ItLatCA

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Latium - Copper Age ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Eneolithic ♥ [1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 3600-1800 BCE ♥ Taken from Whitehouse [2], but adjusted for Latium [3].

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥ [4]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Latium - Neolithic ♥ [5]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ [6]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Latium - Bronze Age ♥ [7]
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ none ♥ Copper Age Latium was a quasi-polity [8].


♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

The Italian Eneolithic (Eneolitico) dates from the 3rd millennium to the first centuries of the 2nd millennium BCE. It mostly corresponds to the Copper Age (Età del Rame) plus the Early Bronze Age (Prima Età del Bronzo). In Latium, the region of Central Italy that roughly matches modern-day Lazio, the main Copper Age sites include Ponte S. Pietro, Porcareccia and Rinaldone (near the modern-day city of Viterbo), Sgurgola and Casamari (near Frosinone), Castel Malnome and Ardea (near Rome), and Cantalupo Mandela (near Sabina).[9] The period is characterized by low density occupation and scattered material finds, mainly grave sites; nothing in the region comparable to the complex contemporary social formations present in Egypt, China, and the Near East.

Population and political organization

None of the above-mentioned sites is considered a 'nucleated settlement', but they have all yielded useful finds: the Viterbo locations and Sgurgola are small necropolises, while miscellaneous grave goods have been unearthed at the other sites.[10] Overall, it seems likely that Latium Copper Age communities were quite small — one estimate posits 100-200 inhabitants each[11] — and some estimates for the Early Bronze Age even go so far as to say that each settlement probably only had a few dozen inhabitants.[12] The burial data appear to reflect a patriarchal, war-oriented culture: men and women are associated with very different types of grave goods, and male burials are always accompanied by weapons.[13][14]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ ♥ Inhabitants.

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 1 ♥ levels. probably unknown

Copper Age settlements are "archaeologically invisible" [15].

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

Only possible form of hierarchy visible is military [16].

♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

Only possible form of hierarchy visible is military [17].

♠ Military levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels. probably unknown

Some evidence for incipient emergence of hierarchy, suggested by burials rich in weapons, but the sources do not attempt to sketch a possible military hierarchy [18], probably because the evidence is insufficient.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ absent ♥ Evidence for the emergence of an elite warrior culture [19], though there does not appear to be enough evidence to speak of "professional soldiers" in a modern sense.

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ absent ♥ Not until 406 BCE did "Romans introduce pay for military service." [20] This is the earliest possible start date for professional soldiers.

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred absent ♥ Professionalism of the priesthood likely pre-dates the Roman era as similar patterns are evident in Greek and Egyptian civilization. However, this period might be too early.

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ absent ♥ There were likely no bureaucrats at all in this period.

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥ There were likely no bureaucrats at all in this period.

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥ There were likely no bureaucrats at all in this period.

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ absent ♥ There were likely no government buildings in this period. The first senate building, the Curia Hostilia, existed from about 600 BCE. [21] The first paving of the Roman Forum occurred around 575-625 BCE. [22] The first coin minted in Rome occurred about 269 BCE (one in Neapolis produced coins slightly earlier, around 281 BCE) and the first state archives was created in 78 BCE. Other possible buildings include: granaries and storehouses.

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ absent ♥ A formal legal code was first founded in the Twelve Tables of 450-449 BCE. Law thereafter was based on precedent. Our sources of knowledge of Roman law include the forensic speeches of Cicero; the Institutes of Gaius textbook (from 160 CE); and, much later, the sixth century CE Corpus Ius Civilis of Justinian. Wax tablets and papyri (contracts and wills etc.) also provide information on Roman law. [23] However, before this time restrictions on funerary extravagance, from the start of the 6th century, may suggest the Twelve Tables laws (of the Early Republic) codified an existing body of law and legal practices. [24] It is unlikely that any official legal code existed in Latium at the time of the Copper Age.

♠ Judges ♣ absent ♥ Professional judges did not exist until the Roman Dominate although at that time their precise role vis-a-vis that of Imperial officials is a matter of debate. [25] Before this time there were no judges as a distinct profession in the Roman system of law. Local magistrates dealt with local matters, provincial governors dealt with provincial matters, and the praetors often dealt with cases in Rome. The Roman people could be duly convened as a final court of appeal in cases involving citizens.

♠ Courts ♣ absent ♥ In Bronze Age Latium "Most settlements were simple collections of huts with no evidence for internal differentiation in architecture or material culture than might suggest clear-cut divisions in society." [26] The earlier Copper Age is not thought to have been more complex than this.

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ absent ♥ Law specialists first existed during the Principate when they commanded fees for their expertise. We know this because Emperor Claudius attempted to "limit the fees of advocates, which had become intolerably heavy" to protect "women and other helpless litigants from the rapacity of their lawyers." [27] The first law school in Rome, for persons who wished to pursue career in the Imperial civil service, was established late second century CE. "Professional" lawyers replaced orators during the Roman Dominate period.[28]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ Possibly unnecessary within Italy at this time due to sufficient rainfall. [29]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ absent ♥ A pipe network that connects the drinking water to individual settlements is not known to exist / not thought to be present.
♠ markets ♣ inferred absent ♥ The multi-function Roman forum building which also functioned as a marketplace was not present at this time.
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred absent ♥ The multi-function Roman forum building which also functioned as a marketplace was not present at this time "From literary sources [Livy] it seems that the major development of Rome's river port and its attendant warehouses did not take place until the early second century B.C. Earlier the old Forum Boarium and Forum Holitorium in the centre of Rome seem to have coped with the main flow of imports which had probably come down the Tiber from the Italian hills." [30]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ absent ♥ The Via Salaria, “salt road,” was in existence from the beginning of the Roman Kingdom. [31] The first paved road was the probably the Appian Way which dates to 312 BCE. However, at this time the Via Salaria probably did not exist or if a track did exist it had no polity to provide maintenance on it.
♠ Bridges ♣ absent ♥ The first bridge thought to be the Pons Sublicius possibly in built 642 BCE under Ancus Marcius.
♠ Canals ♣ absent ♥ The first canal is thought to have been built by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (consul 187 BCE) to drain the lower Po region.
♠ Ports ♣ absent ♥ The Portus Tiberinus, a river harbour on the Tiber, was believed, in Roman times, to have been long inhabited [32] Other sources disagree between the earliest being from the Roman Kingdom under Ancus Marcius and Cosa, founded much later in 273 BCE "the earliest Roman port thus far known." [33] Since it is not clear from the Cornell quote which "Roman times" thought that the Portus Tiberinus had been long inhabited, and what "long inhabited" means in terms of dates, and whether that habitation was in the sense of a port rather than a small community which happened to be located where the port would later be, I have coded absent.

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥ probably unknown

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥ probably unknown
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Written records ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the fact that "most [Italian peoples before the Romans] were not even literate" [34], although some writing has been found in association with elite graves [35].
♠ Script ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the fact that "most [Italian peoples before the Romans] were not even literate" [36], although some writing has been found in association with elite graves [37]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the fact that "most [Italian peoples before the Romans] were not even literate" [38], although some writing has been found in association with elite graves [39]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the fact that "most [Italian peoples before the Romans] were not even literate" [40], although some writing has been found in association with elite graves [41]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥ Few, if any, people in Latium could read such things had they existed and they likely did not exist because there was no state bureaucracy or developed religion that would provide a reason to produce them.
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥ First Roman calendar thought to be the 8th century BCE "Calendar of Romulus."
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the fact that "most [Italian peoples before the Romans] were not even literate" [42].
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the fact that "most [Italian peoples before the Romans] were not even literate" [43].
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the fact that "most [Italian peoples before the Romans] were not even literate" [44].
♠ History ♣ inferred absent ♥ "It is most improbable that the Italian peoples had any historical literature of their own (although the Etruscans are a possible exception)" [45].
♠ Philosophy ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the fact that "most [Italian peoples before the Romans] were not even literate" [46].
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the fact that "most [Italian peoples before the Romans] were not even literate" [47].
♠ Fiction ♣ inferred absent ♥ Inferred from the fact that "most [Italian peoples before the Romans] were not even literate" [48].


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥ This is possible if there was a primitive economy.
♠ Tokens ♣ absent ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ absent ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥ The first foreign Greek or Greek-influenced coinage arrived much later with the Etruscans (if considered "foreign") or Roman Kingdom.
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ Rome produced its first coin about 281 BCE, a Greek-style silver didrachma, minted in Neapolis (and twelve years later coins were minted in Rome.) [49]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥ The Romans did not use paper currency in any period.

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ absent ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Axes and halberds [50].
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred absent ♥ Bronze swords first appeared in Mediterranean c 17th Century BCE.
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Iron likely present in Latium from Roman Kingdom 700 BCE (note their Etruscan-origin kings). “Most metallurgical activity in both Italy and Spain, however, dates to a time after the sixth century BC, when iron weapons and implements appear more frequently, with some exceptional finds such as the group of 150 almost identical axes from an archaic Greek shipwreck off the north coast of Mallorca’.” [51] Iron spearheads in south Italy appeared eighth century BCE. Bronze spearheads continued to be manufactured during the Early Iron Age. End of eighth century BC, iron completely replaced bronze for spearheads. (Inala 2014). Lost full reference, expert needed to locate full name and work.
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥
♠ Slings ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred from flint arrowheads. [52] "The bow was probably between 6,000 and 10,000 years old by the dawn of the Bronze Age".[53] Weapons of war existed at this time.
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ In Anatolia siege warfare was mentioned in Old Hittite records.[54] Presumably at this time the catapult was not used? In India, according to Jain texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone".[55] Marsden (1969) said archaeological records exist before the 4th century BCE.[56] The Achaemenids (c400 BCE?) are assumed to have had the catapult because the Macedonians did.[57] Pollard and Berry (2012) say torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE.[58] The Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE which encouraged the development of large tension-powered weapons.[59] There is no direct evidence for catapults for this time/location. The aforementioned evidence we currently have covering the wider ancient world suggests they were probably not used at this time, perhaps because effective machines had not been invented yet.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ The counter-weight trebuchet was first used by the Byzantines in 1165 CE.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ Mace heads found in warrior male burials [60].
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ [61], perhaps including axe-hammers buried with possible warrior elite [62].
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ [63]
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier's primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken."[64] What is the opinion of a Roman specialist for this region?
♠ Spears ♣ absent ♥ Evidence of daggers, halberds, arrows, and flat axes in burials but sources discuss evidence of spears, javelins and spearheads appear towards the beginning of the Bronze Age.[65]
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥ Evidence of daggers, halberds, arrows, and flat axes in burials but sources discuss evidence of spears, javelins and spearheads appear towards the beginning of the Bronze Age.[66]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ ♥
♠ Horses ♣ ♥
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ ♥
♠ Shields ♣ absent ♥ Reference to the use of shields, helmets, greaves, breastplates dates to the Bronze Age.[67]
♠ Helmets ♣ absent ♥ Reference to the use of shields, helmets, greaves, breastplates dates to the Bronze Age.[68]
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥ Reference to the use of shields, helmets, greaves, breastplates dates to the Bronze Age.[69]
♠ Limb protection ♣ absent ♥ Reference to the use of shields, helmets, greaves, breastplates dates to the Bronze Age.[70]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ At Toppo Daguzzo in Northern Basilicata and Conelle in the Marche, none so far in Latium itself.[71].
♠ Moat ♣ inferred absent ♥ no fortresses means no moats?
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ present ♥ At Tufariello in Southern Basilicata, none so far in Latium itself [72].
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Fortified camps ♣ absent ♥ No army to build temporary fortified camps.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred absent ♥ Stone walls at At Tufariello in Southern Basilicata, none so far in Latium itself; no fortresses or fortified camps.[73]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ [absent; present] ♥ Only possible form of hierarchy visible is military [74] The burial data appear to reflect a patriarchal, war-oriented culture: men and women are associated with very different types of grave goods, and male burials are always accompanied by weapons.[75][76]

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [77] [78] [79]

References

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  2. R. Whitehouse, Underground Religion (1992), p. 13
  3. T.J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome (1995), p. 32
  4. A.P. Anzidei, A.M. Bietti Sestieri and A. De Santis, Roma e il Lazio dall'età della pietra alla formazione della città (1985)
  5. A.P. Anzidei, A.M. Bietti Sestieri and A. De Santis, Roma e il Lazio dall'età della pietra alla formazione della città (1985)
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