ItRomLR

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Dan Hoyer ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Late Roman Republic ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Late Roman Republic ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 49 BCE ♥ The period of expansion under Caesar.


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 133-31 BCE ♥

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥ The Roman Republic was a unitary state, but highly decentralized in its administration.

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance; vassalage ♥ In 96 BCE the Romans met with the Parthian Empire, located east of the Euphrates, and informally agreed to recognize the Euphrates River as the boundary between their two realms. Beyond the other frontiers, such as in Britain, vassals were maintained.

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Middle Roman Republic ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Roman Empire - Principate ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Roman ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Rome ♥

♠ Language ♣ Latin; Greek ♥ Latin was the lingua franca of the western half of the empire, Greek of the eastern half. Within each half, some native languages survived in use for some time after Roman rule began (e.g., Egyptian and Aramaic in the east; various Celtic languages in parts of the west, and even Italic languages within Italy itself, such as Etruscan or Oscan). Language map showing East/West split: [1]. Map of languages in pre-Roman Italy which shows the then distribution of Etruscan and Oscan languages [2]"In Africa, Punic was widely spoken as well as Latin, and in a famous passage of The City of God Augustine reminds the reader that the imperious Roman capital had not only placed the yoke of dominion on defeated peoples; it had also imposed Latin as the official language (Augustine, The City of God, 19, 7)."[3]

General Description

The last of the Roman kings, the tyrannical Lucius Tarquinius Superbus ('the Arrogant'), was expelled by a revolt of some of the leading Roman aristocrats in 509 BCE. Vowing never again to allow a single person to amass so much authority, the revolutionaries established in place of the monarchy a republican system of governance, featuring a senate composed of aristocratic men and a series of elected political and military officials. The Roman Republic was a remarkably stable and successful polity, lasting from 509 BCE until it was transformed into an imperial state under Augustus in 31 BCE (though the exact date is debated, as this was not a formal transformation). We divide the Republic into an early (509-264 BCE), a middle (264-133 BCE), and a late (133-31 BCE) period.
The Late Republican period began once Rome was firmly established as the major power throughout the Mediterranean basin. By the end of the period, Romans had taken control of the entire Mediterranean region, with further territorial expansion into North Africa, Anatolia, the Levant and Egypt. Success abroad, however, was not matched by stability at home. The Roman state entered a prolonged period of crisis during the 1st century BCE. Civil wars were frequent, pitting different military leaders such as Sulla, Pompey the Great, and Julius Caesar and their supporters against each other. An underlying tension persisted between the wealthy and elite and the rest of the population. These tensions intensified in 133 BCE, when a Plebeian Tribune (an elected official charged with looking after the interests of the poorer members of society) named Tiberius Gracchus proposed legislation to redistribute land that had been taken over (legally and extra-legally) by wealthy aristocrats to landless Romans, particularly those who had served in the army. This move upset the ruling elite, leading to a riot in the streets of Rome and, ultimately, to Gracchus' death. The city's different political factions were polarized by these events, leading to a series of violent contests for power by military leaders supported either by the elites (notably Sulla and Pompey the Great) or styled as champions of the people (Marius, Caesar, and Octavian/Augustus).
The period of civil war, and with it republican government at Rome, effectively ended in 31 BCE when Octavian (soon to take the title of Augustus as the first ruler of the imperial Roman state, known as the Principate) defeated Mark Antony and the Egyptian army led by the Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra at the battle of Actium.

Population and political organization

Rome during the Republican period possessed no written constitution, but was governed largely through the power and prestige of the Senate, with a clear respect for precedent and for maintaining Rome's traditions.[4] A primary goal of the early Republic was to establish clear checks on the power of any single ruler - the military office of chief commander was in fact split between two generals (consuls), while the chief priestly and legislative posts were split among different people (individuals were restricted from holding multiple offices at once) - and popular assemblies voted on new laws.
Romans of this period did not distinguish between what is today termed 'secular' and 'sacred' authority; although individual magistracies had distinct functions, the same person often held both religious and political offices over the course of their lifetime, as they were thought to be part of essentially the same sphere of governance. The Republic featured a substantial array of religious offices and institutions intended to determine the will of the gods or to please them through the proper performance of rituals and the maintenance of large public temples.[5] These public auspices were the basis of magisterial power in the Republic.[6] Auspices were sometimes taken by consuls and other officials, for example before important military engagements,[7] but were mainly managed by specialist elected priests and full-time priestesses (such as the Vestal Virgins) and other priestly offices supported by the state.[8]
Despite the internal strife, Rome remained essentially unchallenged by external forces and continued to make military advances. The significant reforms of the consul Marius helped modernize the ever-expanding Roman army around 105 BCE by removing property qualifications for military service, paving the way towards a fully professional fighting force. The period also saw some extensive engineering projects that increased urbanization and economic development: roads, aqueducts, bridges, amphitheatres, theatres, public baths, as well as Roman administrative and legal institutions spread alongside the military throughout the Mediterranean. Though this time was a period of political instability, it also was the start of a 'golden age' in the cultural history of Rome, with literary figures like Cicero, Horace, Sallust, Caesar and Catullus, among others, leaving important and influential writings.
The population at the dawn of empire was around 30 million people, with Italy itself supporting between 5 and 10 million, thus apparently experiencing population growth despite the repeated bouts of civil war.[9]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [1,950,000-3,500,000] ♥ KM2. in 49 BCE. [10]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [25,000,000-35,000,000] ♥ [25,000,000-35,000,000]: 31 BCE Using a population distribution map [11] from 200 CE, and the above map, from 31 BC, would give an approximate figure of about 32 million. 7 million within Italy by 1 CE [12].

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 400,000 ♥ Rome.

Rome (reported census tallies) [13]

c400,000: 100 BCE

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 7 ♥

1. The capital (Rome)

2. Provincial capitals
3. Client States/Kingdoms (e.g. Cappadocia, Egypt, Numidia)
4. Colonies/coloniae and Municipia
5. Tributary communities, not necessarily urbanized
6. Village/vici and
7. Pagi (rural settlements).
In lower population density regions there could be no difference between vici and pagi. There could also be some overlap between provincial capitals and coloniae/municipia. As a result, the code '6 levels' corresponds to more populous regions, whilst in sparser populated regions the code '4 levels' should be used. [14] [15]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [3-4] ♥

Before the Roman Principate there was no formal bureaucracy. The old Roman treasury - the aerarium Saturni - was housed in the basement of the Temple of Saturn [16] The state treasury of the Roman Republic was kept in the custody of the priesthood inside the temple of Saturn, and was managed by elected aristocratic officials called quaestors.[17] During the Roman Principate there were salaried officials who worked in the Imperial Bureaux (scrinia) [18] but before this time any bureaucrats are thought to have been unpaid aristocrats.


1. Consuls (two)

presided over the Senate
(minimum 42 years old) both also commanders. Elected by comitia centuriata, an aristocratic assembly.
Until 363 CE consuls may have been called praetors [19].
Two consuls, appointed for one year terms.[20]

_Governing institutions_

1. Senators in the Senate

Three hundred senators (no minimum age) elected for life, and ten tribunes to represent plebians (created 471 BCE). In this period 600 then 900.
2. Quaestors in the State treasury
Treasury called aerarium or aerarium Saturni (treasury of Saturn). This was used for "depositing cash and archives of the Roman state and was situated in the temple of Saturn below the Capitol. It was controlled by the quaestors under the general supervision of the Senate."[21] This treasury still existed during the empire period when revenues "were increasingly diverted into the fiscus (imperial treasury). The aerarium eventually became the treasury of the city of Rome."[22]
elected position. "financial and administrative officials who maintained public records, administered the treasury (aerarium), acted as paymasters accompanying generals on campaigns and were financial secretaries to governors."[23] In 2nd century BCE the quaestorship (a provincial appointment?) "was an entry-level office; it had limited powers, and in this period was usually held around age 30."[24]
3. Assistants or scribes?
3. Equites managerial class who hold public contracts
The equites, the plebeian "middle class", "were also able to take on public contracts, such as road building and supplying equipment to the army."[25]
4. Workers for Equites

1. Censors (two)

elected position. Two magistrates "that involved some especially important sacral and civic duties".[26] The office of the censor (censorship) from 443 BCE but not always present were two officials who enrolled citizens into military service.[27]

1. Aediles (two)

elected by comitia tributa. "Two plebeian magistrates administered temple of Ceres, function later "extended to public buildings and archives (of the plebiscita and senatus consulta). From 367 BC two curule aediles were elected from the patricians. The plebeian and curule aediles had similar functions at Rome; they were in charge of the maintenance and repair of public buildings (such as temples, roads and aqueducts), of markets (especially weights and measures), of the annona (to the time of Julius Caesar), and of public games and festivals (to the time of Augustus, when games were transferred to praetors)."[28]

1. Praetors (six?)

elected by comitia centuriata. "In 366 BC the praetor urbanus (city praetor) was introduced, who was almost exclusively concerned with the administration of law at Rome. The praetor ... was the supreme civil judge. By the middle republic the praetors' powers were restricted to law and justice... By 241 BC a second praetor ... was established to deal with legal cases in which one or both parties were foreigners. ... there were eight by 80 BC. Praetors issued annual edicts that were an important source of Roman law."[29] "A third magistracy, the praetorship, was also established in 367."[30] The first plebeian praetor was in 336 BCE.[31]


_ Provincial administration _

2. Provincial governors
3. quaestors
2. Municipal government
3. Decurions in the townships
4. Scribes?
2. Client rulers and Colonies
Colonies of citizens - 8 coastal by 264 BCE. Latin colonies established by military. They had a devolved government modelled on the system at Rome. [32]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 4 ♥ [33][34] [35]

1. Pontifex maximus

2. Colleges (flamines, augurs, pontifices, vestals)
Three colleges of religious officials. 1. augurs 2. decemviri sacris faciundis 3. pontifices
3. high priests of imperial cult in provinces
4. priests for a deity (running a specific temple or sanctuary)
"Freelance" religious officials (soothsayers, oracles, seers, etc). This hierarchy refers to the state religion only.


Six Vestals, appointd by pontifex maximus. Girls 6-10 with two living parents served 30 years during which time had to remain chaste. After 30 released and free to marry. Duties included: tend sacred fire and sacred objects "on which the survival of Rome depended (such as the 'palladium')"; making salt cakes used at sacrifices; various rituals and ceremonial appearances. Vestals had unique "old-fashioned and heavy" costumes and impressive hairstyles "which other women only wore on their wedding".

"Because a vestal's person was sacrosanct, she could not be executed. Instead, she was entombed in an underground chamber with a bed, a lamp, and some food and water, and left to die. Male accomplices were publicly flogged to death."[36]

"The vestal virgins were responsible for maintaining the temple of Vesta and performing the rites of the goddess. They ensured that her holy flame, said to have been brought from Troy, was not extingished."[37]

The vestal virgins had many privileges: "Wills and treaties were in their keeping, and they themselves could make a will. They could conduct business in their own name. They could give evidence in court without taking an oath. ... If they accidentally met a criminal on his way to execution, he was spared."[38]; "any injury to them was punishable by death; they could own and administer their own property ...; when they went out they were preceded by a lictor and had complete right of way on the streets; they could even drive in carriages within the city limits (otherwise only permitted to empresses)."[39]; given prominent seats at games.[40]


♠ Military levels ♣ 7 ♥ [41]

1. General (Imperator)

2. comites praetoris and cohortes praetorio
Within the army structure there were comites praetoris (young aristocrats) and cohortes praetorio (to guard the general's tent, the praetorium; these later formed the basis of the later Imperial-era Praetorian Guard). This unit was first created by Scipio Aemilianus.
2. Quaestors
Logistical and administrative support
2. Legion commander (Legate)
There were ten cohorts (400-500 men each) within a legion which makes the legion 4000-5000 men.
3. Cohort/Task group leader (Tribunes)
Six. Floating role, for detached cohorts and task groups.
Under Marius the cohort became the main tactical unit in the Roman army while the maniple endured as an administrative element within it. There were ten cohorts (400-500 men each) within a legion. At some time in the first century BCE the first cohort was doubled in size (800 men).
"The maniples of 120 or 60 men that formed the primary tactical subunits of the manipular legion were subsequently replaced by larger subunits called cohorts. In the imperial period, these cohorts each had a nominal strength of 480 men, divided into six centuries of 80, and this is likely to have been true of late Republican cohorts too. There were ten cohorts in each legion, so a full-strength late Republican legion had 5,000 or so men, all equipped as heavy infantry. We do not know exactly when the cohort became the principal subdivision of the legion, except that it was normal by the time of Caesar's Gallic wars. From this time onwards the maniples only appeared in the titles of the centurions within each legion." [42]
4. Senior Centurion (Primus Pilus)
"In the imperial period, these cohorts each had a nominal strength of 480 men, divided into six centuries of 80, and this is likely to have been true of late Republican cohorts too. There were ten cohorts in each legion, so a full-strength late Republican legion had 5,000 or so men, all equipped as heavy infantry."[43]
5. Centurion
"While the distinction between hastati, principes and triarii was preserved in centurions' titles, by Marius' day it ceased to have any significance in how legionaries were equipped and fought. ... Henceforth Roman legions were composed entirely of heavy infantry."[44]
6. Optio (?)
There were 32 troopers (turma) under a decurion (sergeant). Twelve turma formed an ala (squadron), which was commanded by officer of tribune rank [45]
7. Individual soldier

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ {present; absent} ♥ The highest officers in the Roman military system were usually senators not professionals. There were, however, professional junior officers at least from the Roman Principate.

"Typically the men who commanded armies and legions were senators. There were no military specialists in Roman government and no imperial high command. All senators alternated brief periods of military command with administrative posts, participation in domestic politics and careers as legal advocates. As military commanders they were, to a great extent, amateurs, even though most did a brief spell as a junior officer (tribune) in a legion. They would have depended on the professional junior officers (tribunes and centurions) as well as the training and discipline of the legionaries themselves to win battles.""[46]

"Tribunes, like the legionary legate (commander), were drawn from Rome's social and political elite, the senatorial and equestrian orders, and were not professional soldiers. They alternated military service with political, judicial and administrative duties."[47]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ {present; absent}: 100 BCE ♥ Army pay introduced at the start of a campaign against Veii 406 CE: "According to Livy (4.9.11), the Senate introduced army pay (stipendium) to compensate the men serving in this struggle for the labor they lost on their family farms." For the same reason it is widely agreed that pay was introduced due to prolonged campaigns "from the later fourth century onwards, during the wars against the Samnites, the Etruscans, and Gauls." The tributum tax, which is mentioned "from roughly 400 BC onwards" is thought to have been introduced for citizens to pay for soldiers. [48]

Professional soldiers were certainly present from the beginning of the Roman Principate. "Augustus' main military reforms had the effect of turning the army into a standing force of long-service professionals, instead of the part-time citizen force of the Republic."[49] It is also argued that a professional corps developed from the reforms of Marius in 105 BCE. Some further maintain that the pre-existing citizen militia was "essentially professional" by 220 BCE.[50]


♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Early Roman cults were funded by regular public offerings, large individual donations, and payment for services. The hierarchy could also profit from land ownership. Professionalism of the priesthood likely pre-dates the Roman era as similar patterns are evident in Greek and Egyptian civilization. When the state provided gifts, it was often in the form of a lavish construction, such as a new temple. Examples: priests of Isis were "full-time religious professionals" [51]; Vestals were "supported by the state and were full-time professional clergy, along with the Priestess of Ceres and Proserpina." [52]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ absent ♥ Before the Roman Principate there was no formal bureaucracy. The old Roman treasury - the aerarium Saturni - was housed in the basement of the Temple of Saturn [53] The state treasury of the Roman Republic was kept in the custody of the priesthood inside the temple of Saturn, and was managed by elected aristocratic officials called quaestors.[54]

During the Roman Principate there were salaried officials who worked in the Imperial Bureaux (scrinia) [55] but before this time any bureaucrats are thought to have been unpaid aristocrats.

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ There was no examination system.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥ Roman administration was typically formed out of a class of hereditary aristocrats. Distinctions between classes of legionary and distinctions between age and experience within the army had been eliminated by Marius in 105 BCE[56] and the Illyrian emperors did demonstrate that "low born" individuals could make it to the top of the administrative hierarchy. Since there was no general policy of merit promotion in the Roman bureaucracy - and the promotion of low-born individuals to position of power might be considered a matter of "politics" among aristocrats - the code is inferred absent.

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ The first senate building, the Curia Hostilia, existed from about 600 BCE. [57] The first paving of the Roman Forum occurred around 575-625 BCE. [58] The first coin minted in Rome occurred about 269 BCE (one in Neapolis produced coins slightly earlier, around 281 BCE) and the first state archives was created in 78 BCE. Other buildings include: granaries and storehouses.

The Curia Julia was one of the main meeting places of the Roman Senate (later rebuilt under Diocletian after a fire in 283 CE).[59] The Senate also often met in appropriate temples.[60] The old Roman treasury - the aerarium Saturni - was housed in the basement of the Temple of Saturn. There were lots of multi-purpose government buildings: basilicas, imperial fora, and porticos, which were utilized for government functions, such as official meetings or court hearings.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ A formal legal code was first founded in the Twelve Tables of 450-449 BCE. Law thereafter was based on precedent. Our sources of knowledge of Roman law include the forensic speeches of Cicero; the Institutes of Gaius textbook (from 160 CE); and, much later, the sixth century CE Corpus Ius Civilis of Justinian. Wax tablets and papyri (contracts and wills etc.) also provide information on Roman law. [61]

"ius honorarium, the law contained in the Edict of the praetor, who, under the Republic and Early Empire administered law in Rome; this form of law derived its name from the praetor's magistracy (honos) and was held to 'assist, supplement or amend' the ius civile.".[62]

"The criminal law owed much to the reforms of two past lawgivers, the proto-emperor, L. Cornelius Sulla (dictator and consul, 81-80 BC), and the emperor Augustus. Sulla established a number of courts (quaestiones) to try various criminal offences, such as murder and poisoning (or use of charms), or forgery; in the statutes he would have defined the crime and the penalty. In other areas of criminal law, the framework supplied for later developments by the Leges Iuliae, the legislation of Augustus, predominates, with whole sections of the imperial law-codes devoted to imperial enactments relevant to the Julian laws on adulteries, corrupt solicitation (ambitus), extortion (repetundae), treason (maiestas) and on violence)."[63] "As jury-courts fell out of use under the Early Empire, to be replaced by hearings before a single magistrate or judge, the courts established by the criminal statutes ceased to operate, but the statues themselves remained, as they specified offence and punishment. People prosecuted for murder, poisoning, or other relevant offences were still prosecuted under Sulla's law and liable to its penalties."[64]

♠ Judges ♣ absent ♥ Professional judges did not exist until the Roman Dominate although at that time their precise role vis-a-vis that of Imperial officials is a matter of debate. [65] Before this time there were no judges as a distinct profession in the Roman system of law. Local magistrates dealt with local matters, provincial governors dealt with provincial matters, and the praetors often dealt with cases in Rome. The Roman people could be duly convened as a final court of appeal in cases involving citizens.

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥

"The criminal law owed much to the reforms of two past lawgivers, the proto-emperor, L. Cornelius Sulla (dictator and consul, 81-80 BC), and the emperor Augustus. Sulla established a number of courts (quaestiones) to try various criminal offences, such as murder and poisoning (or use of charms), or forgery; in the statutes he would have defined the crime and the penalty. In other areas of criminal law, the framework supplied for later developments by the Leges Iuliae, the legislation of Augustus, predominates, with whole sections of the imperial law-codes devoted to imperial enactments relevant to the Julian laws on adulteries, corrupt solicitation (ambitus), extortion (repetundae), treason (maiestas) and on violence)."[66] "As jury-courts fell out of use under the Early Empire, to be replaced by hearings before a single magistrate or judge, the courts established by the criminal statutes ceased to operate, but the statues themselves remained, as they specified offence and punishment. People prosecuted for murder, poisoning, or other relevant offences were still prosecuted under Sulla's law and liable to its penalties."[67] Note (DH): the quaestiones were a sort of ad-hoc special tribunal - it refers to the section of law that the case was under, not an actual building, so 'court' is a bit of a stretch on the translation in the quote. Trials were still held basically wherever there was space -- bassilicae, fora, etc.

During the Roman Dominate administration of justice was "thoroughly bureaucratized" and "regular courts, special courts were established to deal with particular matters and categories of persons." [68] Before this time there was no specialised court building. Courts could be held in the basilicas[69] (introduced by the 3rd Century BCE[70]) where a provincial governor could an hold audience or in the Roman forum. Basilicas were multi-purpose buildings a place for banking and money-changing and town hall activities. The forum was a multi-purpose building which had existed since the Roman Kingdom.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥ Law specialists first existed during the Principate when they commanded fees for their expertise. We know this because Emperor Claudius attempted to "limit the fees of advocates, which had become intolerably heavy" to protect "women and other helpless litigants from the rapacity of their lawyers." [71] The first law school in Rome, for persons who wished to pursue career in the Imperial civil service, was established late second century CE. "Professional" lawyers replaced orators during the Roman Dominate period.[72]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Possible evidence for irrigation in the Levant. At al-Dbab, Jordan, burial discovered in burned clay trough. [73] For irrigation systems, particularly North Africa, read Andrew Wilson.
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ Maintenance of existing aqueduct network. At Rome nearly all aqueducts began in the Sabine Hills, in the valley of the river Anio. Waters, such as from the (previously built) Aqua Marcia, would take 15-20 hours to reach the city. At the city the water would enter a distribution tank, before traveling through the terracotta or lead-pipe network. The best evidence for piped urban water networking has been found at Pompeii. The water had three main destinations: street fountains, baths and domestic. The majority of Romans gained their fresh water from street fountains. For domestic use, water supply was controlled by the size of a bronze nozzle (adjutage) that connected the masonry channel to the leadpipe that entered the house. Domestic water was probably paid for with a "water tax". [74]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Markets held every eight days (a period called the nundinum), usually in fora of Roman towns. Urban markets since 2nd century BCE [75] Markets were also held outside the Basilica Aemilia, first built 179 BCE. [76][77] The multi-function forum building also functioned as a marketplace.
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ Rome's mayoral office, which supervised the import of grain, dates back to early days of the Roman Republic. [78] "The Republican stages of the Roman attempt to deal with storage problems are to some extent lost, because the material remains of most of the warehouses we have found belong to the Imperial period, but there are some clues." [79] From literary sources [Livy] it seems that the major development of Rome's river port and its attendant warehouses did not take place until the early second century B.C. Earlier the old Forum Boarium and Forum Holitorium in the centre of Rome seem to have coped with the main flow of imports which had probably come down the Tiber from the Italian hills." [80]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ The first paved road was the probably the military road to Capua called the Appian Way commissioned by Appius Claudius Caecus around 312 BCE.[81] Caesar banned vehicles from the centre of Rome to prevent congestion, introduced one-way streets and off-street parking. In 30 BCE the first major hard-rock tunnel was built near Naples.[82]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ The first bridge thought to be the Pons Sublicius possibly in built 642 BCE under Ancus Marcius. In 179 BCE the first stone bridge was constructed. [83] Caesar's engineers bridged the Rhine with a wooden bridge in 10 days. The Pons Fabricius arch bridge was constructed in 62 BCE.
♠ Canals ♣ present ♥ The first canal is thought to have been built by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (consul 187 BCE) to drain the lower Po region.
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ For example, the port of Cosa founded in 273 BCE [84] and the 177 BCE Port of Luna.[85]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Cicero's (born Arpinum, 106 BC) letters, Caesar's speeches.
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Greek, Latin.
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Julian calendar, in use since 46 BCE.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ E.g. The Sibyl of Cumae reportedly offered nine books of prophecies to the Roman Kingdom monarch Tarquin. Three books were purchased and kept in the Temple of Jupiter. According to Tacitus (Tacitus 6.12) after the temple was destroyed in a fire in the 1st century BCE efforts were made to reconstruct their contents.
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ Farming practices. [86]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ Crispus (86-35 BCE, born in Amiternum and otherwise known as Sallust) wrote the historical monographs "Catilinarica Conspiracy" and "Jurgurthine War" and another history that has been lost. [87] Caesar's commentary on the Gallic Campaign.
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ Cicero's works "transformed language" (ie. Latin). [88] Lucretius (99 - 55 BCE), De rerum natura (published 50 BCE), Epicurean philosophy [89] Cicero's views on natural law and innate rights later influenced the Renaissance and Enlightenment through Petrarch.
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Varro (116-27 BCE) - polymath. [90]. Lucretius (99-55 BCE).
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Lucretius Carus (94-55 BCE) "De Rerum Natura". [91] Albius Tibullus (born 53 BCE), poet wrote Elegies. Sextus Propertius (born in Umbria c58-49 BCE), elegiac poet. Publius Vergilius Maro (born near Mantua 70 BCE), poet, wrote Eclogues (published before 39 BCE), Georgics, Aeneid (begun 29 BCE, published 17 BCE). Quintus Horatius Flaccus (born at Venusia 65 BCE) a humourist, wrote Satires (published c34-29 BCE), Odes (published 23-14 BCE), Epodes (poem, published c30 BCE). [92] Catullus, poet (born c84 BCE, Cisapine Gaul).


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Slaves were acquired by means of exchange: "we are told that some Gallic chiefs were so fond of Italian wine they would give a slave for a single jar, and there is literary evidence for Gallic slaves in Italy."[93] Salt was used as payment to soldiers from 406 BCE and was an essential commodity with the "Salt Road" being in existence from the start of the Roman Kingdom period.
♠ Tokens ♣ inferred absent ♥ Spintria may have been used during the Principate to pay prostitutes although it is also argued that these were gaming pieces.
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ gold was used as a store of wealth (cf J.-M. Carrié 2003 "Solidus et Credit") and conceivably was used for payment.
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ Rawson states "Rome did not ... impose a common coinage over her sphere of influence, unlike Athens."[94]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Rome produced its first coin about 281 BCE, a Greek-style silver didrachma, minted in Neapolis (and twelve years later coins were minted in Rome.) Prior to end of Second Punic War (end 201 BCE) many coins were produced by communities other than Rome. Monetary and economic unity from Rome was achieved by the early 1st century BCE. [95] Roman coins included the silver denarius, silver Sestertius and gold aureus.[96] Further reading: "Money in the Late Roman Republic." [97]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ The Romans did not use paper currency in any period.

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ "Before Augustus, Romans wanting to post a letter had to find a courier wherever they could, and work out the arrangements for delivery ad hoc. But by Cicero's day [i.e. c100 BCE] there had evolved a number of fairly regular means by which one could send a letter." This included "a private system of letter carriers maintained by the publicani, whose business of collecting taxes in the provinces necessitated a reliable means of communication over long distances... a private individual could arrange for these couriers, called tabellarri, to carry personal letters along with the business correspondence of their companies."[98] Wealthly individuals kept personal couriers, tabellarri domestici.[99] The army had a citizen cavalry to deliver messages. Legionary cavalry contingents of 120 men were used primarily as scouts and couriers. [100]
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥ No general postal service until the Cursus Publicus, established by Augustus during the Principate.
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥ No general postal service until the Cursus Publicus, established by Augustus during the Principate.

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ [101]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ For example, swords. Noric steel first made by the Celts in 300 BCE. Romans imported Noric steel. Noricum, a region of the Austrian Alps "between Raetia in the west and Pannonia in the east" became a province within the Roman Empire.[102] However, use of Noric steel could hardly have been typical. "A sword from the Roman Republican period (3rd-2nd century BCE) in Slovenia was found to have an iron edge and a steel (0.4%C) body, like the much later spatha discussed below; a particularly unfortunate combination."[103]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ "Hastati and principes ... carried a pair of pila (singular pilum), heavy (thus armour-piercing) throwing spears with a long iron head set in a wooden shaft. Pila were thrown at short range before the legionaries engaged their enemies at close quarters with the sword."[104]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ "Accounts of wars through the 1st century BC contain contingents already familiar from the Punic wars and Hellenistic armies of the past, including slingers from the Balearic Islands, archers from Crete and cavalry from Numidia and Gaul."[105]
♠ Self bow ♣ absent ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ "Accounts of wars through the 1st century BC contain contingents already familiar from the Punic wars and Hellenistic armies of the past, including slingers from the Balearic Islands, archers from Crete and cavalry from Numidia and Gaul."[106]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ present ♥ Ballistae and catapult. By 105 BCE army had engineering detachment for bridge building and siege works [107]. Torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st [108]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Reference [109].

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred absent ♥ No information in literature.
♠ Battle axes ♣ inferred absent ♥ No information in literature.
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ A legionary carried a dagger.[110]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ A relief from the Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus depicts Republican legionaries with the gladius sword. [111] "Legionaries ... employed a short-bladed 'Spanish' sword optimized for stabbing."[112]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ "Triarii were equipped like the other heavy infantry except that they used a thrusting spear instead of pila."[113]
♠ Polearms ♣ inferred absent ♥ No information in literature.

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ present ♥ Romans kept geese as intruder alarms along with sentry dogs as they were more sensitive to intruders.[114]
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ "Accounts of wars through the 1st century BC contain contingents already familiar from the Punic wars and Hellenistic armies of the past, including slingers from the Balearic Islands, archers from Crete and cavalry from Numidia and Gaul."[115]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Jerkin called thoracomachus worn under a mail shirt. [116]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ "Legionaries of this period continued to use the elongated oval scutum shield."[117] A relief from the Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus depicts Republican legionaries with scutum shields. [118] "Legionaries carried a distinctively Roman shield, a long (4 Roman feet, c 1.17 m) oval type called a scutum, of laminated wood and canvas with an iron rim and boss."[119]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ A relief from the Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus depicts Republican legionaries wearing Montefortino helmets. [120]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ A relief from the Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus depicts Republican legionaries wearing lorica hamata mail armour. [121]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ absent ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ present ♥ Likely for transportation of military overseas, e.g. at this time to Egypt or North Africa.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ First systematic attempt to make their own vessels was the Carthaginian quinquireme. To this they added a corvus (bridge), which troops used to board an enemy ship. [122]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Military colonies.
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Romans were so fond of the texture effect of opus quadratum that they continued to use this technique even after having developed more effective kinds of masonry." [123] Inferred absent because "texture effect" should be irrelevant in a military context and Romans of this period had access to motar.
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ [124] 392 BCE conquest Veii gave access to quality stone, Grotta Oscura tufa. 374 BCE stone wall constructed around Rome, using this stone. [125]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

For the largest armies 20-25 miles per day. Theodore Dodge's Caesar: A History of The Art of War (1900). http://seshat.info/File:DodgeHow.jpg

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine; Edward A L Turner ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ present ♥ Consuls always acted in collaboration with the senate.[126] Probably "from a very early stage, some sort of right of appeal of the people against the possible arbitrariness of superior magistrates ... The intercessio from a colleague or a tribune of the plebs was another mechanism to assure some balance of power, aimed at preventing abuses and favoring reaching consensus."[127] Annual succession (term period of the magistrates) might be considered a constraint on the executive.[128] Collegiate nature of rule might be considered a constraint: "it is difficult to find any early Roman magistracy which is not collegiate, in the simple sense of being comprised of more than one individual. Even the dictatorship, the least collegiate of all Roman offices, is both inextricable from the office of the magister equitum, and circumscribed by various restrictions. The praetorship after 367 would stand out here, although not if regarded as inextricably linked with the consulship."[129] After 494 BCE "the powers of the plebeian tribunes would encroach further on the consuls' exercise of imperium. Indeed the tribunes had the power of veto against all regular magistrates, but only in Rome itself."[130] Mid 5th century BCE consular tribunate (abolished 367 BCE): "each of a year's consular tribunes had veto power over other individual members of his college."[131] 287 BCE a "law was passed reaffirming that all citizens were to be subject to plebiscites."[132] In 339 BCE a plebeian dictator "passed serveral progressive measures, one of which ... made plebiscita ... binding on the whole people" including the powerful families, a law which had previously (apparently unsuccessfully?) been ruled in 449 BCE.[133]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ present ♥ In 300 BCE "the right to appeal to the whole people (provocatio ad populum) against decisions of consuls and other magistrates was guaranteed; this law was said to have reinforced earlier laws of 509 and 449."[134] According to tradition, from the beginning: "A Roman citizen now generally had the possibility of appeal (provocatio) to the people against a consul who exercised his power in the area enclosed by the pomerium plus one mile beyond."[135] "Commanders in the field did not have their imperium thus restricted until the 'Porcian Laws' sometime in the second century B.C."[136]
♠ Impeachment ♣ present ♥ consules could be removed from power for negligence, by censors after 3rd c BCE [137]

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ "patricians - an elite class that closed their ranks to new members c. 500 B.C., soon after the expulsion of the Tarquins".[138] Elite status directly related to the public auspices ritual which "entailed the competence to request, observe, and announce Jupiter's signs regarding an important act and then to complete what was intended. Since auspication preceded every major action taken on the state's behalf, it formed the basis of regal and then, in the Republic, magisterial power."[139] Elite positions became open to plebeian class but to a large degree elite status was hereditary. "the ascent of a family to the consulship over several generations was a common enough phenomenon; and a man who ennobled himself and his descendants by being the first of his family to achieve consulship or other high office was known as a novus homo, new man."[140] "Until 445 BCE patricians could not marry plebeians, and a free person could not marry a freedman or freedwoman until legistlation under Augustus made it permissible (except for senators)."[141]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ absent ♥ Republican rulers (Senators) based their power on aristocratic heritage, and their authority was not seen as ordained by gods, although religious / secular authority was indistinct and rulers acted to ensure favour of the gods on the Roman Republic.

previous code had = Inferred present, based on the following: "Undoubtedly the most salient feature of Roman republican religion lies in the fact that religious authority and religious institutions were tightly interwoven with political authority and the political institutions of the res publica. [...] There was no separate priestly class in which religious authority was vested, but the same men who made decisions regarding the relationships of the Roman community with other human communities also made the decisions regarding its relationship with the divine community." [142] True, but religious/secular power is not the same as having rule legitimated through divine authority

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ "Ruler worship is not generally considered characteristic of Roman society during the republican period (conventionally 509-31 BC), a period during which the polity developed from a conventional city-state to a regional hegemon and finally a territorial empire controlling the entire Mediterranean basin and its immediate hinterlands. Properly speaking, the cult of the emperors extended from the accession of the first emperor, Octavian/Augustus (conventionally dated to 31 BC.) to the conversion to Christianity of the emperor Constantine in AD 312. framed in these terms, divine kingship in rome is a phenomenon limited to the early empire, commonly termed the Principate." [143] However, Woolf also argues that "if the Greek world before Alexander, or rome before Augustus, seem to be worlds without ruler cult, this is in part a result of us defining the latter in a rather narrow form." [144]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ Slavery was an important social institution throughout Roman history [145] Also: "'Equality,' wrote Cicero, 'is unequal when it does not recognize grades of dignity.' The most dignified citizens were the senators, whose dignity consisted in the public offices they held, the responsibilities they shouldered, and the fortunes they spent to maintain public order. Thus they earned the advantages they enjoyed, not least preferential treatment under the law. Ordinary citizens, for their part, were alert, if also submissive, to the “conflict between certain moral aspirations (justice, for instance) and the social institutions (like the law) which attempt to enshrine them.' [...] Cicero’s criticism of undifferentiated equality reflects the other ancient ideology, which provided for the judicial privileges enjoyed by the Roman elite for centuries. [...] Most of its judicial privileges, and most of our evidence for how the ideology of status affected justice, 'were grounded not in legislative enactment, but in administrative rules, customary practices, and ultimately the social attitudes of the ruling elite.'" [146]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ absent ♥ Rulers belonged to the Roman elite. "'Equality,' wrote Cicero, 'is unequal when it does not recognize grades of dignity.' The most dignified citizens were the senators, whose dignity consisted in the public offices they held, the responsibilities they shouldered, and the fortunes they spent to maintain public order. Thus they earned the advantages they enjoyed, not least preferential treatment under the law. Ordinary citizens, for their part, were alert, if also submissive, to the “conflict between certain moral aspirations (justice, for instance) and the social institutions (like the law) which attempt to enshrine them.' [...] Cicero’s criticism of undifferentiated equality reflects the other ancient ideology, which provided for the judicial privileges enjoyed by the Roman elite for centuries. [...] Most of its judicial privileges, and most of our evidence for how the ideology of status affected justice, 'were grounded not in legislative enactment, but in administrative rules, customary practices, and ultimately the social attitudes of the ruling elite.'" [147]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ absent ♥ "'Equality,' wrote Cicero, 'is unequal when it does not recognize grades of dignity.' The most dignified citizens were the senators, whose dignity consisted in the public offices they held, the responsibilities they shouldered, and the fortunes they spent to maintain public order. Thus they earned the advantages they enjoyed, not least preferential treatment under the law. Ordinary citizens, for their part, were alert, if also submissive, to the “conflict between certain moral aspirations (justice, for instance) and the social institutions (like the law) which attempt to enshrine them.' [...] Cicero’s criticism of undifferentiated equality reflects the other ancient ideology, which provided for the judicial privileges enjoyed by the Roman elite for centuries. [...] Most of its judicial privileges, and most of our evidence for how the ideology of status affected justice, 'were grounded not in legislative enactment, but in administrative rules, customary practices, and ultimately the social attitudes of the ruling elite.'" [148]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ "Roman religion in the middle and late republic, a period stretching from the beginning of the Punic Wars in the early third century to the death of Julius Caesar and the ascension of the first emperor Augustus in the late first century BCE, concerned itself with the city of Rome. This statement may seem to be a truism, but it actually expresses the two fundamental features of Roman religion: that the Roman religious system concerned itself primarily with the health of the Roman community, and that it was a religion of place. The primary purpose of the public religious system was to protect and enhance the community of the Romans; the modern notion of a separation of church and state would have been unthinkable to the Romans. The welfare of the city and its inhabitants was ensured by a series of rituals by which the Romans attempted to secure the goodwill of the gods, and the primary role of the religious authorities in Rome was to ensure that these rituals were performed in the proper way, at their proper time, and in their proper place. The second point follows from the first: Roman rituals were performed in specific places around the city of Rome in order to protect the city. Some of these places had been considered sacred from time immemorial, while others had gained their status over the years, but each location had its specific ritual that needed to be performed on that spot, and at a specified time of the year." [149]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ munificence present from early on [150][151]

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