ItRomER

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Dan Hoyer ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Roman Republic ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Early Roman Republic ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 287 BCE ♥

Turchin and Nefedov suggest a Republican cycle 350-30 BCE with "stagflation" around 180 BCE [1][2] which implies expansion throughout this period and a late peak date.

During the 343-241 BCE period during which Rome was at war "in almost every year" and Latin colonies that were frequently established "allowed those who were impoverished the chance to make a new life... it may be no accident that between 342 and 287 we hear little about indebtedness and social unrest" in Rome.[3]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 509-264 BCE ♥ Polybius's date for first year of the Republic. [4] Founded when the last king of the Roman Kingdom, Tarquinius Superbus, was expelled by a revolt.

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

"486 BC Rome and Latins form alliance with Hernici." [5]

"354 BC Treaty between Rome and Samnite League (350 BC according to Diodoros)." [6]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Roman Kingdom ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Middle Roman Republic ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Latin States ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [50,000-75,000] ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Rome ♥ Cities: Rome

♠ Language ♣ Latin; Greek ♥ Indo-European, Italic. Latin and Greek, Italic languages within Italy itself, such as Etruscan or Oscan. Map of languages in pre-Roman Italy which shows the then distribution of Etruscan and Oscan languages: [7]. Latin, Osco-Umbrian, Venetic, Messapian (Stearns 2001).

General Description

The last of the Roman kings, the tyrannical Lucius Tarquinius Superbus ('the Arrogant'), was expelled by a revolt of some of the leading Roman aristocrats in 509 BCE. Vowing never again to allow a single person to amass so much authority, the revolutionaries established in place of the monarchy a republican system of governance, featuring a senate composed of aristocratic men and a series of elected political and military officials. The Roman Republic was a remarkably stable and successful polity, lasting from 509 BCE until it was transformed into an imperial state under Augustus in 31 BCE (though the exact date is debated, as this was not a formal transformation). We divide the Republic into an early (509-264 BCE), a middle (264-133 BCE), and a late (133-31 BCE) period. The early period is notable for the establishment of the governing institutions of the new Republic, a lingering tension between the wealthy, senatorial elites and poorer members of society (the 'plebeians'), and the establishment of Rome as the preeminent power in the Western Mediterranean.
In 390 BCE, just over a century after the establishment of the Republic, Rome suffered a near-fatal defeat at the hands of Gallic tribes, who invaded Italy from southern France and breached the city walls. Rome quickly recovered, however, and throughout the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE proceeded to conquer all of their neighbours in Italy, notably the larger and more populous Sabine, Etruscan, Samnite, and Graeco-Italian peoples.[8] Over the course of this dramatic expansion, Rome established colonies of Roman citizens throughout Italy and gained access to important sources of natural wealth in the process.[9] The rise of Rome in the west eventually caught the attention of other Mediterranean powers, notably the Punic peoples of North Africa. Indeed, the central narrative of the Middle Republic period is the continued expansion of Roman hegemony into the eastern Mediterranean.

Population and political organization

Rome during the Republican period possessed no written constitution, but was governed largely through the power and prestige of the Senate, with a clear respect for precedent and for maintaining Rome's traditions.[10] A primary goal of the early Republic was to establish clear checks on the power of any single ruler - the military office of chief commander was in fact split between two generals (consuls), while the chief priestly and legislative posts were split among different people (individuals were restricted from holding multiple offices at once) - and popular assemblies voted on new laws. The first codification of Roman law was laid down in this period (mid-4th century BCE) in the form of the Twelve Tables, a series of legal proclamations establishing certain penalties and procedures for enforcing ritual and customary practices.[11]
Consuls were drawn from the senatorial elite - Rome's wealthy aristocratic families - until 367 BCE, when plebeians were first entitled to stand for this prestigious office.[12] This change followed a period known as the 'Conflict of the Orders', a time which poses intractable problems for historians because most sources date from after 367 BCE.[13] The conflict essentially pitted Rome's wealthy elite, who enjoyed nearly all of the prestige and power of political office as well as controlling most of the city's agricultural land, against the poorer members of society (plebeians), mainly small-scale or tenant farmers who had contributed to Roman territorial expansion by serving as soldiers during the wars of the early Republic.[14] Early on in the Republican period, in 494 BCE, the plebeians essentially went on strike, refusing to march to war against a coalition of tribes from central Italy.[15] A settlement was reached when Rome's aristocrats extended to the plebeians the right to vote for certain magistrates, known as the Tribunes of the Plebs (essentially the 'people's magistrates'). This was an important office charged with looking after the needs of Rome's poorer citizens, who held veto powers against decisions made in the Senate. Nevertheless, tensions between the aristocrats and the plebeians lingered throughout the 4th century BCE.
Romans of this period did not distinguish between what is today termed 'secular' and 'sacred' authority; although individual magistracies had distinct functions, the same person often held both religious and political offices over the course of their lifetime, as they were thought to be part of essentially the same sphere of governance. The Republic featured a substantial array of religious offices and institutions intended to determine the will of the gods or to please them through the proper performance of rituals and the maintenance of large public temples.[16] These public auspices were the basis of magisterial power in the Republic.[17] Auspices were sometimes taken by consuls and other officials, for example before important military engagements,[18] but were mainly managed by specialist elected priests and full-time priestesses (such as the Vestal Virgins) and other priestly offices supported by the state.[19]
As Rome defeated nearly all other powers in the region during this period, establishing colonies and turning many former enemies into new allies and confederates, the territory it claimed increased dramatically until it included nearly all of central and southern Italy. This amplified its agricultural wealth and access to other natural resources, leading to a period of economic and demographic expansion. Rome grew from around 100,000-200,000 people at the beginning of the period to perhaps as many as 1,000,000 by the start of the Middle Republic.[20]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 1,300: 500 BCE; 1,300: 400 BCE; [5,000-30,000]: 300 BCE ♥ At the beginning of the Republic, Roman territory comprised about 500 square miles, and by 338 BCE the territory controlled was 2000 square miles of Latium, expanding north and south.[21]

♠ Polity Population ♣ 100,000: 500 BCE; 150,000: 400 BCE; [500,000-1,000,000]: 300 BCE ♥ Inhabitants.

500 BCE

same area as 600 BCE

400 BCE

same area as 600 BCE

300 BCE

polity territory of 25,000-30,000 at this time. Rome had a reported census population of perhaps 250,000.[22] The new territory conquered did not have a city as large as Rome and may not have been especially densely population - for example, no large river basin/delta etc. Would a reasonable estimate would be a range [500,000-1,000,000]? Population of 3,750,000 around 220 BCE[23] when Rome had most of Italy and some overseas possessions so it unlikely will be more than 1,000,000 based on these estimates.

Rome[24]

100: 500 BCE
150: 400 BCE
250: 300 BCE

Rome (reported census tallies) [25]

c250,000: 300 BCE
c210,000: 200 BCE
c400,000: 100 BCE

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ 30,000: 500 BCE; 30,000: 400 BCE; [50,000-60,000]: 300 BCE ♥ Inhabitants.

500 BCE = same as polity population

same area as 600 BCE
Cornell has a population of ca 30,000 for Rome in 4th c, then at most 60,000 in 300 BCE

400 BCE = same as polity population

Cornell has a population of ca 30,000 for Rome in 4th c, then at most 60,000 in 300 BCE

300 BCE

Cornell has a population of ca 30,000 for Rome in 4th c, then at most 60,000 in 300 BCE

Rome[26]

100: 500 BCE
150: 400 BCE
250: 300 BCE

Rome (reported census tallies) [27] DH: NB - these censuses refer to polity pop, not pop of the city (and are highly problematic!). Cornell has a population of ca 30,000 for Rome in 4th c, then at most 60,000 in 300 BCE

c250,000: 300 BCE
c210,000: 200 BCE
c400,000: 100 BCE

"The pressure on space encouraged the development of multi-storey housing blocks in Rome as early as the third century BC; high prices for building plots also resulted in tall buildings being constructed in relatively narrow spaces and additional floors being added to already existing buildings."[28]</ref>

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 2: 500 BCE; 2: 400 BCE; 5: 300 BCE ♥

"much of central Italy remained without cities down to the age of Cicero. Here the pattern was of scattered villages and farmsteads, often within reach of a fortified hill-top, where it was possible to take refuge in time of war, but which was never built up or lived in, indeed which did not even fulfil the political or religious functions of a city."[29] Detailed descriptions of different types of communities in the Peninsula and their relations[30] [31][32] [33][34][35]

1. Rome

2. Satellite village

1. Capital 'Rome'

By 300 BC had expanded to include all of southern Italy.
2.municipia
3.coloniae
4. Village/vici
5. Pagi
rural settlements

colonies

338 BC Roman maritime colony at Antium.
334 BC Latin colony at Cales.
329 BC Roman maritime colony at Terracina.
328 BC Latin colony at Fregellae (just in Samnite territory).


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 3 ♥

Before the Roman Principate there was no formal bureaucracy. The old Roman treasury - the aerarium Saturni - was housed in the basement of the Temple of Saturn [36] The state treasury of the Roman Republic was kept in the custody of the priesthood inside the temple of Saturn, and was managed by elected aristocratic officials called quaestors.[37]


1. Consuls (two)

presided over the Senate
(minimum 42 years old) both also commanders. Elected by comitia centuriata, an aristocratic assembly.
Until 363 CE consuls may have been called praetors [38].
Two consuls, appointed for one year terms.[39]

_Governing institutions_

1. Senators in the Senate

Three hundred senators (no minimum age) elected for life, and ten tribunes to represent plebians (created 471 BCE).
2. Quaestors in the State treasury
Treasury called aerarium or aerarium Saturni (treasury of Saturn). This was used for "depositing cash and archives of the Roman state and was situated in the temple of Saturn below the Capitol. It was controlled by the quaestors under the general supervision of the Senate."[40] This treasury still existed during the empire period when revenues "were increasingly diverted into the fiscus (imperial treasury). The aerarium eventually became the treasury of the city of Rome."[41]
elected position. "financial and administrative officials who maintained public records, administered the treasury (aerarium), acted as paymasters accompanying generals on campaigns and were financial secretaries to governors."[42] In 2nd century BCE the quaestorship (a provincial appointment?) "was an entry-level office; it had limited powers, and in this period was usually held around age 30."[43]
3. Assistants or scribes?
3. Equites managerial class who hold public contracts
The equites, the plebeian "middle class", "were also able to take on public contracts, such as road building and supplying equipment to the army."[44]
4. Workers for Equites

1. Censors (two)

elected position. Two magistrates "that involved some especially important sacral and civic duties".[45] The office of the censor (censorship) from 443 BCE but not always present were two officials who enrolled citizens into military service.[46]

1. Aediles (two)

elected by comitia tributa. "Two plebeian magistrates administered temple of Ceres, function later "extended to public buildings and archives (of the plebiscita and senatus consulta). From 367 BC two curule aediles were elected from the patricians. The plebeian and curule aediles had similar functions at Rome; they were in charge of the maintenance and repair of public buildings (such as temples, roads and aqueducts), of markets (especially weights and measures), of the annona (to the time of Julius Caesar), and of public games and festivals (to the time of Augustus, when games were transferred to praetors)."[47]

1. Praetors (six?)

elected by comitia centuriata. "In 366 BC the praetor urbanus (city praetor) was introduced, who was almost exclusively concerned with the administration of law at Rome. The praetor ... was the supreme civil judge. By the middle republic the praetors' powers were restricted to law and justice... By 241 BC a second praetor ... was established to deal with legal cases in which one or both parties were foreigners. ... there were eight by 80 BC. Praetors issued annual edicts that were an important source of Roman law."[48] "A third magistracy, the praetorship, was also established in 367."[49] The first plebeian praetor was in 336 BCE.[50]


_ Provincial administration _

2. Municipia/praefecturae
Capua and Cumae had an internal government subject to Roman supervision [51]
2. Coloniae
First Latin coloniae after 338, Cales founded 334 BCE. Latin status not Roman citizenship. Other areas, such as Capua and Arpinum, immediately acquired Roman citizenship [52]
Colonies of citizens - 8 coastal by 264, Latin colonies established by military (devolved government modelled on Rome). Civitates foederate, socii (allies, contributed troops to Rome). [53]
2. Autonomous governments
Old Latin states (Tibur and Praeneste) autonomous government in treaty of 338 (could become Roman citizens and were obliged to provide soldiers)[54]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 4 ♥ [55][56] [57]

1. Pontifex maximus

2. Colleges (flamines, augurs, pontifices, vestals)
Three colleges of religious officials. 1. augurs 2. decemviri sacris faciundis 3. pontifices
3. high priests of imperial cult in provinces
4. priests for a deity (running a specific temple or sanctuary)
"Freelance" religious officials (soothsayers, oracles, seers, etc). This hierarchy refers to the state religion only.


Six Vestals, appointd by pontifex maximus. Girls 6-10 with two living parents served 30 years during which time had to remain chaste. After 30 released and free to marry. Duties included: tend sacred fire and sacred objects "on which the survival of Rome depended (such as the 'palladium')"; making salt cakes used at sacrifices; various rituals and ceremonial appearances. Vestals had unique "old-fashioned and heavy" costumes and impressive hairstyles "which other women only wore on their wedding".

"Because a vestal's person was sacrosanct, she could not be executed. Instead, she was entombed in an underground chamber with a bed, a lamp, and some food and water, and left to die. Male accomplices were publicly flogged to death."[58]

"The vestal virgins were responsible for maintaining the temple of Vesta and performing the rites of the goddess. They ensured that her holy flame, said to have been brought from Troy, was not extingished."[59]

The vestal virgins had many privileges: "Wills and treaties were in their keeping, and they themselves could make a will. They could conduct business in their own name. They could give evidence in court without taking an oath. ... If they accidentally met a criminal on his way to execution, he was spared."[60]; "any injury to them was punishable by death; they could own and administer their own property ...; when they went out they were preceded by a lictor and had complete right of way on the streets; they could even drive in carriages within the city limits (otherwise only permitted to empresses)."[61]; given prominent seats at games.[62]


♠ Military levels ♣ 6 ♥

1. King "The earliest contemporary description of a Roman legion was written by the Greek writer Polybius in c.150-120 BC. He describes a military organization that is distinctively Roman, and specifically refers to it as a 'legion'. It consisted of 4,200 infantry (5,000 in times of emergency), subdivided into units of 120 or 60 men called maniples ('handfuls'), and so modern scholars often refer to it as the 'manipular' legion, to distinguish it from later legions organized in larger subunits called cohorts." "It perhaps emerged in the 4th century BC (as Livy suggests), due to problems the Romans encountered fighting against enemies who fought in looser formations than the phalanx and in rougher terrain, to which the phalanx was unsuited."[63]

1. Two Consuls, field commanders. [64]

2. Quaestors, senior officers. [65]
"446 BC Creation of office of quaestor (two annually elected)." In 421 BCE quaestors increased to four. [66]
3. Legion (4,200 men) lead by six Tribunes
"Polybius (6.22-23; 25) describes how the legion in this period was divided into four types of infantry. There were three different groups of heavy infantry: 1,200 hastati ('spearmen'), 1,200 principes ('leading men') and 600 triarii ('third line men')."[67]
362 BCE "Henceforth Romans annually elect six military tribunes to serve under consuls." [68]
Legion "headed by six officers called tribunes, who had to have completed a minimum of five or ten years' military service before appointment."[69]
4. Maniple (120 or 60 men) commanded by two Centurions
"The hastati and principes were divided into ten maniples of 120 men, the triarii into ten of 60 men. The velites were also organized into ten subunits, and assigned to the heavy infantry.
"The officers who commanded the maniples, two for each, were centurions, elected by the soldiers themselves."[70]
5. Two Optio
Page 16 Pollard and Berry (2012): an "optio" is present in graphic but not described in text. [71]
6. Individual soldiers

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ absent ♥ The highest officers in the Roman military system were usually senators not professionals. There were, however, professional junior officers at least from the Roman Principate.

"Typically the men who commanded armies and legions were senators. There were no military specialists in Roman government and no imperial high command. All senators alternated brief periods of military command with administrative posts, participation in domestic politics and careers as legal advocates. As military commanders they were, to a great extent, amateurs, even though most did a brief spell as a junior officer (tribune) in a legion. They would have depended on the professional junior officers (tribunes and centurions) as well as the training and discipline of the legionaries themselves to win battles.""[72]

"Tribunes, like the legionary legate (commander), were drawn from Rome's social and political elite, the senatorial and equestrian orders, and were not professional soldiers. They alternated military service with political, judicial and administrative duties."[73]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ absent: 500 BCE; {present; absent}: 400 BCE; {present; absent}: 300 BCE ♥

Army pay introduced at the start of a campaign against Veii 406 CE: "According to Livy (4.9.11), the Senate introduced army pay (stipendium) to compensate the men serving in this struggle for the labor they lost on their family farms." For the same reason it is widely agreed that pay was introduced due to prolonged campaigns "from the later fourth century onwards, during the wars against the Samnites, the Etruscans, and Gauls." The tributum tax, which is mentioned "from roughly 400 BC onwards" is thought to have been introduced for citizens to pay for soldiers. [74]

Professional soldiers were certainly present from the beginning of the Roman Principate. "Augustus' main military reforms had the effect of turning the army into a standing force of long-service professionals, instead of the part-time citizen force of the Republic."[75] It is also argued that a professional corps developed from the reforms of Marius in 105 BCE. Some further maintain that the pre-existing citizen militia was "essentially professional" by 220 BCE.[76]


♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥

"Rome had no full-time male priests, but the Vestals were supported by the state and were full-time professional clergy, along with the priestess of Ceres and Proserpina." [77]

Early Roman cults were funded by regular public offerings, large individual donations, and payment for services. The hierarchy could also profit from land ownership. Professionalism of the priesthood likely pre-dates the Roman era as similar patterns are evident in Greek and Egyptian civilization. When the state provided gifts, it was often in the form of a lavish construction, such as a new temple. Examples: priests of Isis were "full-time religious professionals" [78]; Vestals were "supported by the state and were full-time professional clergy, along with the Priestess of Ceres and Proserpina." [79]

Priests "who interpreted the rules surrounding the auspices" were called augurs.[80] The augurs worked within two defined areas: a "sacral boundary formed by the circuit of the old city wall (pomerium)" referred to as public auspices and "Outside the city (militae, 'in the field'), another set obtained the 'military' auspices."[81]


Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ absent ♥ Before the Roman Principate there was no formal bureaucracy. The old Roman treasury - the aerarium Saturni - was housed in the basement of the Temple of Saturn [82] The state treasury of the Roman Republic was kept in the custody of the priesthood inside the temple of Saturn, and was managed by elected aristocratic officials called quaestors.[83]

During the Roman Principate there were salaried officials who worked in the Imperial Bureaux (scrinia) [84] but before this time any bureaucrats are thought to have been unpaid aristocrats within a complex administrative structure of five census classes each with its own fiscal and military duties.[85]

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ There was no examination system.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥ Roman administration was typically formed out of a class of hereditary aristocrats. Within the army, distinctions between classes of legionary and distinctions between age and experience were not eliminated until Marius in 105 BCE. [86]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ The first senate building, the Curia Hostilia, existed from about 600 BCE. [87] The first paving of the Roman Forum occurred around 575-625 BCE. [88] The first coin minted in Rome occurred about 269 BCE (one in Neapolis produced coins slightly earlier, around 281 BCE) and the first state archives was created in 78 BCE. Other buildings include: granaries and storehouses.

The Senate also often met in appropriate temples.[89] The old Roman treasury - the aerarium Saturni - was housed in the basement of the Temple of Saturn. There were lots of multi-purpose government buildings: basilicas, imperial fora, and porticos, which were utilized for government functions, such as official meetings or court hearings.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ A formal legal code was first founded in the Twelve Tables of 450-449 BCE. Law thereafter was based on precedent. Our sources of knowledge of Roman law include the forensic speeches of Cicero; the Institutes of Gaius textbook (from 160 CE); and, much later, the sixth century CE Corpus Ius Civilis of Justinian. Wax tablets and papyri (contracts and wills etc.) also provide information on Roman law. [90]

♠ Judges ♣ absent ♥ Professional judges did not exist until the Roman Dominate although at that time their precise role vis-a-vis that of Imperial officials is a matter of debate. [91] Before this time there were no judges as a distinct profession in the Roman system of law. Local magistrates dealt with local matters, provincial governors dealt with provincial matters, and the praetors often dealt with cases in Rome. The Roman people could be duly convened as a final court of appeal in cases involving citizens.

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥ During the Roman Dominate administration of justice was "thoroughly bureaucratized" and "regular courts, special courts were established to deal with particular matters and categories of persons." [92] Before this time there was no specialised court building. Courts could be held in the basilicas[93] (introduced by the 3rd Century BCE[94]) where a provincial governor could an hold audience or in the Roman forum. Basilicas were multi-purpose buildings a place for banking and money-changing and town hall activities. The forum was a multi-purpose building which had existed since the Roman Kingdom.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ {absent; present} ♥

Law specialists first existed during the Principate when they commanded fees for their expertise. We know this because Emperor Claudius attempted to "limit the fees of advocates, which had become intolerably heavy" to protect "women and other helpless litigants from the rapacity of their lawyers." [95] The first law school in Rome, for persons who wished to pursue career in the Imperial civil service, was established late second century CE. "Professional" lawyers replaced orators during the Roman Dominate period.[96] At this time, lawyers were amateurs. "With a few exceptions, the leading jurists belonged to the Senatorial aristocracy... expert knowledge and 'professional' in these fields [rhetoric, logic and grammar] were not matters for gentlemen but schoolmasters, frequently Greeks, slaves or freedmen." [97]

Brennan (2004) refers to "specialists in jurisprudence" during Republican Rome.[98] "Certainly by c. 200 B.C. the Roman elite was taking an academic interest in the city-state's legal history."[99] "In the developed Republic ... some important colleges of priests maintained books of precedents; the senate's part decrees could be consulted in written form."[100] Latin legal literature began to develop c.200 BCE.[101]


Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ absent ♥ Possibly unnecessary within Italy at this time due to sufficient rainfall. [102]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ In 312 BCE Appius Claudius Caecus commissioned the first aqueduct [103]. Aqua Appia and Anio Vetus. [104]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ Urban markets apparent from the 2nd century BCE [105] The multi-function forum building also functioned as a marketplace.
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ Rome's mayoral office which supervised the import of grain, dates back to early days of the Roman Republic. [106] "The Republican stages of the Roman attempt to deal with storage problems are to some extent lost, because the material remains of most of the warehouses we have found belong to the Imperial period, but there are some clues." [107] From literary sources [Livy] it seems that the major development of Rome's river port and its attendant warehouses did not take place until the early second century B.C. Earlier the old Forum Boarium and Forum Holitorium in the centre of Rome seem to have coped with the main flow of imports which had probably come down the Tiber from the Italian hills." [108]


Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ The Via Salaria, “salt road,” and the Sacra Via in Rome, were in existence from the beginning of the Roman Kingdom. [109] The first paved road was the probably the military road to Capua called the Appian Way commissioned by Appius Claudius Caecus around 312 BCE.[110] In about 450 BCE the laws of the Twelve Tables, dated to approximately 450 BCE, issued regulations for the dimensions of roads. So at least from 450 BCE the pre-paved roads had maintenance work done of them.
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ The first bridge thought to be the Pons Sublicius possibly in built 642 BCE under Ancus Marcius.
♠ Canals ♣ absent ♥ The first canal is thought to have been built by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (consul 187 BCE) to drain the lower Po region.
♠ Ports ♣ present ♥ There was a port known as Caere 50km north west of Rome during the Roman Kingdom. [111] A port is thought to have been built under Ancus Marcius. However, another source says: "The port of Cosa, the earliest Roman port thus far known, was founded in 273 B.C." [112]


Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ present ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥ unknown
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ The 303 CE civil law by Flavius [113]. 508 BC "First treaty between Carthage and Rome (according to Polybius)." [114] Only a small number of Romans in this period could write.
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Greek, Latin for official documents. [115]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Twelve Tables laws 450 BCE.
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ Calendar of Numa in use since 713 BCE. Pontifex Maximus determined when an intercalary month was to be inserted.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Temple building would have been associated with written outline of beliefs and religious practices.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ The Sibyl of Cumae reportedly offered nine books of prophecies to the Roman Kingdom monarch Tarquin. Three books were purchased and kept in the Temple of Jupiter.
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ By late 4th century conquered land was being organized with the Centuriatio grid system [116] which suggests written discussion on land management.
♠ History ♣ inferred present ♥ Intellectual culture and Greek cultural inheritance.
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred present ♥ Intellectual culture and Greek cultural inheritance.
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Presence of weights and measures, intellectual culture and Greek cultural inheritance.
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred present ♥ Slightly later than this period but close enough to suggest presence (noting the intellectual culture and Greek cultural inheritance of the Roman polity): 240 BCE Latin translation of a Greek play. Satires of Lucilius, tragedies of Pacuvias (220-131 BCE). Greek inspired work, Ennius "Annales", Plautus's comedies, poetry and drame of Naevius (270-200). [117]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Slaves were acquired by means of exchange: "we are told that some Gallic chiefs were so fond of Italian wine they would give a slave for a single jar, and there is literary evidence for Gallic slaves in Italy."[118] Salt was used as payment to soldiers from 406 BCE and was an essential commodity with the "Salt Road" being in existence from the start of the Roman Kingdom period.
♠ Tokens ♣ {absent; present} ♥ Spintria may have been used in the Principate to pay prostitutes although it is also argued that these were gaming pieces.
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ gold was used as a store of wealth (cf J.-M. Carrié 2003 "Solidus et Credit") and conceivably was used for payment.
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ Rawson states "Rome did not ... impose a common coinage over her sphere of influence, unlike Athens."[119]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Late fourth century adopted coinage on Greek model.[120] "Around 272 Aurelian attempted a currency reform. In place of the defunct sestertius, he issued a XXI billon (very debased silver) coinage as small change (a reformed antoninianus). ... They were made of copper washed in silver and contained about 5 percent silver." [121] Rome produced its first coin about 281 BCE, a Greek-style silver didrachma, minted in Neapolis (and twelve years later coins were minted in Rome.) Prior to end of Second Punic War (end 201 BCE) many coins were produced by communities other than Rome. Monetary and economic unity from Rome was achieved by the early 1st century BCE. [122]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ The Romans did not use paper currency in any period.

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ "Before Augustus, Romans wanting to post a letter had to find a courier wherever they could, and work out the arrangements for delivery ad hoc.[123]
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥ No general postal service until the Cursus Publicus, established by Augustus during the Principate.
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥ No general postal service until the Cursus Publicus, established by Augustus during the Principate.

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from presence of bronze.
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ From an earlier period: "Whereas clansmen were best equipped for and accustomed to cattle raids and skirmishes, hoplites were armoured spearmen who fought shoulder to shoulder in a phalanx formation. These citizen-soldiers were now protected by helmet, corselet and greaves, all of bronze, and wielded a long spear and large shield."[124]
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ [125]
♠ Steel ♣ inferred present ♥ "By the time of the Roman Republic (c.509-44BC), the use of steel in the manufacture of swords was well advanced and Roman swordsmiths smelted iron ore and carbon in a bloomery furnace (the predecessor of the blast furnace)." [126] However, this source is not very academic, so a better source is needed to be sure.

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ 7ft javelins [127]
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ Balearic slingers (mercenaries).[128] According to Livy, Servian Classes IV and V were skirmishers, who carried a sling. [129]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from flint arrowheads found in earlier period.
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Aegean bowmen (mercenaries) [130]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not at this time: "the hand-held crossbow was invented by the Chinese, in the fifth century BC, and probably came into the Roman world in the first century AD, where it was used for hunting."[131] The crossbow also developed after the Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE.[132]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE. [133]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet.

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ An aklys isa small club, sometimes with spikes on one end and often attached to the arm with a leather strap, estimated to have been used by the Osci tribes of phrehistoric Italy.[134]
♠ Battle axes ♣ unknown ♥ Used in clannish period before introduction of Hoplite equipment c600 BCE.
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ "Legionaries ... employed a short-bladed 'Spanish' sword optimized for stabbing."[135]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Early Roman equipment was Hellenistic and "would not have been out of place in a Hoplite phalanx." The warrior had two spears of different sized heads. [136] "Hastati and principes also carried a pair of pila (singular pilum), heavy (thus armour-piercing) throwing spears with a long iron head set in a wooden shaft. Pila were thrown at short range before the legionaries engaged their enemies at close quarters with the sword."[137] "Hoplite panoplies have been discovered in the so-called Tomb of the Warrior at Vulci, dating to c. 530 B.C., as well as in a tomb at Lanuvium in Latium dating to the early fifth century" (citing Torelli 1989 and Drummond).[138]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Romans kept geese as intruder alarms along with sentry dogs as they were more sensitive to intruders.[139]
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Cavalry [140]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ unknown ♥ "Hoplite panoplies have been discovered in the so-called Tomb of the Warrior at Vulci, dating to c. 530 B.C., as well as in a tomb at Lanuvium in Latium dating to the early fifth century" (citing Torelli 1989 and Drummond).[141]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ [142] According to Livy, the military citizen army of Servius Tullius (579-534 BCE) was divided into classes. Servian class I used Greek style hoplite equipment together with a round shield called a clipeus. Classes I and II used oval shield called a scrutum. [143] "Legionaries carried a distinctively Roman shield, a long (4 Roman feet, c 1.17 m) oval type called a scutum, of laminated wood and canvas with an iron rim and boss."[144] "Hoplite panoplies have been discovered in the so-called Tomb of the Warrior at Vulci, dating to c. 530 B.C., as well as in a tomb at Lanuvium in Latium dating to the early fifth century" (citing Torelli 1989 and Drummond).[145]
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred present ♥ [146] Early Roman equipment was Hellenistic which implies helmets and Roman illustrations from the 5th century depict helmets. [147] "Hoplite panoplies have been discovered in the so-called Tomb of the Warrior at Vulci, dating to c. 530 B.C., as well as in a tomb at Lanuvium in Latium dating to the early fifth century" (citing Torelli 1989 and Drummond).[148]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ "Hoplite panoplies have been discovered in the so-called Tomb of the Warrior at Vulci, dating to c. 530 B.C., as well as in a tomb at Lanuvium in Latium dating to the early fifth century" (citing Torelli 1989 and Drummond).[149]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ Greaves.[150] "Hoplite panoplies have been discovered in the so-called Tomb of the Warrior at Vulci, dating to c. 530 B.C., as well as in a tomb at Lanuvium in Latium dating to the early fifth century" (citing Torelli 1989 and Drummond).[151]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent: 509-300 BCE; suspected unknown: 299-264 BCE ♥ Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples.[152] Need a Roman specialist to comment on this.
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Possible. Already introduced by Assyria.
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred present ♥ By 600 BCE early Greeks and Romans had introduced the bronze cast bell muscle cuirass.[153] Need a Roman specialist to comment on this.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ present ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ The Early Roman Republic did not build specialized military vessels. Rome relied on allies and subject peoples for ships. The First Punic War, from 264 BCE, saw the first systematic attempt by the Romans to make their own ships and for this purpose they copied the Carthaginian quinquireme. To this they added a corvus (bridge) which was used to board enemy ships.[154]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moat ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ unknown ♥ "Romans were so fond of the texture effect of opus quadratum that they continued to use this technique even after having developed more effective kinds of masonry." [155]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ [156] The 392 BCE conquest Veii gave the Romans access to a quality building stone, the Grotta Oscura tufa. In 374 BCE a stone wall constructed around Rome used this stone.[157] opus caementicium - Roman concrete. Servian wall constructed from 378 BCE. [158]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ present ♥ [159]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

for the largest armies 20-25 miles per day. Theodore Dodge's Caesar: A History of The Art of War (1900). http://seshat.info/File:DodgeHow.jpg

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine; Edward A L Turner ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ present ♥ Consuls always acted in collaboration with the senate.[160] Probably "from a very early stage, some sort of right of appeal of the people against the possible arbitrariness of superior magistrates ... The intercessio from a colleague or a tribune of the plebs was another mechanism to assure some balance of power, aimed at preventing abuses and favoring reaching consensus."[161] Annual succession (term period of the magistrates) might be considered a constraint on the executive.[162] Collegiate nature of rule might be considered a constraint: "it is difficult to find any early Roman magistracy which is not collegiate, in the simple sense of being comprised of more than one individual. Even the dictatorship, the least collegiate of all Roman offices, is both inextricable from the office of the magister equitum, and circumscribed by various restrictions. The praetorship after 367 would stand out here, although not if regarded as inextricably linked with the consulship."[163] After 494 BCE "the powers of the plebeian tribunes would encroach further on the consuls' exercise of imperium. Indeed the tribunes had the power of veto against all regular magistrates, but only in Rome itself."[164] Mid 5th century BCE consular tribunate (abolished 367 BCE): "each of a year's consular tribunes had veto power over other individual members of his college."[165] 287 BCE a "law was passed reaffirming that all citizens were to be subject to plebiscites."[166] In 339 BCE a plebeian dictator "passed serveral progressive measures, one of which ... made plebiscita ... binding on the whole people" including the powerful families, a law which had previously (apparently unsuccessfully?) been ruled in 449 BCE.[167]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ present ♥ In 300 BCE "the right to appeal to the whole people (provocatio ad populum) against decisions of consuls and other magistrates was guaranteed; this law was said to have reinforced earlier laws of 509 and 449."[168] According to tradition, from the beginning: "A Roman citizen now generally had the possibility of appeal (provocatio) to the people against a consul who exercised his power in the area enclosed by the pomerium plus one mile beyond."[169] "Commanders in the field did not have their imperium thus restricted until the 'Porcian Laws' sometime in the second century B.C."[170]
♠ Impeachment ♣ present ♥ consules could be removed from power for negligence, by censors after 3rd c BCE [171]

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ "patricians - an elite class that closed their ranks to new members c. 500 B.C., soon after the expulsion of the Tarquins".[172] Elite status directly related to the public auspices ritual which "entailed the competence to request, observe, and announce Jupiter's signs regarding an important act and then to complete what was intended. Since auspication preceded every major action taken on the state's behalf, it formed the basis of regal and then, in the Republic, magisterial power."[173] Elite positions became open to plebeian class but to a large degree elite status was hereditary. "the ascent of a family to the consulship over several generations was a common enough phenomenon; and a man who ennobled himself and his descendants by being the first of his family to achieve consulship or other high office was known as a novus homo, new man."[174] "Until 445 BCE patricians could not marry plebeians, and a free person could not marry a freedman or freedwoman until legistlation under Augustus made it permissible (except for senators)."[175]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred absent ♥ Republican rulers (Senators) based their power on aristocratic heritage, and their authority was not seen as ordained by gods, although religious / secular authority was indistinct and rulers acted to ensure favour of the gods on the Roman Republic. Previously coded "inferred present", based on the following: "Undoubtedly the most salient feature of Roman republican religion lies in the fact that religious authority and religious institutions were tightly interwoven with political authority and the political institutions of the res publica. [...] There was no separate priestly class in which religious authority was vested, but the same men who made decisions regarding the relationships of the Roman community with other human communities also made the decisions regarding its relationship with the divine community." [176] Religious/secular power is not the same as having rule legitimated through divine authority

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ "Ruler worship is not generally considered characteristic of Roman society during the republican period (conventionally 509-31 BC), a period during which the polity developed from a conventional city-state to a regional hegemon and finally a territorial empire controlling the entire Mediterranean basin and its immediate hinterlands. Properly speaking, the cult of the emperors extended from the accession of the first emperor, Octavian/Augustus (conventionally dated to 31 BC.) to the conversion to Christianity of the emperor Constantine in AD 312. framed in these terms, divine kingship in rome is a phenomenon limited to the early empire, commonly termed the Principate." [177] However, Woolf also argues that "if the Greek world before Alexander, or rome before Augustus, seem to be worlds without ruler cult, this is in part a result of us defining the latter in a rather narrow form." [178]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ absent ♥ Slavery was an important social institution throughout Roman history [179] political ideology asserted clear distinctions between social classes in terms of power, wealth, and authority

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following quote, dating to the Late Republic--so we are inferring continuity between the Early Republic and this period. "'Equality,' wrote Cicero, 'is unequal when it does not recognize grades of dignity.' The most dignified citizens were the senators, whose dignity consisted in the public offices they held, the responsibilities they shouldered, and the fortunes they spent to maintain public order. Thus they earned the advantages they enjoyed, not least preferential treatment under the law. Ordinary citizens, for their part, were alert, if also submissive, to the “conflict between certain moral aspirations (justice, for instance) and the social institutions (like the law) which attempt to enshrine them.' [...] Cicero’s criticism of undifferentiated equality reflects the other ancient ideology, which provided for the judicial privileges enjoyed by the Roman elite for centuries. [...] Most of its judicial privileges, and most of our evidence for how the ideology of status affected justice, 'were grounded not in legislative enactment, but in administrative rules, customary practices, and ultimately the social attitudes of the ruling elite.'" [180]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the following quote, dating to the Late Republic--so we are inferring continuity between the Early Republic and this period. "'Equality,' wrote Cicero, 'is unequal when it does not recognize grades of dignity.' The most dignified citizens were the senators, whose dignity consisted in the public offices they held, the responsibilities they shouldered, and the fortunes they spent to maintain public order. Thus they earned the advantages they enjoyed, not least preferential treatment under the law. Ordinary citizens, for their part, were alert, if also submissive, to the “conflict between certain moral aspirations (justice, for instance) and the social institutions (like the law) which attempt to enshrine them.' [...] Cicero’s criticism of undifferentiated equality reflects the other ancient ideology, which provided for the judicial privileges enjoyed by the Roman elite for centuries. [...] Most of its judicial privileges, and most of our evidence for how the ideology of status affected justice, 'were grounded not in legislative enactment, but in administrative rules, customary practices, and ultimately the social attitudes of the ruling elite.'" [181]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ "Roman religion in the [early-] middle and late republic, a period stretching from the beginning of the Punic Wars in the early third century to the death of Julius Caesar and the ascension of the first emperor Augustus in the late first century BCE, concerned itself with the city of Rome. This statement may seem to be a truism, but it actually expresses the two fundamental features of Roman religion: that the Roman religious system concerned itself primarily with the health of the Roman community, and that it was a religion of place. The primary purpose of the public religious system was to protect and enhance the community of the Romans; the modern notion of a separation of church and state would have been unthinkable to the Romans. The welfare of the city and its inhabitants was ensured by a series of rituals by which the Romans attempted to secure the goodwill of the gods, and the primary role of the religious authorities in Rome was to ensure that these rituals were performed in the proper way, at their proper time, and in their proper place. The second point follows from the first: Roman rituals were performed in specific places around the city of Rome in order to protect the city. Some of these places had been considered sacred from time immemorial, while others had gained their status over the years, but each location had its specific ritual that needed to be performed on that spot, and at a specified time of the year." [182]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ [183]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [184] [185] [186]

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