IrSusa2

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Susa II ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Bayat; Susa A; Susa B; Early Banesh; Middle Banesh ♥ In Khuzistan 4000-3500 BCE Bayat and Susa A.[1] 3800-3400 BCE. Kuzistan: Susa B; Zagros: Godin 7; Fars: Early Banesh. 3400-3000 BCE. Kuzistan: Uruk type; Zagros: Godin 6-5; Fars: Middle Banesh.[2]

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 3800-3100 BCE ♥

3800-3400 BCE. Kuzistan: Susa B; Zagros: Godin 7; Fars: Early Banesh. 3400-3000 BCE. Kuzistan: Uruk type; Zagros: Godin 6-5; Fars: Middle Banesh.[3]

"Established in the late fourth millennium B.C., the Elamite Empire was the first Iranian experience in empire building and state tradition."[4] -- Actually Potts (2016) says that the link between what has been called "Proto-Elamite" and Elamite culture does not exist, "Proto-Elamite" is a misnomer. Writing system of the succeeding period was derived from proto-cuneiform Susa II/Uruk IV.[5]


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

Uruk phase "Urban Revolution therefore led to the formation of the Early State, not just in its decisional function, which already existed in pre-urban communities, but in the fullest sense of the term. The latter is to be understood as an organisation that solidly controls and defends a given territory (and its many communities) and manages the exploitation of resources to ensure and develop the survival of its population. What distinguishes the State is the stratified, yet organically coherent, structure of the human groups constituting it. In other words, the formation of the State placed collective interests above individual ones (or of individual groups such as families, villages and so on), the former being pursued in the various functions and contributions provided by each group."[6]

"A period of depopulation, characterized by political competition between Susa in the west and Chogha Mish in the east led to the rather enigmatic Late Uruk polity in which Chogha Mish was independent of Susa."[7]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Susa I ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Susa III ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Sumerian ♥ "very clear Mesopotamian character of the ceramic industry at this time."[8]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Susa ♥ "Susa ... began its political life around 6000 BC, first as a city-state, then as an empire rivaling Sumer in Mesopotamia, and subsequently as the capital of one of the oldest empires of antiquity, Elam, around 3000 BC."[9] "A period of depopulation, characterized by political competition between Susa in the west and Chogha Mish in the east led to the rather enigmatic Late Uruk polity in which Chogha Mish was independent of Susa."[10] -- this implies previous to this Susa was a ruling center


♠ Language ♣ Sumerian ♥ Sumerian in neighbouring Mesopotamia: "Until Sargon, records from Akkad had been written in Sumerian."[11]

General Description

[12]

Uruk (IrSusa1) "Sometime during the fourth millennium, in the urban center of Uruk (for which the archaeological period is named), southern Mesopotamia acquired a specifically Sumerian historical identity. With the introduction of a system of writing, a gradual development from an earlier accounting system, a radical change occurred in the social organization and in the very foundations of thought. ... Susa, in its earliest period (Susa I) attached to the world of the Iranian plateau, was now (in Susa II) integrated into the early Sumerian civilization of Mesopotamia, which it interpreted with originality. Precise stratigraphic excavations conducted in recent decades have allowed us to trace developments at Susa in the Uruk phase, notably of an accounting system that preceded the slightly later appearance of writing."[13]


Chronology for Iran[14]

Uruk colonies
Proto-Elamite period 3100-2700 BCE
Awan 2350-2200 BCE (contemporaneous with Akkad in Lower Mesopotamia)
Simash 2050-1950 BCE
Sukkalmah 1900-1750 BCE
Middle Elamite kingdom c1300-1100 BCE
Neo-Elamite kingdom 750-650 BCE
Media 650-550 BCE

Susa - Tal-i Malyan (Anshan, Anzan) [450-550] KM2.


Liverani 2014 chronology for Isin-Larsa period 2000-1750 BCE[15] Elam[16]

2000 BCE Shimashki dynasty, Kindattu c2000 BCE ... Indattu II c1925 BCE (last or last known)
1900 BCE Sukkalmah dynasty, Ebarat c1900 BCE ... Kuduzulush c1765 BCE (last or last known)


"Susa ... began its political life around 6000 BC, first as a city-state, then as an empire rivaling Sumer in Mesopotamia, and subsequently as the capital of one of the oldest empires of antiquity, Elam, around 3000 BC."[17]
"Thus the earliest experience of state tradition and administrative functions on a massive scale in Iran began around 6000 BC."[18]
"The main instrument of public administration and governance under the long history of the federal state of Elam was the bureaucracy, which also played a powerful role under the Median and the Persian empires."[19]
"Unlike the small city-state of Sumer, the Elamite empire was formed and administered on a massive scale and governed a large territory comprising present Iran and a major part of the Near East, at times including Babylonia and Assyria, for over 2500 years."[20]
"Their bureaucratic contacts with the Assyrians and Babylonians gave them useful insights. However, being a rival to Sumer, Babylon, and Assyria, the Elamite federal government developed the first Iranian tradition of public administration on a massive scale, though that tradition originated much earlier in the great city-state of Susa."[21]
"development of an active intergovernmental management and federalism, perhaps the earliest in history."[22]
"In the cities, thriving activities reigned, where along with the villages, professions of all kinds flourished, showing clear evidence of variety and stratification of professional and, hence, social classes in ancient Elam." [23]

"The development of centers on the Susiana plane, beginning with Middle Cha1colithic Chogha Mish and culminating in the rise of Susa during the Late Chalcolithic. suggests a trend towards regional control in some economic and administrative activities (Delougaz and Kantor 1996, Hole 1987b: 89-90). This trend towards centralization may also be suggested by the presence of possible elite or "Khan's" houses during this time at several sites (Hole 1987a: 41). In spite of these trends, Chalcolithic society throughout Khuzistan presents a strong egalitarian appearance. During the Middle and Late Chalcolithic, differential access to resources may have involved less archaeological1y visible items such as staples. access to water, and control over labor, as it appears to have done at this time in Mesopotamia (Stein 1994)." [24] The Middle Chalcolithic corresponds to 4800-3900 BCE and the Late Chalcolithic corresponds to 3900-3500 BCE in this book.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

"It is possible then that the Middle Uruk settlements on the Susiana located more than about 20 kilometers from a major administrative center were only marginally articulated with a central Susiana-administered settlement system. This would have placed the boundaries of an integrated settlement system including the major centers of Susa, Abu Fanduweh, and Chogha Mish within the Susiana rather than, as I have often assumed, between the Susiana and adajacent areas." [25] what does author mean by "within the Susiana?" - Susiana Plain?


Godin Tepe and Tepe Sialk in the west

"like the early Sumerians, the Susians in this period became colonizers. They spread out along routes that led them to Godin Tepe and Tepe Sialk in west central Iran, organizing a trade network in which the agricultural wealth of Susa and its 'colonies' was exchanged for precious minerals from even more remote regions."[26]

Fars in the east

"The prehistoric inhabitants of Fars, on the plateau to the southeast, seem to have been on the margin of the Susian expansion. There the village cultures had died out at the same time as that of Susa I (around 3700), and the villagers perhaps became nomads."[27]

♠ Polity Population ♣ [10,000-19,000]: 3800-3501 BCE; [10,000-25,000]: 3500-3401 BCE; [21,000-25,000]: 3400-3201 BCE; 6,900: 3200-3101 BCE; 6,900: 3100 BCE ♥ People. Population estimate for Late Uruk period (c3200-3100 BCE) based on 4.6 persons per km2 estimate and estimated polity area of 1500 km of Renfrew's (1975) Early State Module, which provides some support for 20km estimated communication distance in Middle Uruk from central place to administrative boundary.[28]

Population of the Susiana[29] not sure why the figures are so specific, probably modelled data. using "administered population" for lowest figure of the range.

Early Uruk: 19,036. The "administered population" was 9,806.
Middle Uruk: 25,338. The "administered population" was 21,382.

"Total (center and rural) population densities, in persons per square kilometer, for the Susiana between Terminal A ad Late Uruk are as follows:"[30] I've converted the terminology into dates using the table on page 17 of the book.

2.6 persons per km2 3800 BCE
8.4 3700-3600 BCE
11.2 3500-3300 BCE
4.6 3200-3100 BCE

Early-Middle Uruk population increase occurred over about 300 years.[31] so transition would be c3500 BCE

"A period of depopulation, characterized by political competition between Susa in the west and Chogha Mish in the east led to the rather enigmatic Late Uruk polity in which Chogha Mish was independent of Susa."[32] - note more recent reference possibly contradicts this "depopulation".

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [250-1000]: 3800-3601 BCE; [1250-5000]: 3600-3101 BCE ♥ Inhabitants. Estimates using Seshat standard 50-200 persons per hectare. Date estimates are based on dates for this polity sheet as the reference gave no timeframe other than the words "initial" and "middle."

Middle Uruk. Estimated population at Susa: 5,000.[33] applying this estimate to Middle Uruk in this period.

At start of Susa II urban area of Susa had declined to 5 ha site but overall Susiana had more settleents and had three other sites of comparable size to Susa.[34]

During middle of Susa II period the site was c25 ha.[35]


Susa: "... from the late sixth millennium B.C. onward its northern part had been settled by farming and livestock-raising peoples. More than one thousand years after the appearance of those first permanent villages Susa was founded, in the north-west corner of the [Khuzistan] plain on the anks of a small stream called the Shaur. The site was occupied more or less continually from about 4000 B.C. until the 13th century A.D., when it was abandoned after the Mongol conquest."[36]

"Sometime during the fourth millennium, in the urban center of Uruk (for which the archaeological period is named), southern Mesopotamia acquired a specifically Sumerian historical identity. ... Susa, in its earliest period (Susa I) attached to the world of the Iranian plateau, was now (in Susa II) integrated into the early Sumerian civilization of Mesopotamia, which it interpreted with originality."[37]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3: 3800-3501 BCE; 4: 3500-3101 BCE ♥ levels.

Early Uruk = 3

"The almost 95 hectares of settlment are partitioned into a three-level settlement size hierarchy of villages, small centers, and a single large center.

1. Large center

2. Small center
3. Village


Uruk period = 4

"was one of economic and political reorganization. By Middle Uruk (ca. 3500 B.C.), the Susiana settlement system consisted of a four-tier settlement size hierarchy with direct evidence of resident administrative activity at its top and bottom levels. The presence of administrative function at the intervening levels of hierarchy, and of an overall four-level administrative organization seemed likely. In combination with evidence for the centralization of craft production as part of an administered local exchange system, these features suggested the operation of a Middle Uruk state."[38]

During the Late Chalcolithic (3900-3500 BCE): "The decline of Chogha Mish occurred as Susa, located to the west, had grown in prominence as a regional center. During this time Susa had grown in size to over 20 ha. The decline in the size of Chagha Mish also corresponds to the time at which the number of sites were decreasing in number throughout the Zagros and southwestern lowlands (Hole 1987a: 42). The size of the site and the nature of its architecture and material remains indicate that Chogha Mish was an important regional administrative center. However, the precise nature of the administrative activities carried out there remains unclear (see Hole 1987a: 40-41). The excavators have suggested that the monumental architectural precinct may have had both an industrial and religious focus (Kantor 1976: 26). Although likely, this has not yet been fully demonstrated in the literature. It is interesting to note, however, that the majority of the published objects which appear to have functioned as tokens all cluster around a single Middle Susiana structure (Delougaz and Kantor 1996: table 27 and plate 269). A small number of sealings were also recovered from this context (De1ougaz and Kantor 1996: 256-257)." [39]

1. Capital: Susa? 20 ha.

2. Regional administrative center: Chogha Mish?
3. Village

At start of Susa II urban area of Susa had declined to 5 ha site but overall Susiana had more settleents and had three other sites of comparable size to Susa.[40]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 3: 3700 BCE; 3: 3600 BCE; [3-4]: 3500 BCE; 4: 3400 BCE; 4: 3300 BCE; 4: 3200 BCE; 4: 3100 BCE ♥ levels.

Early Uruk

"Given the lack of evidence for resident administration at settlements smaller than centers, the foregoing analysis would indicate the operation of a two-level administrative hierarchy within a three-level settlement system."[41] - central government line gives us more than 2 levels. also, if there were assistant scribes at regional centers these would count as a third level.

Middle Uruk (perhaps from c3500 BCE)[42]

"was one of economic and political reorganization. By Middle Uruk (ca. 3500 B.C.), the Susiana settlement system consisted of a four-tier settlement size hierarchy with direct evidence of resident administrative activity at its top and bottom levels. The presence of administrative function at the intervening levels of hierarchy, and of an overall four-level administrative organization seemed likely. In combination with evidence for the centralization of craft production as part of an administered local exchange system, these features suggested the operation of a Middle Uruk state."[43]


1. King[44]

King was the head of the palace which was "managed like a large organisation."[45] - note that "In the Uruk phase, the palace as the exclusive residence of the king did not yet exist."[46]
King also high-priest "the human administrator of the city on behalf of the god, the latter being the ideological head of the city."[47]
2. Chief accountants at the temple
3. Scribes
3. Teachers at scribal schools
3. Specialized workers e.g. Shepherds or postal service worker


Uruk phase c3800-3000 BCE: "Bureaucracy, managed by the scribes and hierarchically subdivided, took care of the economic administration of the city-state. It managed and recorded the movement of surplus from the villages to the city. It also determined the redistribution of resources to its workers, and managed the State's land. Finally, the bureaucracy sent orders to specialised workmen, planned and constructed key infrastructures (such as canals, temples, or walls), and engaged in long-distance trade."[48]

Uruk phase "Urban Revolution": "Early state formation therefore featured both the rise of a ruling class, making decisions and benefiting from a privilaged position, and the development of a political and religious ideology. The latter was able to ensure stability and cohesion in this pyramid of inequality."[49]

"Alongside the traditional animal representations a new repertory of scenes was elaborated on the seals, inspired by the daily activities of a population that was apparently proud of its new status. Thus there appears a 'priest-king,' possibly representative of a type of monarchy that is known from later Sumerian literature."[50]

"Temple complexes, such as the temple of the goddess Inanna at Eana in Uruk (3200 BC), were large-scale enterprises, dealing in considerable quantities of goods and labor. A new system of recording and accounting needed to be devised. The accountants at the temple adapted a long-used system of accounting with clay tokens by impressing stylized outlines of tokens to denote numbers, with pictograms and other symbols to denote the objects that were being counted. A number of different numeration and metrological systems were used depending on the objects counted."[51]

"the Sumerian civilisation which flourished before 3500 BC. This was an advanced civilisation building cities and supporting the people with irrigation systems, a legal system, administration, and even a postal service. Writing developed and counting was based on a sexagesimal system, that is to say base 60."[52]

Lower Mesopotamia at this time - city-states as inscriptions suggests unity from time of Ur III (Shu-Sin): "the celebratory tone was not directed against Mesopotamian cities or other urbanised centres (such as the ones in Elam and Syria) anymore. The inscriptions rather focused on those turbulent 'barbarian' groups from the steppes and mountains, considered to be uncivilised and inhuman."[53]

Before Ur III there were no provinces just tributary city-states: "The economy of earlier empires was predominantly based on commercial activities and political relations with states that were controlled by the centre and were dependent on it. However, the empires themselves did not directly control these resources. The direct management of resources was an innovation of the kings of Ur, who applied in throughout the centre of the empire, which was itself no longer divided into several tributary city-states, but into provinces governed by functionaries (the ensi) appointed by the kings of Ur."[54]

Writing developed "as a response to the administrative needs (commodities, quantities, people, operations successfully accomplished or to accomplish) of the urban societies of the time."[55]

"With these new instruments, administration became the most specialised work within the great organisations. The functionary became a 'scribe', who after a highly specialised training was able to write, calculate and perform various administrative tasks. Trainees in workshops learned the secrets of their craft within the first years of apprenticeship. On the contrary, scribes had to train in bona fide schools, where teachers taught their students to master a repertoire of hundreds of signs. This training was reserved to the members of the cultural and political elite of the State."[56]


♠ Religious levels ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels.

1. Priest-King

2. Other priests appointed by the king?
3. Did large temples contain a priestly hierarchy?


"The temple was the physical, administrative and symbolic centre of the city. Its sheer size, as well as its facade and furnishings separated it from any other building in the settlement. ... acted as the place in which the community comunicated with a deity, as well as the place in which the ruling class presented itself to the rest of the population."[57]

"The priesthood took care of daily and private cultic activities, as well as public festivals. It managed that relation with the divine that provided the ideological justification for the unequal stratification of society. The urban community was already used to justifying events outside human control through its belief in divine entitites, and to propitiate them through human acts such as offerings and sacrifices. Consequently, these ideas were applied by the socio-economic organisation of the State and its centralised political structure."[58]


"Temple complexes, such as the temple of the goddess Inanna at Eana in Uruk (3200 BC), were large-scale enterprises, dealing in considerable quantities of goods and labor."[59]

♠ Military levels ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels.

Uruk phase c3800-3000 BCE "monopoly of defence forces to protect internal cohesion. The wealth and technical knowledge accumulated in cities had to be defended against foreign attacks, both from other city-states and other enemies (for instance, nomadic tribes). This defence system then turned into an offensive tactic. ... Instrumental for these kinds of activities was the creation of an army, which was divided into two groups. One group was made of full-time workers, specialised in military activities (although this remains purely hypothetical for the Uruk period). In case of war, an army was assembled through military conscription, and was supported by mandatory provisions of military supplies."[60]

Liverani notes that in Uruk phase "Urban Revolution therefore led to the formation of the Early State, not just in its decisional function, which already existed in pre-urban communities, but in the fullest sense of the term. The latter is to be understood as an organisation that solidly controls and defends a given territory (and its many communities) and manages the exploitation of resources to ensure and develop the survival of its population."[61]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Uruk phase c3800-3000 BCE "monopoly of defence forces to protect internal cohesion. The wealth and technical knowledge accumulated in cities had to be defended against foreign attacks, both from other city-states and other enemies (for instance, nomadic tribes). This defence system then turned into an offensive tactic. ... Instrumental for these kinds of activities was the creation of an army, which was divided into two groups. One group was made of full-time workers, specialised in military activities (although this remains purely hypothetical for the Uruk period). In case of war, an army was assembled through military conscription, and was supported by mandatory provisions of military supplies."[62]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ [absent; present] ♥ Possibility of this in Uruk phase: "hypothetical." Uruk phase c3800-3000 BCE "monopoly of defence forces to protect internal cohesion. The wealth and technical knowledge accumulated in cities had to be defended against foreign attacks, both from other city-states and other enemies (for instance, nomadic tribes). This defence system then turned into an offensive tactic. ... Instrumental for these kinds of activities was the creation of an army, which was divided into two groups. One group was made of full-time workers, specialised in military activities (although this remains purely hypothetical for the Uruk period). In case of war, an army was assembled through military conscription, and was supported by mandatory provisions of military supplies."[63]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ "Temple complexes, such as the temple of the goddess Inanna at Eana in Uruk (3200 BC), were large-scale enterprises"[64] Uruk phase c3800-3000 BCE: "The ruling class had to work on an operational and ideological front, leading to the formation of a bureaucracy and a priesthood."[65]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred present ♥ Uruk phase c3800-3000 BCE: "The ruling class had to work on an operational and ideological front, leading to the formation of a bureaucracy and a priesthood. Bureaucracy, managed by the scribes and hierarchically subdivided, took care of the economic administration of the city-state."[66]

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Sources do not provide explicit and clear descriptions of "government buildings" in Susa or its environs. Temple complex based government. "Temple complexes, such as the temple of the goddess Inanna at Eana in Uruk (3200 BC), were large-scale enterprises, dealing in considerable quantities of goods and labor."[67] "the Sumerian civilisation which flourished before 3500 BC. This was an advanced civilisation building cities and supporting the people with irrigation systems, a legal system, administration, and even a postal service. Writing developed and counting was based on a sexagesimal system, that is to say base 60."[68]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥ In neighbouring Mesopotamia: Ur-Nammu of Ur III (r. c2112-2094 BCE) or his son Shulgi (r. c. 2094-2047 BCE) "some scholars believe was the author of the first recorded set of law codes."[69]

A "legal system" was present - not sure what this refers to. "the Sumerian civilisation which flourished before 3500 BC. This was an advanced civilisation building cities and supporting the people with irrigation systems, a legal system, administration, and even a postal service. Writing developed and counting was based on a sexagesimal system, that is to say base 60."[70]

♠ Judges ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Temple complex based government. "Temple complexes, such as the temple of the goddess Inanna at Eana in Uruk (3200 BC), were large-scale enterprises, dealing in considerable quantities of goods and labor."[71]

A "legal system" was present. Were there specialist judges or were judges priests? "the Sumerian civilisation which flourished before 3500 BC. This was an advanced civilisation building cities and supporting the people with irrigation systems, a legal system, administration, and even a postal service. Writing developed and counting was based on a sexagesimal system, that is to say base 60."[72]


♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Temple complex based government. "Temple complexes, such as the temple of the goddess Inanna at Eana in Uruk (3200 BC), were large-scale enterprises, dealing in considerable quantities of goods and labor."[73]

A "legal system" was present. Were there specialist courts or was this among the activities of the temple complexes? "the Sumerian civilisation which flourished before 3500 BC. This was an advanced civilisation building cities and supporting the people with irrigation systems, a legal system, administration, and even a postal service. Writing developed and counting was based on a sexagesimal system, that is to say base 60."[74]


♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥ "the Sumerian civilisation which flourished before 3500 BC. This was an advanced civilisation building cities and supporting the people with irrigation systems, a legal system, administration, and even a postal service. Writing developed and counting was based on a sexagesimal system, that is to say base 60."[75]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ "the Sumerian civilisation which flourished before 3500 BC. This was an advanced civilisation building cities and supporting the people with irrigation systems, a legal system, administration, and even a postal service. Writing developed and counting was based on a sexagesimal system, that is to say base 60."[76]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ "At Uruk and other southern city-states, each institution controlled its own fields, produced foodstuffs, and kept them in associated storage areas (Sterba 1976). Tribute or taxes came into the central stores as well." [77]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ "the Sumerian civilisation which flourished before 3500 BC... was an advanced civilisation ... administration, and even a postal service."[78] -- postal service may imply an interest in the formal maintenance of at least some routes. Uruk phase c3800-3000 BCE: "bureaucracy sent orders to specialised workmen, planned and constructed key infrastructures (such as canals, temples, or walls), and engaged in long-distance trade."[79] -- key infrastructures likely to have included some roads along which trade was carried.
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ inferred absent ♥ Certainly in neighbouring Mesopotamia c2000-1500 BCE: "It was an important task for the rulers of Mesopotamia to dig canals and to maintain them, because canals were not only necessary for irrigation but also useful for the transport of goods and armies. The rulers or high government officials must have ordered Babylonian mathematicians to calculate the number of workers and days necessary for the building of a canal, and to calculate the total expenses of wages of the workers."[80]
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ inferred present ♥ "The accountants at the temple adapted a long-used system of accounting with clay tokens by impressing stylized outlines of tokens to denote numbers, with pictograms and other symbols to denote the objects that were being counted. A number of different numeration and metrological systems were used depending on the objects counted."[81]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ "From about 8000 BC, a system of recording involving small clay tokens was prevalent in the Near and Middle East. Tokens were small geometric objects, usually in the shape of cylinders, cones, and spheres."[82] "From about 3000 BC, among the Sumerians, tokens for different goods began appearing as impressions on clay tablets, represented by different symbols and multiple quantities represented by repetition. Thus three units of grain were denoted by three "grain marks," five jars of oil by five "oil marks," and so on."[83]
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ Sumerian in neighbouring Mesopotamia: "Until Sargon, records from Akkad had been written in Sumerian."[84] "Sometime during the fourth millennium, in the urban center of Uruk (for which the archaeological period is named), southern Mesopotamia acquired a specifically Sumerian historical identity. With the introduction of a system of writing, a gradual development from an earlier accounting system, a radical change occurred in the social organization and in the very foundations of thought."[85] "documents"[86] "But toward the end of the fourth millennium, when the brilliant civilization of the Uruk period had collapsed in Mesopotamia and at Susa, the population of Fars broke with the prehistoric past and achieved in their turn a kind of historical consciousness, establishing a large center which perhaps had already acquired its name, Anshan (modern Tal-i Malyan). The creativity of this first period of Elamite historical identity is apparent in the development at Susa and Anshan of a form of writing and an art that we call Proto-Elamite."[87]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ "Sometime during the fourth millennium, in the urban center of Uruk (for which the archaeological period is named), southern Mesopotamia acquired a specifically Sumerian historical identity. With the introduction of a system of writing, a gradual development from an earlier accounting system, a radical change occurred in the social organization and in the very foundations of thought."[88] "A decisive step forward came about with the substitution of a system of tokens with a graphic code, made of the imprint of that same token on clay. This constitutes the origins of writing, a system providing much more flexibility and scope for development. In a short period of time, many signs were created and written with a reed stylus, rather than with the tokens. ... as it developed, the process led to the development of pictograms, namely signs representing in a simplified form of the object meant. Therefore, tablets inscribed with numerals and authenticated with seal impressions were substituted by tablets bearing both numeral signs (imprinted on clay) and pictograms (written with a stylus). Seal impressions soon became superfluous for administrative records, though they remained crucial for important legal tablets, letters and so on. The information provided by the seal could now be expressed through pictograms."[89]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥ "A decisive step forward came about with the substitution of a system of tokens with a graphic code, made of the imprint of that same token on clay. This constitutes the origins of writing, a system providing much more flexibility and scope for development. In a short period of time, many signs were created and written with a reed stylus, rather than with the tokens. ... as it developed, the process led to the development of pictograms, namely signs representing in a simplified form of the object meant. Therefore, tablets inscribed with numerals and authenticated with seal impressions were substituted by tablets bearing both numeral signs (imprinted on clay) and pictograms (written with a stylus). Seal impressions soon became superfluous for administrative records, though they remained crucial for important legal tablets, letters and so on. The information provided by the seal could now be expressed through pictograms."[90]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥


Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ "Precise stratigraphic excavations conducted in recent decades have allowed us to trace developments at Susa in the Uruk phase, notably of an accounting system that preceded the slightly later appearance of writing."[91] "documents"[92] Lake Uruk phase (second half fourth millennium BCE) administrative tablets show: lists divided into categories such as professions, birds, vases, plants..[93] "everything points to the direct influence of Mesopotamian accounting procedures on Susa in Late Susa II times."[94]
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred present ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[95] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase was from 3800-3000 BCE.[96]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥ Lake Uruk phase administrative tablets show royal inscriptions, prayers and divinatory texts.[97]
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Lake Uruk phase (second half fourth millennium BCE) administrative tablets show royal inscriptions, prayers and divinatory texts.[98]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ "everything points to the direct influence of Mesopotamian accounting procedures on Susa in Late Susa II times."[99] "documents".[100] literature relating to accounting in the temple complexes, such as metrological systems. "A number of different numeration and metrological systems were used depending on the objects counted."[101] Lake Uruk phase (second half fourth millennium BCE) administrative tablets show land management records.[102]
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Mathematics. "A number of different numeration and metrological systems were used depending on the objects counted."[103]
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥ "At Uruk and other southern city-states, each institution controlled its own fields, produced foodstuffs, and kept them in associated storage areas (Sterba 1976). Tribute or taxes came into the central stores as well." [104] "There were two main units of value in Mesopotamia: barley and silver (and sometimes copper). Barley was readily available, of low value, and thus often present in exchanges. On the contrary, silver was a precious and rare metal, but also non-perishable (since it could not be consumed), allowing its accumulation. These were two very different materials, to be used as units on different occasions with different goods, and thus complementing each other."[105]
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ inferred present ♥ "There were two main units of value in Mesopotamia: barley and silver (and sometimes copper). Barley was readily available, of low value, and thus often present in exchanges. On the contrary, silver was a precious and rare metal, but also non-perishable (since it could not be consumed), allowing its accumulation."[106]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ "the Sumerian civilisation which flourished before 3500 BC. This was an advanced civilisation building cities and supporting the people with irrigation systems, a legal system, administration, and even a postal service. Writing developed and counting was based on a sexagesimal system, that is to say base 60."[107]
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred present ♥ "the Sumerian civilisation which flourished before 3500 BC. This was an advanced civilisation building cities and supporting the people with irrigation systems, a legal system, administration, and even a postal service. Writing developed and counting was based on a sexagesimal system, that is to say base 60."[108] -- presumably postal stations would have been necessary for an ancient postal service.
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥ "the Sumerian civilisation which flourished before 3500 BC. This was an advanced civilisation building cities and supporting the people with irrigation systems, a legal system, administration, and even a postal service. Writing developed and counting was based on a sexagesimal system, that is to say base 60."[109] -- could this postal service be used by individuals outside the temple complex?

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Thomas Cressy; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ copper based tools and weapons appeared in the 5th millenium BC [110]
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Bone harpoons found since the Paleolithic, but it is unclear if used for warfare or hunting. There is no reason to believe that other humans couldn't be the target for these.[111] According to a military historian (a polity specialist ought to be able to elaborate on this claim): "Unlike other areas of the world where the spear developed into a thrown weapon, in the Middle East it remained primarily a stabbing weapon."[112]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in evidence and extremely unlikely being a weapon of the Americas
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ "Round and ovoid sling pellets have been dug up in early Sumer and Turkestan. Ovoid sling pellets have been unearthed at the neolithic sites on the Iranian tableland. In later times, the sling was used in Palestine and Syria. It was introduced in Egypt at a still later date."[113] According to a military historian (a polity specialist needs to check this data): 4000 BCE in the Middle East and southeastern Europe: "sling, dagger, mace, and bow are common weapons".[114]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ According to a military historian (a polity specialist needs to check this data): "The bow was probably between 6,000 and 10,000 years old by the dawn of the Bronze Age".[115]
♠ Composite bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Recurved bows are depicted in seals, showing arrows being fired at humans in warfare.[116] According to a military historian (a polity specialist needs to check this data): "The first evidence of the composite bow appears on the victory stele of Naram Sin (2254-2218 B.C.E.)".[117] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[118]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not present at this time: "the hand-held crossbow was invented by the Chinese, in the fifth century BC, and probably came into the Roman world in the first century AD, where it was used for hunting."[119] The crossbow also developed after the Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE.[120]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Base camps with fortified walls are present, defending against animal or human attackers.[121] In Anatolia siege warfare was mentioned in Old Hittite records.[122] Presumably at this time the catapult was not used? In India, according to Jain texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone".[123] Marsden (1969) said archaeological records exist before the 4th century BCE.[124] The Achaemenids (c400 BCE?) are assumed to have had the catapult because the Macedonians did.[125] Pollard and Berry (2012) say torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE.[126] The Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE which encouraged the development of large tension-powered weapons.[127] There is no direct evidence for catapults for this time/location. The aforementioned evidence we currently have covering the wider ancient world suggests they were probably not used at this time, perhaps because effective machines had not been invented yet.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ The counter-weight trebuchet was first used by the Byzantines in 1165 CE.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not invented at this time.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not invented at this time.


Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ According to a military historian (a polity specialist needs to check this data): mace was the dominant weapon of war between 4000-2500 BCE before the helmet was invented.[128] According to a military historian (a polity specialist needs to check this data): 4000 BCE in the Middle East and southeastern Europe: "sling, dagger, mace, and bow are common weapons".[129]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ ‘circulation of characteristic Late Chalcolithic double axes’ and these axes were used as weapons. [130]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ "The limited repertoire available from Mir Khair and Kalleh Nisar includes tanged knives or daggers; blade axes etc."[131] Bone needles/knives were present by 7200 BC, but no hard evidence for use in warfare.[132] Stone blades had been in production in Iraq/Iran since the Paleolithic: 'The Baradostian lithic industry is dominated by blade production. Characteristic tools include slender points, backed blades and bladelets, twisted bladelets with various kinds of light retouch, end scrapers, discoidal scrapers, side scrapers, and burins.'[133] Obsidian blades have also been found for this period [134] Knife blades became longer during this time but this was for butchery rather than warfare.[135] According to a military historian (a polity specialist needs to check this data): 4000 BCE in the Middle East and southeastern Europe: "sling, dagger, mace, and bow are common weapons".[136]
♠ Swords ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Spears ♣ suspected unknown ♥ According to a military historian (a polity specialist ought to be able to elaborate on this claim): "Unlike other areas of the world where the spear developed into a thrown weapon, in the Middle East it remained primarily a stabbing weapon."[137]
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ present ♥ Dogs were used to defend villages against attacking humans/animals[138]
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Evidence for use as Pack Animals appears by around 7000 BC onward [139] The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass 'in more than one place' but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan.[140]
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Not used for military purposes until much later
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Not used for military purposes until much later

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There is evidence for loincloths being used, but it would hardly count as armor and there is no evidence for warfare at this time:‘The early periods at Tepe Sialk (I-IV) were a time of important technological innovation. A carved bone knife handle representing a man wearing a cap and a loincloth found in a Sialk I context is one of the earliest known anthropomorphic representations from Iran’[141]
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Helmets ♣ absent ♥ According to a military historian (a polity specialist needs to check this data): earliest helmet 2500 BCE in Sumer was a "a cap of hammered copper" fitted onto a leather cap.[142]
♠ Breastplates ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred absent ♥ According to a military historian (a polity specialist needs to check this data): the earliest reference, for Greece c1600 BCE: "Early Mycenaean and Minoan charioteers wore an arrangement of bronze armor that almost fully enclosed the soldier, the famous Dendra panoply."[143]
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred absent ♥ sources do not mention this technology in the region until much later
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available. According to a military historian (a polity specialist needs to check this data): "The first recorded instance of body armor is found on the Stele of Vultures in ancient Sumer, which shows Eannatum's soldiers wearing leather cloaks on which are sewn spined metal disks. The disks do not appear to be arranged in any order, and we do not know if the disks were made of copper or bronze. By 2100 BCE the victory stele of Naram Sin appears to show plate armor, and it is likely that plate armor had been in wide use for a few hundred years. Plate armor was constructed of thin bronze plates sewn to a leather shirt or jerkin."[144]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available. According to a military historian (a polity specialist needs to check this data): Lamellar armour introduced by the Assyrians (9th century BCE?): "a shirt constructed of laminated layers of leather sewn or glued together. To the outer surface of this coat were attached fitted iron plates, each plate joined to the next at the edge with no overlap and held in place by stitching or gluing."[145]
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Base camps with fortified walls are present, defending against animal or human attackers [146]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [147]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [148]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [149]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [150]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [151]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km. Not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ inferred present ♥ There was thought to have been a hereditary kingship at this time, inferred similar system among other elites.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred present ♥ Johnson argues that both Choga Mish and Susa show continuity with earlier periods in the way that official ideology appears to promote inequality between rulers/elites and commoners [152]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The earliest known depiction of the Mesopotamian "priest-king" was found in Susa [153].However, this does not seem sufficient to infer anything about the relationship between rulers and the divine in this polity: it is only one image and there is nothing obviously "priestly" about it (the figure is shown shooting arrows at opponents). Furthermore, it is entirely possible that this image (and therefore, perhaps, its real-life counterpart) only acquired sacral connotations in neighbouring polities and/or some time later. At the same time, this caution may be excessive.

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ inferred absent ♥ Johnson argues that both Choga Mish and Susa show continuity with earlier periods in the way that official ideology appears to promote inequality between rulers/elites and commoners [154]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ Johnson argues that both Choga Mish and Susa show continuity with earlier periods in the way that official ideology appears to promote inequality between rulers/elites and commoners [155]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ Johnson argues that both Choga Mish and Susa show continuity with earlier periods in the way that official ideology appears to promote inequality between rulers/elites and commoners [156]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ inferred absent ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [157] [158] [159]

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