BCE. [94]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ The Romans did not use paper currency in any period.

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ "Before Augustus, Romans wanting to post a letter had to find a courier wherever they could, and work out the arrangements for delivery ad hoc.[95]
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥ No general postal service until the Cursus Publicus, established by Augustus during the Principate.
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥ No general postal service until the Cursus Publicus, established by Augustus during the Principate.

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from presence of bronze.
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ "Polybius reports all soldiers wore a bronze pectoral body armour"[96] "Polybius (6.22-23; 25) describes ... bronze helmets and greaves and either a simple square bronze chest-guard, or more elaborate body armour such as a mail tunic". [97]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Iron-tipped spears.[98]
♠ Steel ♣ inferred present ♥ Noric steel first made by the Celts in 300 BCE. Romans imported Noric steel. Noricum, a region of the Austrian Alps "between Raetia in the west and Pannonia in the east" became a province within the Roman Empire.[99] However, use of Noric steel could hardly have been typical. "A sword from the Roman Republican period (3rd-2nd century BCE) in Slovenia was found to have an iron edge and a steel (0.4%C) body, like the much later spatha discussed below; a particularly unfortunate combination."[100]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ Hastati and principes infantry carried two heavy iron-headed throwing spears called pilum.[101] Hastati and principes carried two types of-iron tipped pila (heavy and light). The triarii carried a hasta (long spear).[102] Velites (skirmishers) threw light javelins. [103]
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ According to one military historian (don't know if a Roman specialist - need to check), many ancient armies used slingers. They were vulnerable to counter-attacks, slinger units were usually small and used at the start of the battle. Because of the training required to produce and effective slinger they were often hired mercenaries.[104] Balearic slingers (mercenaries).[105] According to Livy, Servian Classes IV and V were skirmishers, who carried a sling. [106]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from flint arrowheads found in earlier period.
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Aegean bowmen (mercenaries) [107]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not at this time: "the hand-held crossbow was invented by the Chinese, in the fifth century BC, and probably came into the Roman world in the first century AD, where it was used for hunting."[108] The crossbow also developed after the Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE.[109]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ Torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE. [110]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred absent ♥ No information in literature.
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred absent ♥ No information in literature.
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ A legionary carried a dagger.[111]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Hastati and principes carried the gladius (sword). [112] "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier's primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken."[113]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ "Triarii were equipped like the other heavy infantry except that they used a thrusting spear instead of pila."[114] Cavalry used a "Greek-style" lance and shield.[115]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred absent ♥ No information in literature.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Romans kept geese as intruder alarms along with sentry dogs as they were more sensitive to intruders.[116]
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ "Each legion also had an attachment of 300 Roman cavalry."[117]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ "Legionaries carried a distinctively Roman shield, a long (4 Roman feet, c. 1.17m) oval type called a scutum, of laminated wood and canvas with an iron rim and boss."[118]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ A jerkin called thoracomachus worn under the mail shirt [119]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Hastati and principes carried an oval scrutum (shield).[120] Scutum find in Kasr-el-Harit provides example. It was 1.2m length, 0.6m width, oval and made out of three layers of birch plywood. Shield was covered with canvas and calfskin, reinforced at edges, bronze or iron.[121] Cavalry used a "Greek-style" lance and shield.[122]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ "Helmet styles included: Attic; Montefortino; Etrusco-Corinthian."[123]"Polybius (6.22-23; 25) describes how the legion in this period was divided into four types of infantry. There were three different groups of heavy infantry: 1,200 hastati ('spearmen'), 1,200 principes ('leading men') and 600 triarii ('third line men'). They were equipped in broadly similar fashion, with bronze helmets and greaves and either a simple square bronze chest-guard, or more elaborate body armour such as a mail tunic, according to each individual's wealth and ability to provide his own protection."[124]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ "Polybius reports all soldiers wore a bronze pectoral body armour, though lorica hamata (chain mail shirt) was preferred by those soldiers who could afford it."[125]"Polybius (6.22-23; 25) describes how the legion in this period was divided into four types of infantry. There were three different groups of heavy infantry: 1,200 hastati ('spearmen'), 1,200 principes ('leading men') and 600 triarii ('third line men'). They were equipped in broadly similar fashion, with bronze helmets and greaves and either a simple square bronze chest-guard, or more elaborate body armour such as a mail tunic, according to each individual's wealth and ability to provide his own protection."[126]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ "Two ancient sources confirm only one greave (leg armour) worn."[127] "Polybius (6.22-23; 25) describes how the legion in this period was divided into four types of infantry. There were three different groups of heavy infantry: 1,200 hastati ('spearmen'), 1,200 principes ('leading men') and 600 triarii ('third line men'). They were equipped in broadly similar fashion, with bronze helmets and greaves and either a simple square bronze chest-guard, or more elaborate body armour such as a mail tunic, according to each individual's wealth and ability to provide his own protection."[128]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ "Polybius reports all soldiers wore a bronze pectoral body armour, though lorica hamata (chain mail shirt) was preferred by those soldiers who could afford it."[129] "Polybius (6.22-23; 25) describes how the legion in this period was divided into four types of infantry. There were three different groups of heavy infantry: 1,200 hastati ('spearmen'), 1,200 principes ('leading men') and 600 triarii ('third line men'). They were equipped in broadly similar fashion, with bronze helmets and greaves and either a simple square bronze chest-guard, or more elaborate body armour such as a mail tunic, according to each individual's wealth and ability to provide his own protection."[130]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Possible. Already introduced by Assyria.
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ Military historian suggests that by 600 BCE early Greeks and Romans had introduced the bronze cast bell muscle cuirass.[131]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ absent ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ present ♥ Likely for transportation of military overseas, e.g. at this time to Egypt or North Africa.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ Rome relied on allies and subject peoples for ships. First Punic War, from 264 BCE, saw the first systematic attempt by the Romans to make their own ships and for this purpose they copied the Carthaginian quinquireme. To this they added a corvus (bridge) which was used to board enemy ships.[132].

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Romans were so fond of the texture effect of opus quadratum that they continued to use this technique even after having developed more effective kinds of masonry." [133] Inferred absent because "texture effect" should be irrelevant in a military context and on the assumption Romans of this period had access to motar.
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ [134] The 392 BCE conquest Veii gave the Romans access to a quality building stone, the Grotta Oscura tufa. In 374 BCE a stone wall constructed around Rome used this stone.[135] opus caementicium - Roman concrete.
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ [136]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Fortress at Luna [137]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

for the largest armies 20-25 miles per day. Theodore Dodge's Caesar: A History of The Art of War (1900). http://seshat.info/File:DodgeHow.jpg

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine; Edward A L Turner ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ present ♥ Consuls always acted in collaboration with the senate.[138] Probably "from a very early stage, some sort of right of appeal of the people against the possible arbitrariness of superior magistrates ... The intercessio from a colleague or a tribune of the plebs was another mechanism to assure some balance of power, aimed at preventing abuses and favoring reaching consensus."[139] Annual succession (term period of the magistrates) might be considered a constraint on the executive.[140] Collegiate nature of rule might be considered a constraint: "it is difficult to find any early Roman magistracy which is not collegiate, in the simple sense of being comprised of more than one individual. Even the dictatorship, the least collegiate of all Roman offices, is both inextricable from the office of the magister equitum, and circumscribed by various restrictions. The praetorship after 367 would stand out here, although not if regarded as inextricably linked with the consulship."[141] After 494 BCE "the powers of the plebeian tribunes would encroach further on the consuls' exercise of imperium. Indeed the tribunes had the power of veto against all regular magistrates, but only in Rome itself."[142] Mid 5th century BCE consular tribunate (abolished 367 BCE): "each of a year's consular tribunes had veto power over other individual members of his college."[143] 287 BCE a "law was passed reaffirming that all citizens were to be subject to plebiscites."[144] In 339 BCE a plebeian dictator "passed serveral progressive measures, one of which ... made plebiscita ... binding on the whole people" including the powerful families, a law which had previously (apparently unsuccessfully?) been ruled in 449 BCE.[145]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ present ♥ In 300 BCE "the right to appeal to the whole people (provocatio ad populum) against decisions of consuls and other magistrates was guaranteed; this law was said to have reinforced earlier laws of 509 and 449."[146] According to tradition, from the beginning: "A Roman citizen now generally had the possibility of appeal (provocatio) to the people against a consul who exercised his power in the area enclosed by the pomerium plus one mile beyond."[147] "Commanders in the field did not have their imperium thus restricted until the 'Porcian Laws' sometime in the second century B.C."[148]
♠ Impeachment ♣ present ♥ consules could be removed from power for negligence, by censors after 3rd c BCE [149]

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ "patricians - an elite class that closed their ranks to new members c. 500 B.C., soon after the expulsion of the Tarquins".[150] Elite status directly related to the public auspices ritual which "entailed the competence to request, observe, and announce Jupiter's signs regarding an important act and then to complete what was intended. Since auspication preceded every major action taken on the state's behalf, it formed the basis of regal and then, in the Republic, magisterial power."[151] Elite positions became open to plebeian class but to a large degree elite status was hereditary. "the ascent of a family to the consulship over several generations was a common enough phenomenon; and a man who ennobled himself and his descendants by being the first of his family to achieve consulship or other high office was known as a novus homo, new man."[152] "Until 445 BCE patricians could not marry plebeians, and a free person could not marry a freedman or freedwoman until legistlation under Augustus made it permissible (except for senators)."[153]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred absent ♥ Republican rulers (Senators) based their power on aristocratic heritage, and their authority was not seen as ordained by gods, although religious / secular authority was indistinct and rulers acted to ensure favour of the gods on the Roman Republic.

previous code had = Inferred present, based on the following: "Undoubtedly the most salient feature of Roman republican religion lies in the fact that religious authority and religious institutions were tightly interwoven with political authority and the political institutions of the res publica. [...] There was no separate priestly class in which religious authority was vested, but the same men who made decisions regarding the relationships of the Roman community with other human communities also made the decisions regarding its relationship with the divine community." [154] True, but religious/secular power is not the same as having rule legitimated through divine authority

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ "Ruler worship is not generally considered characteristic of Roman society during the republican period (conventionally 509-31 BC), a period during which the polity developed from a conventional city-state to a regional hegemon and finally a territorial empire controlling the entire Mediterranean basin and its immediate hinterlands. Properly speaking, the cult of the emperors extended from the accession of the first emperor, Octavian/Augustus (conventionally dated to 31 BC.) to the conversion to Christianity of the emperor Constantine in AD 312. framed in these terms, divine kingship in rome is a phenomenon limited to the early empire, commonly termed the Principate." [155] However, Woolf also argues that "if the Greek world before Alexander, or rome before Augustus, seem to be worlds without ruler cult, this is in part a result of us defining the latter in a rather narrow form." [156]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ Slavery was an important social institution throughout Roman history [157] political ideology asserted clear distinctions between social classes in terms of power, wealth, and authority

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following quote, dating to the Late Republic--so we are inferring continuity between the Middle Republic and this period. "'Equality,' wrote Cicero, 'is unequal when it does not recognize grades of dignity.' The most dignified citizens were the senators, whose dignity consisted in the public offices they held, the responsibilities they shouldered, and the fortunes they spent to maintain public order. Thus they earned the advantages they enjoyed, not least preferential treatment under the law. Ordinary citizens, for their part, were alert, if also submissive, to the “conflict between certain moral aspirations (justice, for instance) and the social institutions (like the law) which attempt to enshrine them.' [...] Cicero’s criticism of undifferentiated equality reflects the other ancient ideology, which provided for the judicial privileges enjoyed by the Roman elite for centuries. [...] Most of its judicial privileges, and most of our evidence for how the ideology of status affected justice, 'were grounded not in legislative enactment, but in administrative rules, customary practices, and ultimately the social attitudes of the ruling elite.'" [158]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following quote, dating to the Late Republic--so we are inferring continuity between the Middle Republic and this period. "'Equality,' wrote Cicero, 'is unequal when it does not recognize grades of dignity.' The most dignified citizens were the senators, whose dignity consisted in the public offices they held, the responsibilities they shouldered, and the fortunes they spent to maintain public order. Thus they earned the advantages they enjoyed, not least preferential treatment under the law. Ordinary citizens, for their part, were alert, if also submissive, to the “conflict between certain moral aspirations (justice, for instance) and the social institutions (like the law) which attempt to enshrine them.' [...] Cicero’s criticism of undifferentiated equality reflects the other ancient ideology, which provided for the judicial privileges enjoyed by the Roman elite for centuries. [...] Most of its judicial privileges, and most of our evidence for how the ideology of status affected justice, 'were grounded not in legislative enactment, but in administrative rules, customary practices, and ultimately the social attitudes of the ruling elite.'" [159]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ "Roman religion in the middle and late republic, a period stretching from the beginning of the Punic Wars in the early third century to the death of Julius Caesar and the ascension of the first emperor Augustus in the late first century BCE, concerned itself with the city of Rome. This statement may seem to be a truism, but it actually expresses the two fundamental features of Roman religion: that the Roman religious system concerned itself primarily with the health of the Roman community, and that it was a religion of place. The primary purpose of the public religious system was to protect and enhance the community of the Romans; the modern notion of a separation of church and state would have been unthinkable to the Romans. The welfare of the city and its inhabitants was ensured by a series of rituals by which the Romans attempted to secure the goodwill of the gods, and the primary role of the religious authorities in Rome was to ensure that these rituals were performed in the proper way, at their proper time, and in their proper place. The second point follows from the first: Roman rituals were performed in specific places around the city of Rome in order to protect the city. Some of these places had been considered sacred from time immemorial, while others had gained their status over the years, but each location had its specific ritual that needed to be performed on that spot, and at a specified time of the year." [160]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ munificence present from early on [161][162]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent_to_present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [163] [164] [165]

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