ItLatIA

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Latium - Iron Age ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Latial Culture; Southern Villanovan; Old Latium; Latium Vetus ♥ 900-770 BCE: Latial Culture, Southern Villanovan, Old Latium, Latium Vetus [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1000-580 BCE ♥ [2]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Latium - Bronze Age ♥ [3]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ [4]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Roman Kingdom ♥ [5]
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Latial Culture ♥ [6]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥


♠ Language ♣ Latin ♥ [7]

General Description

In Latium, the region of Central Italy roughly corresponding to modern-day Lazio, the earliest evidence for the emergence of a distinctive regional culture dates to the 10th century BCE.[8] Iron Age Latial culture has been divided into the following phases and sub-phases: LC I (1000-900), LC IIA (900-830), LC IIB (830-770), LC IIIA (770-740), LC IIIB (740-720), LC IVA (720-620) and LC IVB (620-580).[9] This period is known by several names, including Old Latium (Latium Vetus in Latin and Lazio Antico in Italian) and the Southern Villanovan.[10]
The first and second phases of the Latial culture correspond respectively to the Proto-Villanovan and Villanovan archaeological cultures of Italy as a whole. The fourth phase is contemporary with the Orientalizing period of Etruscan civilization, and the third phase is transitional between the second and fourth phases. LC I is characterized by simple undecorated pottery and cremation as the dominant funerary rite, while in LC II cremation is replaced by inhumation, and pottery is decorated with simple patterns. Foreign influences can be detected in the pottery of LC III, and in the fourth and final phase both foreign pottery and its local imitations are represented.[11] Major sites include Osteria dell'Osa and Castel di Decima.

Population and political organization

It is difficult to reconstruct the exact political organization of Iron Age settlements in Latium. At Osteria dell'Osa, one of the most well studied LC II sites likely inhabited by between one and three hundred people, the distribution and quality of grave goods suggest that status was largely determined by age and gender. Men were usually buried with weapons, women with weaving equipment and jewellery, and the elderly with drinking cups. LC III and IV burials provide evidence for increasing social differentiation, a decrease in the importance of gender and age for determining status, and greater receptivity to external (i.e. Greek and Etruscan) influences. Most of the burials at Castel di Decima (LC III and IV) are quite simple inhumations, with no or modest grave goods, but a minority of graves are accompanied by high-quality goods such as amber beads, gold fibulae, and even chariots. The wealth of this minority appears to increase throughout the 8th and 7th centuries.[12]
There appear to be no reliable estimates for the overall population of Latium at this time. However, a few estimates exist for the population size of settlements. At one extreme, some sources suggest that thousands of people lived at some Iron Age settlements.[13] However, Osteria dell'Osa likely only had between one and three hundred inhabitants.[14]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [100-300] ♥ Inhabitants.

Rome, like Veii and other Etruscan poleis, likely had more than 100 inhabitants in 800 BCE.

Osteria dell'Osa, the best known site (but not the largest site in Latium at any point), is estimated to have been inhabited by 100 people [15]. However, it is possible that Osteria dell'Osa was not a unitary settlement, but a cluster of small villages. [16]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [1-3] ♥ levels.

Writing present which would have helped organize and create administrative levels.

Cornell writes that there is "no evidence of economically differentiated classes or any other kind of permanent social stratification" [17], but after pointing differences in burial treatment of a certain restricted group of privileged males compared to the general population, including a "potential chief or leader" of Osteria dell'Osa, which suggests that there was some kind of social stratification [18]. There is a lot of evidence for the existence of elites throughout the chronological sequence [19][20].

"Most of the burials at Castel di Decima (LC III and IV) are quite simple inhumations, with no or modest grave goods, but a minority of graves are accompanied by high-quality goods such as amber beads, gold fibulae, and even chariots. The wealth of this minority appears to increase throughout the 8th and 7th centuries.[21]

♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

1. Holy man
The cremated remains of what appears to have been a ritual specialist at Osteria dell'Osa have been found, accompanied by a small figurine depicting a human making an offering, as well as a miniaturised sacrificial knife, a ritually broken pot and miniaturised vessels of the kind that were used to make ritual offerings [22].

♠ Military levels ♣ [1-3] ♥ levels.

A restricted group of individuals were cremated, instead of inhumed, and their urns were accompanied by vessels containing, among other things, weapons, suggesting that these males were warriors of some kind [23]. However, there is no indication of differences, among these warriors, in terms of rank.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ absent ♥ The highest officers in the Roman military system were not professionals.

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ absent ♥ Not until 406 BCE did "Romans introduce pay for military service." [24] This is the earliest possible start date for professional soldiers.

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ Early Roman cults were funded by regular public offerings, large individual donations, and payment for services. The hierarchy could also profit from land ownership. Professionalism of the priesthood likely pre-dates the Roman era as similar patterns are evident in Greek and Egyptian civilization. When the state provided gifts, it was often in the form of a lavish construction, such as a new temple. Examples: priests of Isis were "full-time religious professionals" [25]

The cremated remains of what appears to have been a ritual specialist at Osteria dell'Osa have been found, accompanied by a small figurine depicting a human making an offering, as well as a miniaturised sacrificial knife, a ritually broken pot and miniaturised vessels of the kind that were used to make ritual offerings [26]. However, it may be excessive to leap to the conclusion that there was a "professional priesthood".

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ absent ♥ During the Roman Principate there were salaried officials who worked in the Imperial Bureaux (scrinia) [27] but before this time any bureaucrats that existed are thought to have been unpaid aristocrats.

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ There was no examination system.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥ Roman administration was typically formed out of a class of hereditary aristocrats. Within the army, distinctions between classes of legionary and distinctions between age and experience were not eliminated until Marius in 105 BCE. [28]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ absent ♥ The first senate building, the Curia Hostilia, existed from about 600 BCE. [29] The first paving of the Roman Forum occurred around 575-625 BCE. [30] The first coin minted in Rome occurred about 269 BCE (one in Neapolis produced coins slightly earlier, around 281 BCE) and the first state archives was created in 78 BCE. Other possible buildings include: granaries and storehouses.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred absent ♥ A formal legal code was first founded in the Twelve Tables of 450-449 BCE. Law thereafter was based on precedent. Our sources of knowledge of Roman law include the forensic speeches of Cicero; the Institutes of Gaius textbook (from 160 CE); and, much later, the sixth century CE Corpus Ius Civilis of Justinian. Wax tablets and papyri (contracts and wills etc.) also provide information on Roman law. [31] However, before this time restrictions on funerary extravagance, from the start of the 6th century, may suggest the Twelve Tables laws (of the Early Republic) codified an existing body of law and legal practices. [32]

♠ Judges ♣ absent ♥ Professional judges did not exist until the Roman Dominate although at that time their precise role vis-a-vis that of Imperial officials is a matter of debate. [33] Before this time there were no judges as a distinct profession in the Roman system of law. Local magistrates dealt with local matters, provincial governors dealt with provincial matters, and the praetors often dealt with cases in Rome. The Roman people could be duly convened as a final court of appeal in cases involving citizens.

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥ During the Roman Dominate administration of justice was "thoroughly bureaucratized" and "regular courts, special courts were established to deal with particular matters and categories of persons." [34] Before this time there was no specialised court building. Courts could be held in the basilicas[35] (introduced by the 3rd Century BCE[36]) where a provincial governor could an hold audience or in the Roman forum. Basilicas were multi-purpose buildings a place for banking and money-changing and town hall activities. The forum was a multi-purpose building which had existed since the Roman Kingdom.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥ Law specialists first existed during the Principate when they commanded fees for their expertise. We know this because Emperor Claudius attempted to "limit the fees of advocates, which had become intolerably heavy" to protect "women and other helpless litigants from the rapacity of their lawyers." [37] The first law school in Rome, for persons who wished to pursue career in the Imperial civil service, was established late second century CE. "Professional" lawyers replaced orators during the Roman Dominate period.[38]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Possibly unnecessary within Italy at this time due to sufficient rainfall. [39]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥ A pipe network that connects the drinking water to individual settlements is not known to exist / not thought to be present.
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The multi-function Roman forum building which also functioned as a marketplace was not present at this time.
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The multi-function Roman forum building which also functioned as a marketplace was not present at this time "From literary sources [Livy] it seems that the major development of Rome's river port and its attendant warehouses did not take place until the early second century B.C. Earlier the old Forum Boarium and Forum Holitorium in the centre of Rome seem to have coped with the main flow of imports which had probably come down the Tiber from the Italian hills." [40]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥ unknown. The Via Salaria, “salt road,” and the Sacra Via in Rome, were in existence from the beginning of the Roman Kingdom. [41] The first paved road was the probably the Appian Way which dates to 312 BCE. In about 450 BCE the laws of the Twelve Tables, dated to approximately 450 BCE, issued regulations for the dimensions of roads. So at least from 450 BCE the pre-paved roads had maintenance work done of them. Due to the importance of the "salt road", however, it is likely this mud track had maintenance work during the Roman Kingdom.
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred absent ♥ The first bridge thought to be the Pons Sublicius possibly in built 642 BCE under Ancus Marcius.
♠ Canals ♣ absent ♥ The first canal is thought to have been built by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (consul 187 BCE) to drain the lower Po region.
♠ Ports ♣ ♥ unknown. There was a port known as Caere 50km north west of Rome during the Roman Kingdom. [42] A port is thought to have been built under Ancus Marcius. However, another source says: "The port of Cosa, the earliest Roman port thus far known, was founded in 273 B.C." [43]

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥ probably unknown
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ Art. E.g. Black-figure pottery painting.
♠ Written records ♣ inferred absent ♥ Western alphabet developed c800 BCE and by 700 BCE had arrived in Italy. [44] However, "most [Italian peoples before the Romans] were not even literate" [45], although some writing has been found in association with elite graves [46]
♠ Script ♣ inferred absent ♥ Western alphabet developed c800 BCE and by 700 BCE had arrived in Italy. [47] However, "most [Italian peoples before the Romans] were not even literate" [48], although some writing has been found in association with elite graves [49]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ inferred absent ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ inferred absent ♥ Servius Tullius (578-534 BCE) carried out the first Roman census. [50]
♠ Calendar ♣ [absent; present] ♥ First Roman calendar thought to be the 8th century BCE "Calendar of Romulus." Numa Pompilius reformed this calendar in 713 BCE>
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the fact that "most [Italian peoples before the Romans] were not even literate" [51], although some writing has been found in association with elite graves [52]. Religious inscriptions discovered at Lavinium. [53] probably applies to Roman Kingdom polity.
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred absent ♥ The Sibyl of Cumae reportedly offered nine books of prophecies to the Roman Kingdom monarch Tarquin. Three books were purchased and kept in the Temple of Jupiter.
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred absent ♥ probably unknown
♠ History ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred absent ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Salt was used as payment to soldiers from 406 BCE and was an essential commodity with the "Salt Road" being in existence from the start of the Roman Kingdom period.
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥ probably unknown
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥ probably unknown
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥ unknown but probably inferred present? Greek coinage may have present in Rome and the first Roman coin was based on the Greek style.
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ Rome produced its first coin about 281 BCE, a Greek-style silver didrachma, minted in Neapolis (and twelve years later coins were minted in Rome.) [54]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ The Romans did not use paper currency in any period.

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Before Augustus, Romans wanting to post a letter had to find a courier wherever they could, and work out the arrangements for delivery ad hoc.[55] This would be inferred present if there was a proto-government administration at this time.
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No general postal service until the Cursus Publicus, established by Augustus during the Principate. However "A series of postal stations connected by wagon and horse relays along the major trunk roads of the Empire". [56]
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥ No general postal service until the Cursus Publicus, established by Augustus during the Principate.

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Edward A L Turner; Alec Vulfson ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the presence of bronze.
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Inferred from the presence of miniaturised bronze weapons in certain burial sites [57].
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ A short iron sword found in Quattro Fontanili cemetery in Veii near Rome.[58] However, sword blades were typically made of bronze, the use of iron being "comparatively rare." [59] Used in spearheads.[60] Iron likely present in Latium from Roman Kingdom 700 BCE (note their Etruscan-origin kings). “Most metallurgical activity in both Italy and Spain, however, dates to a time after the sixth century BC, when iron weapons and implements appear more frequently, with some exceptional finds such as the group of 150 almost identical axes from an archaic Greek shipwreck off the north coast of Mallorca’.” [61] Iron spearheads in south Italy appeared eighth century BCE. Bronze spearheads continued to be manufactured during the Early Iron Age. End of eighth century BC, iron completely replaced bronze for spearheads. (Inala 2014). Lost full reference, expert needed to locate full name and work.
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ Certainly likely present toward end of period, if not earlier.
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ Many ancient armies used slingers. Vulnerable to counter-attacks, slinger units were usually small and used at the start of the battle. Because of the training required to produce and effective slinger they were often hired mercenaries.[62]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from flint arrowheads found in earlier period - but were they used in a military capacity?
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Composite bow already an important weapon of the pre-Roman Iron Age.[63]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ In Anatolia siege warfare was mentioned in Old Hittite records.[64] Presumably at this time the catapult was not used? In India, according to Jain texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone".[65] Marsden (1969) said archaeological records exist before the 4th century BCE.[66] The Achaemenids (c400 BCE?) are assumed to have had the catapult because the Macedonians did.[67] Pollard and Berry (2012) say torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE.[68] The Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE which encouraged the development of large tension-powered weapons.[69]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ The counter-weight trebuchet was first used by the Byzantines in 1165 CE.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ An aklys isa small club, sometimes with spikes on one end and often attached to the arm with a leather strap, estimated to have been used by the Osci tribes of phrehistoric Italy.[70]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Bronze axe found in the Quattro Fontanili cemetery in Veii near Rome. [71]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Knives were found in the Bernardini tomb in Praeneste [72].
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Miniaturised and full-size swords were buried next to the urns of important males [73].
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Miniaturised and full-size spears were buried next to the urns of important males.[74]
♠ Polearms ♣ present ♥ Lances were buried along with the remains of an elite male at Castel di Decima [75].

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from the war chariots found at six different graves at Castel di Decima [76]. Iron horse bits and bronze cheek pieces found at the Quattro Fontanili cemetery in Veii near Rome. [77]
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ present ♥ Shields
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ Shields
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Found buried in the richest grave at Castel di Decima [78]. "Miniature weapons and armour (swords, daggers, spears, shields, pectorals also occur in central Italy in the Early Iron age, for example in a few tombs in the Latial cemetery of Osteria dell'Osa" [79]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ "Early Iron Age sheet bronze helmets adorn select rich male tombs" [80]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ Found buried in the richest grave at Castel di Decima [81]. "Miniature weapons and armour (swords, daggers, spears, shields, pectorals also occur in central Italy in the Early Iron age, for example in a few tombs in the Latial cemetery of Osteria dell'Osa" [82] "The simple metal disc worn on the breast and sometimes the back of warriors was one of the oldest forms of body-armour. It was usually supported by crossed straps passing over the shoulders, as in the case of the statue of a seventh- to sixth-century B.C. Italic warrior from Capistrano in the Museo Nazionale, Rome". [83]
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ Helmets, pectorals, greaves.[84] What date does this reference refer to precisely?
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ [85]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ present ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ This concept of defense, ditch and mound, is an old one, as the defenses of Ardea, Decima, Acqua Acetosa, Laurentina and Gabii demonstrate. [86]
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ This concept of defense, ditch and mound, is an old one, as the defenses of Ardea, Decima, Acqua Acetosa, Laurentina and Gabii demonstrate. [87]
♠ Moat ♣ inferred absent ♥ No fortresses to moat?
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred absent ♥ Fortifications consisted mainly of earthen walls, some like the Colle Rotondo were internally reinforced by transverse cross beams.[88]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Jill Levine ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ [absent; present] ♥ Cornell writes that there is "no evidence of economically differentiated classes or any other kind of permanent social stratification" [89], but after pointing differences in burial treatment of a certain restricted group of privileged males compared to the general population, including a "potential chief or leader" of Osteria dell'Osa, which suggests that there was some kind of social stratification [90]. There is a lot of evidence for the existence of elites throughout the chronological sequence [91][92]. "Most of the burials at Castel di Decima (LC III and IV) are quite simple inhumations, with no or modest grave goods, but a minority of graves are accompanied by high-quality goods such as amber beads, gold fibulae, and even chariots. The wealth of this minority appears to increase throughout the 8th and 7th centuries.[93]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ inferred absent ♥ There are three important shifts in funerary rituals during this sequence, particularly as regards grave goods [94][95]: (1) 900-720 BCE: Different categories of people were accompanied by different types of grave goods. For example: children and infants were buried with worn and used pottery, adults with better-quality vessels; women were buried with more personal adorments than men, as well as, usually, a spindle whorl (and a few women with rather large assemblages of weaving tools). A special group, mostly men between the ages of 17 and 45, were buried with miniature or full-sized weapons, miniature vessels and drinking cups, and bronze brooches and razors. In one case, the deceased was buried with a miniature sacrificial knife, vessels used to make offering, and a human figurine depicted in a pose suggesting it is making an offering. (2) 770-580 BCE: Most graves have few or no grave goods, but the elites were buried with extremely rich assemblages: several women were buried dressed in garments ornamented with amber and glass beads and wearing silver or gold fibulae, with their hair bound in silver wire. Bowls for mixing wine were also buried with women. Weapons were commonly buried with males. The richest grave contained a lance, sword, breastplate, three shields, and a small two-wheeled chariot. Indeed, two-wheeled chariots were included in six graves, one of them that of a woman. (3) End of the Iron Age: Grave goods almost disappear in the mortuary record.

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ There are three important shifts in funerary rituals during this sequence, particularly as regards grave goods [96][97]: (1) 900-720 BCE: Different categories of people were accompanied by different types of grave goods. For example: children and infants were buried with worn and used pottery, adults with better-quality vessels; women were buried with more personal adorments than men, as well as, usually, a spindle whorl (and a few women with rather large assemblages of weaving tools). A special group, mostly men between the ages of 17 and 45, were buried with miniature or full-sized weapons, miniature vessels and drinking cups, and bronze brooches and razors. In one case, the deceased was buried with a miniature sacrificial knife, vessels used to make offering, and a human figurine depicted in a pose suggesting it is making an offering. (2) 770-580 BCE: Most graves have few or no grave goods, but the elites were buried with extremely rich assemblages: several women were buried dressed in garments ornamented with amber and glass beads and wearing silver or gold fibulae, with their hair bound in silver wire. Bowls for mixing wine were also buried with women. Weapons were commonly buried with males. The richest grave contained a lance, sword, breastplate, three shields, and a small two-wheeled chariot. Indeed, two-wheeled chariots were included in six graves, one of them that of a woman. (3) End of the Iron Age: Grave goods almost disappear in the mortuary record.

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [98] [99] [100]

References

  1. T.J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome (1995), pp. 33-55
  2. G. Forsythe, A Critical History of Early Rome (2006), pp. 53-58
  3. T.J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome (1995), pp. 31-32
  4. T.J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome (1995), pp. 31-32
  5. G. Forsythe, A Critical History of Early Rome (2006), pp. 53-58
  6. T.J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome (1995), pp. 33-55
  7. T.J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome (1995), p. 42
  8. (Anzidei, Sestieri and De Santis 1985, 140) Anna Paola Anzidei, Anna Maria Bietti Sestieri and Anna De Santis. 1985. Roma e il Lazio dall'età della pietra alla formazione della città. Rome: Quasar.
  9. (Forsythe 2006, 53-58) Gary Forsythe. 2006. A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  10. (Cornell 1995, 33-55) Tim Cornell. 1995. The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000‒264 BC). London: Routledge.
  11. (Forsythe 2006, 53-58) Gary Forsythe. 2006. A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  12. (Forsythe 2006, 53-58) Gary Forsythe. 2006. A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  13. (Cornell 1995, 32-33) Tim Cornell. 1995. The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000‒264 BC). London: Routledge.
  14. (Forsythe 2006, 53-58) Gary Forsythe. 2006. A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  15. G. Forsythe, A Critical History of Early Rome (2006), p. 54
  16. T.J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome (1995), p. 54
  17. T.J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome (1995), p. 54
  18. T.J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome (1995), pp. 51-53
  19. T.J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome (1995), p. 54
  20. G. Forsythe, A Critical History of Early Rome (2006), pp. 53-58
  21. (Forsythe 2006, 53-58) Gary Forsythe. 2006. A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  22. T.J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome (1995), p. 52
  23. T.J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome (1995), pp. 51-53
  24. (Fields 2011)
  25. (Grant and Kitzinger, 1988, 938)
  26. T.J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome (1995), p. 52
  27. (Mattingly 1910, [1])
  28. (Dupuy and Dupuy 2007)
  29. (Cornell 1995, 94)
  30. (Cornell 1995, 100)
  31. (Tellegen-Couperus, 2002, 66)
  32. (Cornell 1995, 106)
  33. (Mousourakis 2007, 163)
  34. (Mousourakis 2007, 161)
  35. (Berger 1968, 742)
  36. (Stearns 2001)
  37. (Allcroft and Haydon 1902, 121 [2])
  38. (Mousourakis 2007, 163)
  39. (Evans 2013 Evans, J (2013) A Companion to the Archaeology of the Roman Republic, John Wiley & Sons)
  40. (Rickman 1971, 2 Rickman, G. 1971. Roman Granaries and Store Buildings. CUP Archive)
  41. (Cornell 1995, 48, 96)
  42. (Cornell 1995, 128)
  43. [3]
  44. (Cornell 1995, 103)
  45. T.J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome (1995), p. 37
  46. G. Forsythe, A Critical History of Early Rome (2006), pp. 53-58
  47. (Cornell 1995, 103)
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