IrShima

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Marta Bartkowiak; Agathe Dupreyon; Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Elam - Shimashki Period ♥ [1]

♠ Alternative names ♣ Elam; Dynasty of Shimashki ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 2028-1940 BCE ♥ This period starts with liberation of Susa from Ur's control and the independent reign of Shimashki's dynasty (starting from king named Kindatu, who was six king of Shimashki dynasty). The end of this polity is associated with the new political power and dynasty of sukkalmah in Elam.[2]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ confederated state ♥ [3][4]

"The Shu-Sin texts which describe the defeat of the Shimaskian lands make it clear that each had its own ruler, styled 'great ensi' (ensi-gal-gal) or 'king' (lugal) in the case of those who ruled a land, and simply ensi for those whose domain was a city or town (Kutscher 1989: 99). Kutscher suggested that Ziringu, named as the paramount ruler of Zabshali in one of the Shu-Sin texts, ruled a Shimaskian 'empire' comprised of a 'confederacy of lands whose leading force was the land of Zabshali' (Kutscher 1989: 100)."[5]

"Without exaggeration, the Elamite federated system of government can be considered as perhaps the earliest formal federalism on a large scale in history." [6]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ nominal allegiance ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Ur - Dynasty III ♥ Ur III dynasty
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ [7]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Elam - Early Sukkalmah ♥ Early Elamite Period
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared. An estimate of the area encompassed by the supracultural entity

♠ Capital ♣ Susa ♥ [8]

♠ Language ♣ Elamite; Akkadian; Babylonian ♥ [9] "Until Sargon, records from Akkad had been written in Sumerian. During his reign, however, the cuneiform writing of the Sumerians was adapted to fit the Akkadian language, and the resulting records have revealed Akkadian as the oldest known Semitic language. Cuneiform spread with the empire and was adopted in other states, including the kingdom of Elam, located to the west of Akkad."[10] After mid-14th BCE: "The official language (also for royal inscriptions) was once again Elamite, and not Babylonian, as it had been before the dark age."[11]

General Description

Women in Elam

"with the rise of the nuclear family by the end of the third millennium ... daughters attained equal inheritance rights with sons. Sometimes fathers even preferred to pass on their entire estates to their daughters rather than to their sons. A wide's share of her husband's estate also increased considerably in the later Elamite period."[12]
Succession "sometimes passed from a man to his sister's son. Succession through the sister suggests that royal women had greater political power than did royal women in Mesopotamia."[13]
queen Nahhunte-utu of Elam "married two of her own brothers" and passed her claim to the throne to her eldest son. Also evidence for next-of-kin marriage within the royal family."[14]
"Hinz argues that even after the sister's son was no longer the major heir to the throne, brother-sister marriage did not disappear but continued until the end of the Elamite period, when 'even provincial rulers followed the "family custom" of Elamite kings in marrying their sisters."[15]


Data below has yet to be coded into the sheet

"The Ur III rulers imposed their suzerainty over the Elamite princes of Anshan, who were probably semi-nomadic, in the southeast, and over others, including the princes of Shimashki, in an area that is likely to have extended to the north and southeast of Susiana."[16]
Ur reduced to rubble. "An Elamite attack against Ur brought Ibbi-Sin to seek refuge within its walls. The city [Ur] was besieged for a long time, until it collapsed for lack of food supplies. The Elamites broke into the city and plundered it. They profaned its most sacred temples, captured Ibbi-Sin an imprisoned him in Susa. For a while, Ur became an Elamite garrison..."[17]
"While Isin moved from being the heir of the Third Dynasty of Ur back to a city-state, Larsa moved in the opposite direction, moving away from its position as a city-state clenched between Isin and Elam. Gungunum began his rise to power in Larsa at the end of the twentieth century, taking Ur and Lagash from Isin and Susa from Elam. He took on the title of 'king of Sumer and Akkad', the standard title of the kings of Ur, and led a couple of campaigns against Bashime (located on the Iranian coast facing the Persian Gulf) and Anshan (modern Fars, located in the hinterland of Bashime)."[18]
"In Elam, the princes of the new Shimashkian dynasty, who governed a vast area to the north and southeast of Susiana, drove out the Sumerians and gained control of Susa toward 2000 B.C."[19]
"Anshan was soon restored as the major metropolis of the Elamite federation, and the rulers of Shimashki seem to have adopted the title "king of Anshan and Susa" sometime before 1900 B.C. That imperial title of the rulers of Elam was subsequently changed to sukkalmah, a term borrowed from the Sumerian administration and meaning "grand regent." Under the rule of the sukkalmahs, which continued until about 1500 B.C., Susa remained within the Mesopotamian cultural sphere, but local artistic traditions continued."[20]


Shimashki's dynasty originated from Shimashki region, and was ruling probably in Shimashki, Anshan and Elam since at least 2094 BC, however Elam (and Susiana) stayed under control of Ur III Empire during that time.[21] The independence of Shimashki's dynasty and Elam itself was associated probably with the act of direct aggression from Ur III and its king - Shu-Sin who undertook war campaign against Elam. According to some researchers, this might have stimulated Shimashkian to formation their own state, but real autonomy was achieved later, during the reign of Ibbi-Sin and rebellion of Ishbi-erra, ensi of Isin, and disintegration of Ur III Empire.[22] [23] There is also believed that Shimashkian had important contribution in collapse of Ur III as they took a part of coalitions against Ibbi-Sin, together with some people of the Zagros (e. g. Su people) attacked eastern Mesopotamia. [24], [25] The earlier relations between Ur III and Elam based mostly on peaceful coexistence, marital alliances and allegiance. Elam was treated as very important partner and part of Ur III empire, and had his own governor.[26] There is very little known regarding the Shimashki dynasty, and there are found only few inscription, lists and seals with names of lugal or ensi of Elam and Anshan from this dynasty (e. g. Imazu, Idaddu I, Ebarti II).[27] The tradition of inter-dynastic marriages was continued in Elam, e. g. son of Indattu-In-Shushinak was married to Me-kubi, daughter of governor of Eshnunna.[28]


Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Marta Bartkowiak; Agathe Dupreyon; Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

"The historical phases at Susa ... - Old Akkadian, Ur III and Shimashki period - are not discernible at Anshan itself. Abandoned at the end of the Banesh period c.2600 BC, Tal-i Malyan was resettled c. 2200 BC, and the entire time span down to 1600 BC is characterized by a fairly uniform material culture referred to as 'Kaftari' (Sumner 1989)."[29]

"In Elam, the princes of the new Shimashkian dynasty, who governed a vast area to the north and southeast of Susiana, drove out the Sumerians and gained control of Susa toward 2000 B.C."[30]

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

"Before the Islamic conquest, major concentration of settlement were always localized in the following three major regions: the central Zagros, the lowland steppe, and Marv Dasht. These probably correspond, respectively, with Shimashki, Susa, and Anshan, the three most important historical entities in southwest Iran (Vallat 1980:6). Each major concentration of settlement contained at least one large urban area."[31]

"Susa is thought to have covered an area of c. 85 ha by the sukkalmah period, when roughly twenty new villages were founded as well (Carter and Stolper 1984: 150)."[32]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [6,500-26,000] ♥ Inhabitants. At Seshat standard rate of 50-200 persons per hectare, 130 hectares makes Tel-I Malyan estimated population 6,500-26,000. "From 1900-1800 BC the site of Tal-I Malyan rose in size to a massive 130 ha of settled area."[33]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 3 ♥ levels.

Under Ur III region east of the Mesopotamian core area was "unincorporated territories". Here soldiers were settled in small settlements commanded by junior captains, medium-sized settlements commanded by senior captains and large settlements (including Susa, Sabum and Urua) run by generals or governors.[34]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [4-5] ♥ levels.

Akkadian Empire had 5 levels. Ur III at least 4. Range reflects uncertainty, taking into account that the governor-level bureaucracy would have had at least one level.


1. King

"The Shu-Sin texts which describe the defeat of the Shimaskian lands make it clear that each had its own ruler, styled 'great ensi' (ensi-gal-gal) or 'king' (lugal) in the case of those who ruled a land, and simply ensi for those whose domain was a city or town (Kutscher 1989: 99). Kutscher suggested that Ziringu, named as the paramount ruler of Zabshali in one of the Shu-Sin texts, ruled a Shimaskian 'empire' comprised of a 'confederacy of lands whose leading force was the land of Zabshali' (Kutscher 1989: 100)."[35]

_Palatial government_

2. Viceroy (Sakanakkun)
"The federal structure of the Elamite empire was organized into three administrative layers of governance, and the various provinces were ruled over by: (1) the governors' (Halmenik), who were under the control of (2) a 'viceroy' (Sakanakkun), who was subject to (3) the great king of Elam (Zunkir)."[36] -- does not specify which period

_Provincial government_

3. Halmenik (governors)
4.
4.
5.


"The main instrument of public administration and governance under the long history of the federal state of Elam was the bureaucracy, which also played a powerful role under the Median and the Persian empires."[37]
Akkadian Empire possible influence. Kingdom of Elam i.e. bureaucracy adopted Akkadian cuneiform so possibly also adopted bureaucracy on Akkadian template. "Until Sargon, records from Akkad had been written in Sumerian. During his reign, however, the cuneiform writing of the Sumerians was adapted to fit the Akkadian language, and the resulting records have revealed Akkadian as the oldest known Semitic language. Cuneiform spread with the empire and was adopted in other states, including the kingdom of Elam, located to the west of Akkad."[38]
"Anshan was soon restored as the major metropolis of the Elamite federation, and the rulers of Shimashki seem to have adopted the title "king of Anshan and Susa" sometime before 1900 B.C. That imperial title of the rulers of Elam was subsequently changed to sukkalmah, a term borrowed from the Sumerian administration and meaning "grand regent." Under the rule of the sukkalmahs, which continued until about 1500 B.C., Susa remained within the Mesopotamian cultural sphere, but local artistic traditions continued."[39]
“Governors” mentioned: “El sucesor de ambos, Tanruhurater, hijo de Indatu, nos consta como gobernador en Susa, ciudad tal vez dependiente de Isin en esta época, como se deduce del matrimonio de este soberano con Mekubi, la hija de Bilalama también gobernador (no rey) de Eshnuna, probable contemporáneo de Ishbierra. De la actividad de este Tanruhurater sólo cono- cemos la construcción de un templo en Susa9. » [40]


♠ Religious levels ♣ [2-3] ♥ levels.

No data. This is the estimate for the early periods and temples existed in this period e.g. temple of Shilkhak-In-Shushinak[41]

"During the third millennium B.C.E., the most important deity in Elam was the goddess Pinikir, 'the great mother of the gods to the Elamites' and the great mistress of heaven. Later, another goddess, Kirrisha, surpassed her, but many goddesses were gradually demoted and replaced in rank by male gods. Yet Kirrisha never lost her title as the main goddess of Elam, and it is significant for later developments that she married two of her brothers who were major gods. Kings often built temples to honor her and appear to her for protection. Despite being demoted, Elamite goddesses retained a higher status than goddesses in Mesopotamia."[42]

♠ Military levels ♣ [3-6] ♥ levels. Inferred that military organization would be roughly similar to that of the Akkadian Empire for which we have data.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ "Religion strongly flourished in ancient Elam, where the female Great Goddess was considered to be very powerful and equivalent to the male God. In addition, certain kings of Elam were also elevated to the level of 'Messenger of God,' 'regent,' and ruler on earth. It also appears that Elamites had some conceptions of an 'after-life, in which various burial gifts would be of use.' Administration of Elam was developed and reflected both secular and religious aspects of law, politics and government."[43] -- period not specified. could be general reference to whole period.

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred present ♥ "The main instrument of public administration and governance under the long history of the federal state of Elam was the bureaucracy, which also played a powerful role under the Median and the Persian empires."[44]

"Anshan was soon restored as the major metropolis of the Elamite federation, and the rulers of Shimashki seem to have adopted the title "king of Anshan and Susa" sometime before 1900 B.C. That imperial title of the rulers of Elam was subsequently changed to sukkalmah, a term borrowed from the Sumerian administration and meaning "grand regent." Under the rule of the sukkalmahs, which continued until about 1500 B.C., Susa remained within the Mesopotamian cultural sphere, but local artistic traditions continued."[45]

♠ Examination system ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ "The main instrument of public administration and governance under the long history of the federal state of Elam was the bureaucracy, which also played a powerful role under the Median and the Persian empires."[46]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ ♥ This polity succeeded from Ur III: Ur-Nammu of Ur III (r. c2112-2094 BCE) or his son Shulgi (r. c. 2094-2047 BCE) "some scholars believe was the author of the first recorded set of law codes."[47] These laws were novel in that they mostly imposed financial punishments as opposed to harsh physical retribution.[48]

♠ Judges ♣ ♥

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥ probably unknown

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ "Other major administrative achievements of the Elamites included the development and use of a binary weight system, which had a major influence on the fraction systems of the whole Mesopotamia; a massive number of administrative and business documents; major architectural works; the development and management of a gigantic system of underground canals (Qanat) for irrigation, an Iranian invention that turned the arid land into an agricultural land; the construction and maintenance of numerous public works and enterprises, such as roads, bridges, cities and towns, communication centers, and economic and commercial centers..." [49] -- which period?
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥ probably unknown.
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources. Possibly at temples.

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ ♥
♠ Bridges ♣ ♥
♠ Canals ♣ ♥ Certainly in neighbouring Mesopotamia c2000-1500 BCE: "It was an important task for the rulers of Mesopotamia to dig canals and to maintain them, because canals were not only necessary for irrigation but also useful for the transport of goods and armies. The rulers or high government officials must have ordered Babylonian mathematicians to calculate the number of workers and days necessary for the building of a canal, and to calculate the total expenses of wages of the workers."[50]
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ inferred present ♥ In neighbouring Mesopotamia c2200 BCE: "The Akkadians invented the abacus as a tool for counting"[51]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ e. g. glyptic[52] "From about 8000 BC, a system of recording involving small clay tokens was prevalent in the Near and Middle East. Tokens were small geometric objects, usually in the shape of cylinders, cones, and spheres."[53] "From about 3000 BC, among the Sumerians, tokens for different goods began appearing as impressions on clay tablets, represented by different symbols and multiple quantities represented by repetition. Thus three units of grain were denoted by three "grain marks," five jars of oil by five "oil marks," and so on."[54]
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ [55] "Until Sargon, records from Akkad had been written in Sumerian. During his reign, however, the cuneiform writing of the Sumerians was adapted to fit the Akkadian language, and the resulting records have revealed Akkadian as the oldest known Semitic language. Cuneiform spread with the empire and was adopted in other states, including the kingdom of Elam, located to the west of Akkad."[56])
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ [57] Elamites developed their own script[58] "the proto-Elamite script - the designation applied to the earliest pictographic stage in contrast with the later Elamite linear script."[59]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ [60] c2000-1500 BCE the neighbouring Babylonians "constructed tables to aid calculation."[61] "To relieve the tedium of long calculations, the Mesopotamians made extensive use of mathematical tables. These included tables for finding reciprocals, squares, cubes, and square and cube roots, as well as exponential tables and even tables of values of n3 + n2, for which there is no modern equivalent."[62] There is very little known regarding the Shimashki dynasty, and there are found only few inscription, lists and seals with names of lugal or ensi of Elam and Anshan from this dynasty (e. g. Imazu, Idaddu I, Ebarti II).[63]
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred present ♥ Literacy and concept of time present.
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred present ♥ used to train scribes in bureaucracies
♠ History ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥ (example: axes, cattle)
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥ (example: cowries)
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ e. g. gold, silver
♠ Foreign coins ♣ inferred absent ♥ Monetary system did not exist in the Shimashki's polity
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ inferred absent ♥ Monetary system did not exist in the Shimashki's polity
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥ Monetary system did not exist in the Shimashki's polity

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥ messengers
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Marta Bartkowiak; Thomas Cressy; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ [64]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ [65]
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Luristan borders Susiana region to the NW. Here Vanden Berghe divided the Iron Age into three periods 1000-800/750 BCE in which bronze and iron used together and 800/750-600 BCE when weapons were made from iron and ritual articles from bronze. At this early time we can only code present for bronze (and its constituent copper) with iron and steel both absent.[66]
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ The earliest evidence of steel use are dated to 1800 BC and site Kaman-Kalehoyuk in Central Anatolia.[67]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ "Unlike other areas of the world where the spear developed into a thrown weapon, in the Middle East it remained primarily a stabbing weapon."[68] This passage does not say the javelin had no role at all. The weapon may have had a secondary role. The last reference for the military use of the javelin in this region was Ur. The lament for Sumer and Ur mentions javelins in the battle for Ur c2000 BCE.[69]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ "Round and ovoid sling pellets have been dug up in early Sumer and Turkestan. Ovoid sling pellets have been unearthed at the neolithic sites on the Iranian tableland. In later times, the sling was used in Palestine and Syria. It was introduced in Egypt at a still later date."[70] The lament for Sumer and Ur mentions large stones fired from slings in the battle for Ur[71] Before the Archaemenid king Cyrus (c600 BCE), Persian light infantry carried only the bow and sling.[72]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[73] In his discussion of weapons used by the Achaemenid army Gabriel (2002) mentions the "noncomposite" simple bow directly for light cavalry and chariots and the 'bow' for light infantry and heavy infantry and notably does not mention use of the composite bow by Persian forces.[74] Earlier Gabriel mentions the composite bow was used from the late third millennium BCE but that it was difficult to manufacture and it was "very susceptible to moisture, which rendered it useless."[75] This suggests the simple bow was most likely the standard weapon. Hypothesis: nomads who were full-time warriors were able maintain their composite bows every day. Agricultural polities who did not wanted to store the weapons. This may have meant they probably relied most on their stocks of easy to preserve simple bows, even though arrows shot from them carried less range.
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ "The effective range of the simple bow varied from 50 to 100 yards. And the arrow shot by a simple bow was unable to penetrate leather or bronze armour. The effective range of the composite bows varied between 250 and 300 yards."[76] However, the composite bow itself could not penetrate armour more than 2mm thick [all designs or just the early designs?] and was susceptible to rotting in high-moisture environments.[77] "The composite bow was a recurve bow made of wood, horn and tendons from oxen, carefully laminated together. These bows were probably invented by the nomads of the Eurasian steppe and brought into Sumer by the mercenary nomads."[78] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[79] In his discussion of weapons used by the Achaemenid army Gabriel (2002) mentions the "noncomposite" simple bow directly for light cavalry and chariots and the 'bow' for light infantry and heavy infantry and notably does not mention use of the composite bow by Persian forces.[80] Earlier Gabriel mentions the composite bow was used from the late third millennium BCE but that it was difficult to manufacture and it was "very susceptible to moisture, which rendered it useless."[81] This suggests the simple bow was most likely the standard weapon. Hypothesis: nomads who were full-time warriors were able maintain their composite bows every day. Agricultural polities who did not wanted to store the weapons. This may have meant they probably relied most on their stocks of easy to preserve simple bows, even though arrows shot from them carried less range.
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not present at this time: "the hand-held crossbow was invented by the Chinese, in the fifth century BC, and probably came into the Roman world in the first century AD, where it was used for hunting."[82] The crossbow also developed after the Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE.[83]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ In Anatolia siege warfare was mentioned in Old Hittite records.[84] Presumably at this time the catapult was not used? In India, according to Jain texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone".[85] Marsden (1969) said archaeological records exist before the 4th century BCE.[86] The Achaemenids (c400 BCE?) are assumed to have had the catapult because the Macedonians did.[87] Pollard and Berry (2012) say torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE.[88] The Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE which encouraged the development of large tension-powered weapons.[89] There is no direct evidence for catapults for this time/location. The aforementioned evidence we currently have covering the wider ancient world suggests they were probably not used at this time, perhaps because effective machines had not been invented yet.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ The counter-weight trebuchet was first used by the Byzantines in 1165 CE.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ The gunpowder was invented around 9th century AD, but the gunpowder artillery was in use since Middle Age. [90]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ The first very simple firearms came from China and are dated to 13th century AD [91]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ There is Shimashki period mace head which was "dedicated to a maritime trader 'to (the goddess) Ninuruamugub, his lady, for the life of Shulgi, the mighty male, the king of Ur'".[92] Gabriel says the mace was the dominant weapon of war from 4000 BCE but had disappeared from Sumerian illustrations before 2500 BCE, a time when the helmet appears.[93] Almost certainly the technology was still present but the weapon may have been used less frequently. Coded present for Ur III and Akkad and could possibly be 'inferred present' at this time.
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ The war axe evolved after the development of body and head armour. Invented by the Sumerians, the socketed penetrating axe was "one of the most devastating close-combat weapons of the Bronze and Iron ages."[94] The last reference was have is c2000 BCE in Sumer. The lament for Sumer and Ur states: 'large axes were sharpened in front of Ur'.[95]
♠ Daggers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Swords ♣ inferred present ♥ In Sumer the first swords appeared about c3000 BCE but until c2000 BCE their use were restricted because the blade often became detached from the handle. The sickle-sword of c2500 BCE was cast whole but it was unable to break armour so the battle axe was preferred.[96] "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier's primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken."[97]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Spear-using phalanx first used in Sumer 2500 BCE. The phalanx was in use until the 1st century BCE.[98] "Unlike other areas of the world where the spear developed into a thrown weapon, in the Middle East it remained primarily a stabbing weapon."[99]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass 'in more than one place' but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan.[100] Donkey herder was a profession in Akkadian (c2200 BCE) period Mesopotamia.[101] "During the Bronze Age the standard mechanism of transport was the donkey (Egypt) or the solid-wheeled cart drawn by the onager (Sumer)."[102] The Achaemenids used donkeys (e.g. Darius III) and camels (e.g. Cyrus I) in their baggage train.[103] Likely to have been used as donkeys appear to have been raised in the wider region at least since Akkadian times. It is possible they were not used frequently, however, as there were other options.
♠ Horses ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Horse riding was present before the iron age but there is no explicit evidence of use in warfare at this time.[104]
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The Achaemenids used donkeys (e.g. Darius III) and camels (e.g. Cyrus I) in their baggage train.[105]
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Almost certainly could be coded present if there is evidence the polity used the shield. At this time it is unlikely the warriors went into battle completely unarmoured. The Archaemenids used cane: "From ancient times the peoples of Persia favoured a light, tough shield made of withies or cane. As remarked on at the beginning of this chapter, Herodotus describes the soldiers of Xerxes who carry targes of wicker. Large and deeply convex shields built up of concentric rings of cane or withies are carried by the Sacae (Scythian) guards in the reliefs from the great staircase of the Achaemenid, from the Palace of Persepolis, now in the Berlin Museum. All but the caps of these guards are in the Persian fashion. The large shields are not those of nomadic horsemen, but are a foot soldier’s defence."[106]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Almost certainly could be coded present if there is evidence the polity used the shield. At this time it is unlikely the warriors went into battle completely unarmoured.
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Last reference to shields present is during Ur III c2000 BCE.[107] Next reference for shields is the Archaemenids: "From ancient times the peoples of Persia favoured a light, tough shield made of withies or cane. As remarked on at the beginning of this chapter, Herodotus describes the soldiers of Xerxes who carry targes of wicker. Large and deeply convex shields built up of concentric rings of cane or withies are carried by the Sacae (Scythian) guards in the reliefs from the great staircase of the Achaemenid, from the Palace of Persepolis, now in the Berlin Museum. All but the caps of these guards are in the Persian fashion. The large shields are not those of nomadic horsemen, but are a foot soldier’s defence."[108] Likely to be inferred present but will leave this one for an expert to confirm.
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Earliest known helmet dates to 2500 BCE in Sumer. After this time use of helmets became widespread.[109] Earliest known helmet dates to 2500 BCE in Sumer.[110] The example from Sumer was "a cap of hammered copper" fitted onto a leather cap.[111]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE text: "May Ninurta, Enlil's son, set the helmet Lion of Battle on your head, may the breastplate (?) that in the great mountains does not permit retreat be laid on your breast!"[112] In India, cuirasses or breastplates of copper, iron, silver and gold are referenced in the Vedic epic literature.[113] Breastplates are known to have been worn by early Romans[114] and the advanced Greek Cairan armour c600 BCE included the breastplate.[115] In Persia, the Archaemenids (c5th century CE?) are known to have used iron breastplates[116] - did the cavalry of the Medes (715-550 BCE), who preceded them, wear breastplates? Physical evidence for the breastplate does not appear to be common in the ancient world though there appears to be some text references. We also code present on the basis of fabric/textile breastplates which are least likely to survive in archaeological contexts. For that reason a code of suspected unknown may be best at least back to the late bronze age.
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Reference for Greece c1600 BCE: "Early Mycenaean and Minoan charioteers wore an arrangement of bronze armor that almost fully enclosed the soldier, the famous Dendra panoply."[117] Reference for Mesopotamia (the Assyrians) c800 BCE?: iron plates used for shin protection.[118] Reference for 'Etruscan Rome' (400 BCE?): "bronze greaves to protect the shins and forearms of the soldier were standard items of military equipment."[119]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples.[120]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Of the Medes and Persians as a whole, only a few wore armour. Some had body armour of iron scales and wicker targes and only some of the cavalry wore helmets of bronze or iron. As both Greek mercenaries and Assyrians were amongst the best armed in this great force, one may assume that any armour worn by Persians was inspired by one or the other of these militant peoples."[121] Higher ranks in the Assyrian army (9th century CE?) wore scale armour.[122] "By 2100 BCE the victory stele of Naram Sin appears to show plate armor, and it is likely that plate armor had been in wide use for a few hundred years. Plate armor was constructed of thin bronze plates sewn to a leather shirt or jerkin."[123] Coding this as scale armor.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Of the Medes and Persians as a whole, only a few wore armour. Some had body armour of iron scales and wicker targes and only some of the cavalry wore helmets of bronze or iron. As both Greek mercenaries and Assyrians were amongst the best armed in this great force, one may assume that any armour worn by Persians was inspired by one or the other of these militant peoples."[124] No mentioned of laminar armour up to the Medes (715-550 BCE). Lamellar armour introduced by the Assyrians (9th century BCE?): "a shirt constructed of laminated layers of leather sewn or glued together. To the outer surface of this coat were attached fitted iron plates, each plate joined to the next at the edge with no overlap and held in place by stitching or gluing."[125]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ No mention of plate armour until the Archaemenids who used iron breastplates.[126] "By 2100 BCE the victory stele of Naram Sin appears to show plate armor, and it is likely that plate armor had been in wide use for a few hundred years. Plate armor was constructed of thin bronze plates sewn to a leather shirt or jerkin."[127] Coding this as scale armor.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ At the time of Ur III c2000 BCE Gu'abba was a seaport on the Persian Gulf that built ships and had a textile manufacturing sector. A trade route from Guabba ran east to the Karun River and beyond (the region of Susiana). The route was also used for the transport of troops.[128] The Karun River runs inland into Khuzestan which was the Elamite heartland. It would be logical for there to have been boats that sailed down this river to the Persian Gulf in all periods. The boats on the Karun could also have ferried troops. In earlier times rivers were used in military campaigns "to transport supplies and people".[129]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ At the time of Ur III c2000 BCE Gu'abba was a seaport on the Persian Gulf that built ships and had a textile manufacturing sector. A trade route from Guabba ran east to the Karun River and beyond (the region of Susiana). The route was also used for the transport of troops.[130] The Karun River runs inland into Khuzestan which was the Elamite heartland. It would be logical for there to have been boats that sailed down this river to the Persian Gulf. The boats on the Karun could also have ferried troops.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred absent ♥ At the time of Ur III c2000 BCE Gu'abba was a seaport on the Persian Gulf that built ships and had a textile manufacturing sector. A trade route from Guabba ran east to the Karun River and beyond (the region of Susiana). The route was also used for the transport of troops.[131] The Achaemenids (from c500 BCE?) possessed possibly the first large-scale militarised naval force[132] (one imagines largely based in the Mediterranean but presumably also some craft in the Persian Gulf) - the fleet consisted of over 600 tiremes that had 170 oarsmen and 30 fighters.[133] Have not found any earlier reference to naval operations occurring on the Persian Gulf that would require fighting ships. Did the Achaemenid fleet come out of nowhere or did it have some smaller-scale precedents in the Neo-Elamite civilization or Sumerian before that? Perhaps most unlikely before the Neo-Elamite Period.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ Late Bronze, Early Iron Age: ‘Large fortresses occupied mountain spurs at strategic points, and smaller forts were built along important lines of communication’.[134] Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text: "the fortress is too high and cannot be reached".[135] If forts were positioned on hills were a feature of the fortified architectural landscape in c2000 BCE and in Elam in c1000 BCE it is likely they also were used between times, and possibly after.
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ inferred present ♥ Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text: "My master: the Asag has constructed a wall of stakes on an earthen rampart".[136]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ present ♥ Ur III (c2000 BCE) inscription mentions the construction of a moat and rampart in the region of Elam.[137] Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text: "My master: the Asag has constructed a wall of stakes on an earthen rampart".[138] The unfinished city of Chogha Zanbil began by Elamite king Untash-napirisha (1275-1240 BCE) had a section "designated as the royal city, covers an area of c. 85 ha, lying to the east of the temenos, and protected by a rampart."[139] Later, after c500 BCE?, the Achaemenids built a long rammed mud defensive wall (the Kam Pirak).[140] Earth ramparts are a known defensive fortification c2000 BCE and c500 BCE and there is also a reference to them being used during the Elamite period. They seem to be a consistent feature of the architectural landscape over the period.
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Irrigation ditches referred to frequently in late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian texts but I cannot find any in the context of a fortification.[141]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Closest reference is a moat at Ur c2000 BCE.[142] Ur III (c2000 BCE) inscription mentions the construction of a moat and rampart in the region of Elam.[143] The Achaemenids built a moat at Susa.[144] It is not much of a stretch to suggest that if moats were a feature of the fortified architectural landscape in c2000 BCE and c500 BCE they also were used between times. However, since I have not yet found a reference to a moat specific to the Elamite period I will leave an expert to make the decision on if/when to code inferred present.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text (perhaps for the region of Mesopotamia rather than Elamite Susiana): "Its walls were built from stone."[145] City walls built under Indatu 11, son of Tanruhurater: “Nada podemos colegir de la situación en Elam. El rey debía ser Indatu 11,hijo de Tanruhurater, el cual conmemora en sus inscripciones, redactadas en sumerio y acadio, fundaciones piadosas y la construcción de la muralla de la acrópolis de SusaL6."[146] Are these walls of brick or stone - mortared or non-mortared?
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text (perhaps for the region of Mesopotamia rather than Elamite Susiana): "Its walls were built from stone."[147] Mortar existed at the time of Sumer because they also built with brick which would have required mortar. Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text: "Now Aratta's battlements are of green lapis lazuli, its walls and its towering brickwork are bright red, their brick clay is made of tinstone dug out in the mountains where the cypress grows."[148] City walls built under Indatu 11, son of Tanruhurater: “Nada podemos colegir de la situación en Elam. El rey debía ser Indatu 11,hijo de Tanruhurater, el cual conmemora en sus inscripciones, redactadas en sumerio y acadio, fundaciones piadosas y la construcción de la muralla de la acrópolis de SusaL6."[149] Are these walls of brick or stone - mortared or non-mortared?
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No reference.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ suspected unknown ♥ In the north-west of Persia by c800 BCE: "Double and triple stone walls, with a thickness of 3.6 m and a height of 12 m, surrounded some cities"[150] - present for that region at that time; however this is not a direct reference to the Elamite region. Possibly at Susa during the reign of Indattu-In-Shushinak.[151] What was the nature of these fortifications? Description needed.
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km. No reference to any long walls.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Dynastic rule.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred present ♥ Referring to a later moment in Elamite history: “Another prerogative of the gods was to confer and protect kingship. Puzur-Insusinak spoke of “the year when Insusinak looked at him (and) gave to him the four regions” (Scheil, 1908, p. 9). It was also Insusinak who conferred kingship upon Humban-numena and the latter’s son Untas-Napirisa (König, nos. 4, no. 13), but it was Manzat who conferred it on Igi-halki (Steve, 1987, no. 2).” [152]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [153] [154] [155]

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