IrSusa3

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Susa III ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Proto-Elamite Period; Susa C; Late Banesh ♥ Potts (2016) says that the link between what has been called "Proto-Elamite" and Elamite culture does not exist, "Proto-Elamite" is a misnomer. Writing system of the succeeding period was derived from proto-cuneiform Susa II/Uruk IV.[1]

3000-2800 BCE. Khuzistan: Susa C; Zagros: Godin 4; Fars: Late Banesh.[2]


♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 3100-2675 BCE ♥

"But toward the end of the fourth millennium, when the brilliant civilization of the Uruk period had collapsed in Mesopotamia and at Susa, the population of Fars broke with the prehistoric past and achieved in their turn a kind of historical consciousness, establishing a large center which perhaps had already acquired its name, Anshan (modern Tal-i Malyan)."[3]


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ confederated state; unitary state ♥

Proto-Elamite period reference: "The geography of Iran, with its fertile lands surrounded by mountains, or on the margins of the central deserts, favoured the rise of local political entities. The latter would eventually unit in a sort of federal system (especially in the following period). Among these various local entities, Susiana remains a unique case, due to its exposure to Mesopotamian influences."[4]

Uruk phase "Urban Revolution therefore led to the formation of the Early State, not just in its decisional function, which already existed in pre-urban communities, but in the fullest sense of the term. The latter is to be understood as an organisation that solidly controls and defends a given territory (and its many communities) and manages the exploitation of resources to ensure and develop the survival of its population. What distinguishes the State is the stratified, yet organically coherent, structure of the human groups constituting it. In other words, the formation of the State placed collective interests above individual ones (or of individual groups such as families, villages and so on), the former being pursued in the various functions and contributions provided by each group."[5]

"Established in the late fourth millennium B.C., the Elamite Empire was the first Iranian experience in empire building and state tradition. ... the federated state of Elam practiced public administration ... The federal system of Elam was composed of several major kingdoms (the Kassite, the Guti, the Lullubi, Susiana, and Elamite), all being of the same racial group of the pre-Aryan people."[6] -- Note that Potts (2016) says that the link between what has been called "Proto-Elamite" and Elamite culture does not exist, "Proto-Elamite" is a misnomer. Writing system of the succeeding period was derived from proto-cuneiform Susa II/Uruk IV.[7]


♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Susa II ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Elam - Awan Dynasty I ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Sumerian ♥ Potts (2016) says that the link between what has been called "Proto-Elamite" and Elamite culture does not exist, "Proto-Elamite" is a misnomer. Writing system of the succeeding period was derived from proto-cuneiform Susa II/Uruk IV.[8]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared. "The stylistic ties of the succeeding period, Susa III, are with the Banesh culture of the southern Zagros, leading Alden to suggest a second episode of migration, from Susiana into Fars, in the interval between Late Uruk and Early Susa III (Early to Middle Banesh). By that time Susa was reduced to the status of a border town, a point of linkage in trade between Mesopotamian states to the west and Proto-Elamite polities to the southeast, including hierarchically organized pastoral nomads and clusters of farming villages around towns in Izeh and central Fars."[9]

♠ Capital ♣ Susa ♥ "Susa ... began its political life around 6000 BC, first as a city-state, then as an empire rivaling Sumer in Mesopotamia, and subsequently as the capital of one of the oldest empires of antiquity, Elam, around 3000 BC."[10]

♠ Language ♣ Sumerian; Proto-Elamite ♥ Sumerian in neighbouring Mesopotamia: "Until Sargon, records from Akkad had been written in Sumerian."[11] Proto-Elamite descendent fro Uruk IV writing and developed different signs to the Sumerian of Jemdet Nasr. Susiana was a centre of Proto-Elamite culture along with Tall-i Malyan at Fars.[12] Susa III texts c3000 BCE not related to Old Elamite inscriptions c2300 BCE. "simply indefensible to claim that Malyan was the site at which the Susa III writing system originated." It was a system derived from proto-cuneiform Susa II / Uruk IV.[13]

General Description

While no information could be found in the sources consulted regarding the polity's overall population, it is estimated that the largest settlement - Tall-i Malyan at Fars, Anshan region – may have had up to ten thousand inhabitants. [14] However it is also believed that during this period there was a decrease in population following a rapid urbanisation of the mountain heartland, followed by a collapse and possible reversion to nomadism. [15]

There were three tiers of settlement in the area: Susa, the centre and capital of the polity, the villages that surrounded Susa, and other small sites such as farmsteads or seasonal sheparding areas. [16] During the Susa III phase, Susa has been considered to have been the "centre of greatest economic activity in literate Iran", which led to it being annexed by Anshan. [17]

During this time writing developed in response to the administrative requirements of urban societies during this period. [18] Administration was usually run through the temples in the urban centres, which would deal with anything from dealing with trade to accounting to government duties. [19]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

In Susa III Susa was the "centre of greatest economic activity in literate Iran" and Tal-i Malyan did not annex Susa. [20]

Shahr-i Sokhta is a long way east - on the Iran-Afghan border

"Proto-Elamite influence even spread across the great eastern desert of Lut to Shahr-i Sokhta, where the Proto-Elamite accounting system is found in use by people whose cultural affinities lay not with the Proto-Elamite world but with the inhabitants of Turkmenia and the region south of the Hindu Kush mountain range."[21]

"The federal system of Elam was composed of several major kingdoms (the Kassite, the Guti, the Lullubi, Susiana, and Elamite), all being of the same racial group of the pre-Aryan people. The Elamite over-lordship in Susa was the main power of the federated states, the heads of which frequently assembled for political and military purposes."[22]

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

"excessively rapid urbanization of the mountain heartland" plateau in Fars followed by collapse and possible reversion to nomadism. Anshan, Tepe Sialk and Tepe Yahya also abandoned.[23]

"During the early third millennium B.C., the Susa III Period was marked by a population minumum in the Susiana Plain."[24]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [2,500-10,000] ♥ Inhabitants. Tall-i Malyan at Fars, Anshan region. Estimate based on 50 hectares at Seshat standard rate of 50-200 inhabitants per hectare.

Tall-i Malyan at Fars "the settlement extended over 50 hectares, ten times the size of contemporary Susa (Levels 16-13 of the acropolis).".[25]

"During the early third millennium B.C., the Susa III Period was marked by a population minumum in the Susiana Plain. Susa itself was only slightly more than 10 hectares in size, little more than a large village."[26] "... Susa covered about 11 hectares during the Susa III Period. The area was probably somewhat less in the early part of the period and somewhat greater at the end, although such fine distinctions are of dubious merit when so little reliable information is available."[27]

"Susa was annexed by Anshan. Although it was a much smaller center than Anshan, its long previous period of cultural development enabled it to contribute to the formation of the new civilization, which expanded into ethnically related regions."[28] -- Actually in Susa III Susa was the "centre of greatest economic activity in literate Iran" and Tal-i Malyan did not annex Susa.[29]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels.

1. Center - Susa

2. Villages
3. Other sites

In his review of J Alden's paper, Sumner (1988) says: "Susa was the center of a very small system with 5 villages and a scatter of 26 sites that are interpreted as representing brief occupations by local shepards."[30]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 4 ♥ levels.

1. King

2. Administration system - presumably temple based, run by accountants
3. Scribes
3. Teachers at scribal schools
4. Specialised workers who produced the stuff that accountants do accounting for e.g. shepherds

Writing developed "as a response to the administrative needs (commodities, quantities, people, operations successfully accomplished or to accomplish) of the urban societies of the time."[31]

"With these new instruments, administration became the most specialised work within the great organisations. The functionary became a 'scribe', who after a highly specialised training was able to write, calculate and perform various administrative tasks. Trainees in workshops learned the secrets of their craft within the first years of apprenticeship. On the contrary, scribes had to train in bona fide schools, where teachers taught their students to master a repertoire of hundreds of signs. This training was reserved to the members of the cultural and political elite of the State."[32]

"Sumerian management depended on dense concentrations of workers at the disposal of temples and other large institutions, minutely graded into teams and sets of entitlements."[33]

"While internal independence of the member states was respected, intergovernmental relations on civil administration were regulated by various administrative rules and ordinances."[34]

"Established in the late fourth millennium B.C., the Elamite Empire was the first Iranian experience in empire building and state tradition. ... the federated state of Elam practiced public administration ... The federal system of Elam was composed of several major kingdoms (the Kassite, the Guti, the Lullubi, Susiana, and Elamite), all being of the same racial group of the pre-Aryan people. The Elamite over-lordship in Susa was the main power of the federated states, the heads of which frequently assembled for political and military purposes. Decision making was based on equality, and cooperation was key to the coordinated system of government in a federal structure."[35]

Lower Mesopotamia at this time had city-states and inscriptions suggests unity from time of Ur III (Shu-Sin): "the celebratory tone was not directed against Mesopotamian cities or other urbanised centres (such as the ones in Elam and Syria) anymore. The inscriptions rather focused on those turbulent 'barbarian' groups from the steppes and mountains, considered to be uncivilised and inhuman."[36]

"Susa was annexed by Anshan. Although it was a much smaller center than Anshan, its long previous period of cultural development enabled it to contribute to the formation of the new civilization, which expanded into ethnically related regions."[37]

"Temple complexes, such as the temple of the goddess Inanna at Eana in Uruk (3200 BC), were large-scale enterprises, dealing in considerable quantities of goods and labor. A new system of recording and accounting needed to be devised. The accountants at the temple adapted a long-used system of accounting with clay tokens by impressing stylized outlines of tokens to denote numbers, with pictograms and other symbols to denote the objects that were being counted. A number of different numeration and metrological systems were used depending on the objects counted."[38]

Before Ur III there were no provinces just tributary city-states: "The economy of earlier empires was predominantly based on commercial activities and political relations with states that were controlled by the centre and were dependent on it. However, the empires themselves did not directly control these resources. The direct management of resources was an innovation of the kings of Ur, who applied in throughout the centre of the empire, which was itself no longer divided into several tributary city-states, but into provinces governed by functionaries (the ensi) appointed by the kings of Ur. The bureaucratic management of these provinces was uniform and interchangeable, and could be applied throughout the land (although some some local variations remained in place)."[39]


♠ Religious levels ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels.

1. Priest-king?

2. Priests appointed by king
3. Lesser priests?

"Temple complexes, such as the temple of the goddess Inanna at Eana in Uruk (3200 BC), were large-scale enterprises, dealing in considerable quantities of goods and labor. A new system of recording and accounting needed to be devised. The accountants at the temple adapted a long-used system of accounting with clay tokens by impressing stylized outlines of tokens to denote numbers, with pictograms and other symbols to denote the objects that were being counted. A number of different numeration and metrological systems were used depending on the objects counted."[40]

"During the third millennium B.C.E., the most important deity in Elam was the goddess Pinikir, 'the great mother of the gods to the Elamites' and the great mistress of heaven. Later, another goddess, Kirrisha, surpassed her, but many goddesses were gradually demoted and replaced in rank by male gods. Yet Kirrisha never lost her title as the main goddess of Elam, and it is significant for later developments that she married two of her brothers who were major gods. Kings often built temples to honor her and appear to her for protection. Despite being demoted, Elamite goddesses retained a higher status than goddesses in Mesopotamia."[41]

♠ Military levels ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels.

Uruk phase c3800-3000 BCE "monopoly of defence forces to protect internal cohesion. The wealth and technical knowledge accumulated in cities had to be defended against foreign attacks, both from other city-states and other enemies (for instance, nomadic tribes). This defence system then turned into an offensive tactic. ... Instrumental for these kinds of activities was the creation of an army, which was divided into two groups. One group was made of full-time workers, specialised in military activities (although this remains purely hypothetical for the Uruk period). In case of war, an army was assembled through military conscription, and was supported by mandatory provisions of military supplies."[42]

Liverani notes of previous Uruk phase "Urban Revolution therefore led to the formation of the Early State, not just in its decisional function, which already existed in pre-urban communities, but in the fullest sense of the term. The latter is to be understood as an organisation that solidly controls and defends a given territory (and its many communities) and manages the exploitation of resources to ensure and develop the survival of its population."[43]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥ Unknown. Uruk phase c3800-3000 BCE "monopoly of defence forces to protect internal cohesion. The wealth and technical knowledge accumulated in cities had to be defended against foreign attacks, both from other city-states and other enemies (for instance, nomadic tribes). This defence system then turned into an offensive tactic. ... Instrumental for these kinds of activities was the creation of an army, which was divided into two groups. One group was made of full-time workers, specialised in military activities (although this remains purely hypothetical for the Uruk period). In case of war, an army was assembled through military conscription, and was supported by mandatory provisions of military supplies."[44]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ [absent; present] ♥ Possibility of this in Uruk phase: "hypothetical." Uruk phase c3800-3000 BCE "monopoly of defence forces to protect internal cohesion. The wealth and technical knowledge accumulated in cities had to be defended against foreign attacks, both from other city-states and other enemies (for instance, nomadic tribes). This defence system then turned into an offensive tactic. ... Instrumental for these kinds of activities was the creation of an army, which was divided into two groups. One group was made of full-time workers, specialised in military activities (although this remains purely hypothetical for the Uruk period). In case of war, an army was assembled through military conscription, and was supported by mandatory provisions of military supplies."[45]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred present ♥ "While internal independence of the member states was respected, intergovernmental relations on civil administration were regulated by various administrative rules and ordinances."[46]

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ "While internal independence of the member states was respected, intergovernmental relations on civil administration were regulated by various administrative rules and ordinances."[47]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥ In neighbouring Mesopotamia: Ur-Nammu of Ur III (r. c2112-2094 BCE) or his son Shulgi (r. c. 2094-2047 BCE) "some scholars believe was the author of the first recorded set of law codes."[48]

A "legal system" may have been present - not sure what this refers to. "the Sumerian civilisation which flourished before 3500 BC. This was an advanced civilisation building cities and supporting the people with irrigation systems, a legal system, administration, and even a postal service. Writing developed and counting was based on a sexagesimal system, that is to say base 60."[49]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥ Temple complex based government. "Temple complexes, such as the temple of the goddess Inanna at Eana in Uruk (3200 BC), were large-scale enterprises, dealing in considerable quantities of goods and labor."[50]

A "legal system" may have been present. Were there specialist judges or were judges priests? "the Sumerian civilisation which flourished before 3500 BC. This was an advanced civilisation building cities and supporting the people with irrigation systems, a legal system, administration, and even a postal service. Writing developed and counting was based on a sexagesimal system, that is to say base 60."[51]


♠ Courts ♣ inferred absent ♥ Temple complex based government. "Temple complexes, such as the temple of the goddess Inanna at Eana in Uruk (3200 BC), were large-scale enterprises, dealing in considerable quantities of goods and labor."[52]

A "legal system" may have been present. Were there specialist courts or was this among the activities of the temple complexes? "the Sumerian civilisation which flourished before 3500 BC. This was an advanced civilisation building cities and supporting the people with irrigation systems, a legal system, administration, and even a postal service. Writing developed and counting was based on a sexagesimal system, that is to say base 60."[53]


♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥ "the Sumerian civilisation which flourished before 3500 BC. This was an advanced civilisation building cities and supporting the people with irrigation systems, a legal system, administration, and even a postal service. Writing developed and counting was based on a sexagesimal system, that is to say base 60."[54]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ "the Sumerian civilisation which flourished before 3500 BC. This was an advanced civilisation building cities and supporting the people with irrigation systems, a legal system, administration, and even a postal service. Writing developed and counting was based on a sexagesimal system, that is to say base 60."[55]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ "the Sumerian civilisation which flourished before 3500 BC... was an advanced civilisation ... administration, and even a postal service."[56] -- postal service may imply an interest in the formal maintenance of at least some routes. Also, for trade. Proto-Elamite accounting system found as far east as Shahr-e Sukhteh on the Iran-Afghan border. Uruk phase c3800-3000 BCE: "bureaucracy sent orders to specialised workmen, planned and constructed key infrastructures (such as canals, temples, or walls), and engaged in long-distance trade."[57] -- key infrastructures likely to have included some roads along which trade was carried.
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ inferred absent ♥ Certainly in neighbouring Mesopotamia c2000-1500 BCE: "It was an important task for the rulers of Mesopotamia to dig canals and to maintain them, because canals were not only necessary for irrigation but also useful for the transport of goods and armies. The rulers or high government officials must have ordered Babylonian mathematicians to calculate the number of workers and days necessary for the building of a canal, and to calculate the total expenses of wages of the workers."[58]
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ inferred present ♥ "The accountants at the temple adapted a long-used system of accounting with clay tokens by impressing stylized outlines of tokens to denote numbers, with pictograms and other symbols to denote the objects that were being counted. A number of different numeration and metrological systems were used depending on the objects counted."[59]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ "From about 8000 BC, a system of recording involving small clay tokens was prevalent in the Near and Middle East. Tokens were small geometric objects, usually in the shape of cylinders, cones, and spheres."[60] "From about 3000 BC, among the Sumerians, tokens for different goods began appearing as impressions on clay tablets, represented by different symbols and multiple quantities represented by repetition. Thus three units of grain were denoted by three "grain marks," five jars of oil by five "oil marks," and so on."[61]
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ c1557 texts found at Susa.[62] Susa III texts c3000 BCE not related to Old Elamite inscriptions c2300 BCE. "simply indefensible to claim that Malyan was the site at which the Susa III writing system originated." It was a system derived from proto-cuneiform Susa II / Uruk IV.[63]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Susa III texts c3000 BCE not related to Old Elamite inscriptions c2300 BCE. "simply indefensible to claim that Malyan was the site at which the Susa III writing system originated." It was a system derived from proto-cuneiform Susa II / Uruk IV.[64] glyptic style writing found at Tepe Sialk (north) and especially Tepe Yahya (southeast)[65] Proto-Elamite descendent fro Uruk IV writing and developed different signs to the Sumerian of Jemdet Nasr. Susiana was the centre of Proto-Elamite culture along with Tall-i Malyan at Fars.[66]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ "Clay tablets with Proto-Elamite writing also occur at Anshan in an association with a large building embellished with paintings."[67] "Proto-Elamite influence even spread across the great eastern desert of Lut to Shahr-i Sokhta, where the Proto-Elamite accounting system is found in use by people whose cultural affinities lay not with the Proto-Elamite world but with the inhabitants of Turkmenia and the region south of the Hindu Kush mountain range."[68] Lake Uruk phase (second half fourth millennium BCE) administrative tablets show: lists divided into categories such as professions, birds, vases, plants..[69]
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred present ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[70] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase was from 3800-3000 BCE.[71]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥ Lake Uruk phase (second half fourth millennium BCE) administrative tablets show royal inscriptions, prayers and divinatory texts.[72]
♠ Religious literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Lake Uruk phase administrative tablets show royal inscriptions, prayers and divinatory texts.[73]
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred present ♥ literature relating to accounting in the temple complexes, such as metrological systems. "A number of different numeration and metrological systems were used depending on the objects counted."[74] "Proto-Elamite influence even spread across the great eastern desert of Lut to Shahr-i Sokhta, where the Proto-Elamite accounting system is found in use by people whose cultural affinities lay not with the Proto-Elamite world but with the inhabitants of Turkmenia and the region south of the Hindu Kush mountain range."[75] Lake Uruk phase (second half fourth millennium BCE) administrative tablets show land management records.[76]
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Mathematics. "A number of different numeration and metrological systems were used depending on the objects counted."[77]
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥ "There were two main units of value in Mesopotamia: barley and silver (and sometimes copper). Barley was readily available, of low value, and thus often present in exchanges. On the contrary, silver was a precious and rare metal, but also non-perishable (since it could not be consumed), allowing its accumulation. These were two very different materials, to be used as units on different occasions with different goods, and thus complementing each other."[78]
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥ "There were two main units of value in Mesopotamia: barley and silver (and sometimes copper). Barley was readily available, of low value, and thus often present in exchanges. On the contrary, silver was a precious and rare metal, but also non-perishable (since it could not be consumed), allowing its accumulation."[79]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥ "the Sumerian civilisation which flourished before 3500 BC. This was an advanced civilisation building cities and supporting the people with irrigation systems, a legal system, administration, and even a postal service. Writing developed and counting was based on a sexagesimal system, that is to say base 60."[80] -- presumably postal stations would have been necessary for an ancient postal service.
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Thomas Cressy; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ The materials used for weapons were mainly copper for this period [81]
♠ Bronze ♣ inferred present ♥ Compositional analyses of five objects from Kalleh Nisar Area AI suggest the intentional alloying of copper and tin to produce bronze, as suggested by tin contents of 3.52 percent and 14.8 percent in two finger rings; 3.85 percent and 3.49 percent in two bracelets; and 3.74 percent in a pin (Fleming et al. 2005: table 1). For the moment, these are the earliest tin-bronzes known in Iran (Fleming et al. 2005: 37; Pigott 2008: 56-7). [82] No clear evidence that is was used for military purposes though
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Bone harpoons found since the Paleolithic, but it is unclear if used for warfare or hunting. There is no reason to believe that other humans couldn't be the target for these.[83] According to a military historian (a polity specialist ought to be able to elaborate on this claim): "Unlike other areas of the world where the spear developed into a thrown weapon, in the Middle East it remained primarily a stabbing weapon."[84]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in evidence and extremely unlikely being a weapon of the Americas
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ Archaeologist have found sling bullets at the Chalcolithic site of Chogha Gavaneh dating from 5000-4000 BCE.[85] "Round and ovoid sling pellets have been dug up in early Sumer and Turkestan. Ovoid sling pellets have been unearthed at the neolithic sites on the Iranian tableland. In later times, the sling was used in Palestine and Syria. It was introduced in Egypt at a still later date."[86] According to a military historian (a polity specialist needs to check this data): 4000 BCE in the Middle East and southeastern Europe: "sling, dagger, mace, and bow are common weapons".[87]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ According to a military historian (a polity specialist needs to check this data): "The bow was probably between 6,000 and 10,000 years old by the dawn of the Bronze Age".[88]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Recurved bows are depicted in seals, showing arrows being fired at humans in warfare.[89] According to a military historian (a polity specialist needs to check this data): "The first evidence of the composite bow appears on the victory stele of Naram Sin (2254-2218 B.C.E.)".[90] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[91]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not present at this time: "the hand-held crossbow was invented by the Chinese, in the fifth century BC, and probably came into the Roman world in the first century AD, where it was used for hunting."[92] The crossbow also developed after the Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE.[93]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Base camps with fortified walls are present, defending against animal or human attackers.[94] In Anatolia siege warfare was mentioned in Old Hittite records.[95] Presumably at this time the catapult was not used? In India, according to Jain texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone".[96] Marsden (1969) said archaeological records exist before the 4th century BCE.[97] The Achaemenids (c400 BCE?) are assumed to have had the catapult because the Macedonians did.[98] Pollard and Berry (2012) say torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE.[99] The Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE which encouraged the development of large tension-powered weapons.[100] There is no direct evidence for catapults for this time/location. The aforementioned evidence we currently have covering the wider ancient world suggests they were probably not used at this time, perhaps because effective machines had not been invented yet.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ The counter-weight trebuchet was first used by the Byzantines in 1165 CE.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not invented at this time.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not invented at this time.


Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ According to a military historian (a polity specialist needs to check this data): mace was the dominant weapon of war between 4000-2500 BCE before the helmet was invented.[101] According to a military historian (a polity specialist needs to check this data): 4000 BCE in the Middle East and southeastern Europe: "sling, dagger, mace, and bow are common weapons".[102]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ ‘circulation of characteristic Late Chalcolithic double axes’ and these axes were used as weapons. [103]
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ Bone needles/knives were present by 7200 BC, but no hard evidence for use in warfare.[104] Stone blades had been in production in Iraq/Iran since the Paleolithic: 'The Baradostian lithic industry is dominated by blade production. Characteristic tools include slender points, backed blades and bladelets, twisted bladelets with various kinds of light retouch, end scrapers, discoidal scrapers, side scrapers, and burins.'[105] Obsidian blades have also been found for this period [106] Knife blades became longer during this time but this was for butchery rather than warfare.[107] According to a military historian (a polity specialist needs to check this data): 4000 BCE in the Middle East and southeastern Europe: "sling, dagger, mace, and bow are common weapons".[108]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Copper swords have been found in the region.[109] According to a military historian (a polity specialist needs to check this data): In Sumer the first swords appeared about c3000 BCE but until c2000 BCE their use were restricted because the blade often became detached from the handle. The sickle-sword of c2500 BCE was cast whole but it was unable to break armour so the battle axe was preferred.[110]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Copper spearheads have been found in the region.[111] According to a military historian (a polity specialist ought to be able to elaborate on this claim): "Unlike other areas of the world where the spear developed into a thrown weapon, in the Middle East it remained primarily a stabbing weapon."[112]
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ present ♥ Dogs were used to defend villages against attacking humans/animals[113]
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Evidence for use as Pack Animals appears by around 7000 BC onward [114] The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass 'in more than one place' but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan.[115]
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ 3rd millenium BC, bactrian camels appear in engravings showing their importance but no military use until much later. [116]
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Not in military use until much later

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There is evidence for loincloths being used, but it would hardly count as armor and there is no evidence for warfare at this time:‘The early periods at Tepe Sialk (I-IV) were a time of important technological innovation. A carved bone knife handle representing a man wearing a cap and a loincloth found in a Sialk I context is one of the earliest known anthropomorphic representations from Iran’[117]
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred absent ♥ According to a military historian (a polity specialist needs to check this data): earliest helmet 2500 BCE in Sumer was a "a cap of hammered copper" fitted onto a leather cap.[118]
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred absent ♥ According to a military historian (a polity specialist needs to check this data): the earliest reference, for Greece c1600 BCE: "Early Mycenaean and Minoan charioteers wore an arrangement of bronze armor that almost fully enclosed the soldier, the famous Dendra panoply."[119]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples.[120]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available. According to a military historian (a polity specialist needs to check this data): "The first recorded instance of body armor is found on the Stele of Vultures in ancient Sumer, which shows Eannatum's soldiers wearing leather cloaks on which are sewn spined metal disks. The disks do not appear to be arranged in any order, and we do not know if the disks were made of copper or bronze. By 2100 BCE the victory stele of Naram Sin appears to show plate armor, and it is likely that plate armor had been in wide use for a few hundred years. Plate armor was constructed of thin bronze plates sewn to a leather shirt or jerkin."[121]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available. According to a military historian (a polity specialist needs to check this data): Lamellar armour introduced by the Assyrians (9th century BCE?): "a shirt constructed of laminated layers of leather sewn or glued together. To the outer surface of this coat were attached fitted iron plates, each plate joined to the next at the edge with no overlap and held in place by stitching or gluing."[122]
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Base camps with fortified walls are present, defending against animal or human attackers [123]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [124]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [125]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [126]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [127]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [128]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km. Not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred present ♥ There was thought to have been a hereditary kingship at this time, inferred similar system among other elites.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [129] [130] [131]

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  129. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  130. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  131. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html