IrSeljq

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ William Farrell; Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Seljuk Empire ♥ The term "Empire" has no historic equivalent but is "entirely appropriate".[1]

♠ Alternative names ♣ Great Seljek Empire; Seljuk Turks; Seljuk Dynasty; Seljuk; Saljuq; Selchuq ♥ Alternative spelling: Seljuqid.[2] Seljūk, Saljūq or Seljük.[3] dawla (dynasty), sultana (Sultanate), or mulk (kingdom).[4] "The Seljuqs (perhaps more properly: Selchuq)".[5] Seljuks "were a leading family of the Oghuz peoples (rendered Ghuzz by Muslim writers), a Turkish-speaking tribal federation." [6]

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1092 CE ♥

The reign of Malik Shah ibn Alp Arslan 1072 to 1092. "His reign marked the fullest expansion of the dynasty's power, characterized by thorough assimilation to Persian/Arabic Muslim culture. He administered territories in Iran, Iraq, and Syria with the assistance of the vizier (Abu Ali Hasan ibn al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Ishaq) who held the title nizam al-mulk (order of the kingdom) and established theological schools (nizamiyyah) in major cities; the jurist and mystic al-Ghazali headed the one in Baghdad." [7]

"The Seljuk empire reached its zenith under Toghril’s very capable nephew Alp Arslan (r. 1063-1073) and, after the murder of Alp Arslan in Khwarazm, under the latter’s son, Malikshah (r. 1073-1093)."[8]

"The united Seljuq Empire was only to last until the 1090s. Subsequently, Seljuq power retreated to Iran, although a cadet branch of the Seljuq family was to rule Anatolia until 1243 (and thereafter as Mongol vassals until the early fourteenth century)."[9]

According to 'Imad al-Din al-Isfahani, Nizam al-Mulk as vizier "made the provinces flourish and he built constantly."[10]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1037-1157 CE ♥

Start

The first Seljuk conquest of the settled world was their taking of the Nishapur and Khurasan region in 1040 CE[11], from the Ghaznavids.
1040-1157 CE[12]
Conquest of Nishapur 1037 CE (coins) or 1038 CE (chronicles).[13]
1037 CE. There is some disagreement about when Toghrïl Beg become sultan, some sources dating it 1038 [14] or to 1040.[15]
Leading their Turcoman followers into Transoxania and then Khurasan at the beginning of the eleventh century, they soon overcame the Ghaznawids (who were pushed into modern-day eastern Afghanistan and northwestern India) in the aftermath of the battle of Dandanqan in 1040."[16]

End

"The end of Seljuk rule coincided with the nearly sixty-year reign of Ahmad Sanjar (1085-1157)."[17]
Death of Sanjar: "left Greater Central Asia divided among three dynasties. In Afghanistan and Khurasan the descendants of Mahmud of Ghazni hung on until 1187 but had in fact had ceded nearly all power to another dynasty based in Ghor in Afghanistan. In the East the Karakhitai nomads had settled down at the old Karakhanid capital at Balasagun after conquering most of what is now Kyrgyzstan, eastern Kazakhstan, and Xinjiang... Finally, the entire northern and central zone of the region was under the control of the most recent dynasty of Turkic shahs of Khwarazm, who ruled from their revived capital at Gurganj."[18]
All agree that the empire ended with the death of Toghrïl III in 1194. [19]


♠ Degree of centralization ♣ confederated state ♥

"The united Seljuq Empire was only to last until the 1090s. Subsequently, Seljuq power retreated to Iran, although a cadet branch of the Seljuq family was to rule Anatolia until 1243 (and thereafter as Mongol vassals until the early fourteenth century)."[20]

"Like the Karakhanids, the Seljuks were a clan of brothers and cousins, each of whom felt himself sovereign in his own territory. This made for a loose confederation rather than a unified state.".[21]

"For most of its history, the empire was divided into a western and eastern half, and it lacked a single capital or political centre."[22]

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ nominal allegiance ♥ The Sultans owed allegiance to the caliph, "“a new stratification of power emerged, in which legitimacy and prestige belonged to the Abbasid caliph, but political power belonged to sultans or other synonymously titled rulers who acquired power by conquest and claimed legitimacy from him.” [23]

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Kara-Khanids ♥ "the Seljuks themselves seem to have originated from the ruins of the last great non-Muslim Turkish empire, the Khazar state which dominated southern Russia and the north Caucasus between the eighth and tenth centuries."[24] The Seljuk homeland was originally Jand in northwest Kazakhstan.[25] Jand on the eve of the Seljuk invasions was controlled by the Kara-Khanids.[26] Their first conquest of the settled world was the taking of Nishapur and Khurasan region in 1040 CE, from the Ghaznavids.[27]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ elite migration ♥ Early Seljuk expansion saw land given out to tribal leaders and their family and kin. [28] Elite migration: "Unlike the earlier military slaves, they came accompanied by their families and their livestock, and their advance consisted of great nomadic migrations which permanently transformed the demography of the parts of the Middle East where they settled."[29] The Seljuks were a Turkic dynasty who had began in the territory east of the Aral Sea.[30]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Il-Khanate ♥ Muhezzibeddin had to surrender to the Mongols. From then on the Seljuks had to pay tribute to the Mongols. [31]
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Perso-Islamic ♥ Perso-Islamic: ""Steppe traditions explain aspects of the internal functioning of the Seljuk state: the status of the Seljuk family; the bipartite division of the empire; the nature of the succession arrangements. However, with the exception of tughra, much of the public symbolism that the Seljuk rulers drew on was not Turkic, but rather derived from the Perso-Islamic tradition of rule ... For most of the Seljuk's subjects, this Perso-Islamic tradition would have been a more meaningful sign of their rulers' legitimacy than any steppe tradition."[32]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ [3,000,000-3,500,000] ♥ km squared. Perso-Islamic: ""Steppe traditions explain aspects of the internal functioning of the Seljuk state: the status of the Seljuk family; the bipartite division of the empire; the nature of the succession arrangements. However, with the exception of tughra, much of the public symbolism that the Seljuk rulers drew on was not Turkic, but rather derived from the Perso-Islamic tradition of rule ... For most of the Seljuk's subjects, this Perso-Islamic tradition would have been a more meaningful sign of their rulers' legitimacy than any steppe tradition."[33]

♠ Capital ♣ Merv; Rayy; Isfahan; Baghdad; Hamadan ♥ "For most of its history, the empire was divided into a western and eastern half, and it lacked a single capital or political centre. In the east, the main seat of Seljuk rule was Merv ... In the west, several different cities between which the sultans moved seasonally served as capitals: Rayy ... Isfahan, Baghdad and, later, Hamadhan."[34]

Ray under Togrïl Beg; Malik-Shah made Isfahān his capital. "they established their capitals first at Hamadan and then at Isfahan in western Iran."[35]

"From their capital at Isfahan, the Saljuqs controlled Baghdad through a garrison commander (shihnah) and civil governor ('amid), but did not interfere in the day-to-day affairs of the Caliphate. Attemps at independent political action by the Caliphs and their officials were, however, resolutely checked."[36]

♠ Language ♣ Turkish; Arabic; Persian ♥ The Seljuqs were Turkish speakers. Persian was used by the administration and at court, Arabic was also used alongside it. [37] Persian bureaucracy, Turkish military.[38] Seljuks "were a leading family of the Oghuz peoples (rendered Ghuzz by Muslim writers), a Turkish-speaking tribal federation." [39]

General Description

The Seljuks were a Turkic dynasty from east of the Aral Sea[40] who ruled a relatively decentralized empire across Central Asia, Persia and Mesopotamia - with perhaps the exception of the powerful viziership of Nizam al-Mulk.[41].

The Seljuk Empire (1037-1157 CE) did not have a single political center as it was divided into western and eastern halves[42]; the east had "connotations of seniority in Turkic culture"[43] and Nizam al-Mulk himself started his career in the Seljuk bureaucracy in Balkh.[44] The western territories were known as the Sultanate of Iraq[45] and altogether there may have been 12 million under Seljuk rule in 1100 CE.

Nizam al-Mulk "strove to suppress abuses, to introduce reforms, to initiate his still uncultured Saljuk masters into the arts of Perso-Islamic statecraft, and to provide competent and reliable theologians, judges, and secretaries for the state religion and administration."[46] "Nizam al-Mulk was particularly concerned with the construction and maintenance of trade routes, caravanserais, and bridges; the appointment of trustworthy market inspectors and tax collectors; and the appointment of spies throughout the realm - policies crucial to rooting out corruption and fostering confidence in local and long-distance trade."[47]

Within the Seljuk system of rule the caliph was the ultimate religious authority[48] and the sultan was the head of secular power[49] supported by a vizier of the diwan-i a'la.[50] Seljuk maliks (princes) ruled provinces with an atabeg (supervisor) and a small court bureaucracy overseen by a vizier.[51]

As an independent state the Seljuk Empire came to an end when it was defeated by the Mongols and the Sultan had to pay them tribute.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ William Farrell; Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [4,000,000-4,500,000]: 1100 CE ♥ in squared kilometers.

"The Seljuk empire eventually embraced all of what is now Iran and extended to modern day Turkey and the Caucasus. But it was born in Central Asia, it was ruled at its zenith by a Central Asian, its last capital was in Central Asia, and it was there that it met its end."[52]

Within the context of declining influence of the caliphate, the Seljuks took control of Anatolia after defeating the Byzantine Empire.[53]

♠ Polity Population ♣ 12,100,000: 1100 CE ♥

West + East: 1100 CE in McEvedy and Jones (1978)[54]

Iraq 1.75m
Caucasus 0.6m
Iran 5m
Afghanistan 2.25m
Russian Turkestan 2.5m

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [500,000-1,000,000]: 1100 CE ♥ AD: turned into a range to reflect more possibilities for Baghdad.

Nishapur[55]

110,000-220,000: 1000 CE (Bulliet)
50,000: 1000 CE (Bosworth)

Isfahan[56]

65,000-130,000: 11th century (Durand-Guedy)

Sultankala ("the main Seljuk urban area at Merv")

150,000 (Agadshanow)

Baghdad[57]

500,000-1,000,000: Late 11th century (Duri)


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ levels.

"Satellite towns and villages like those that surrounded Merv were to be found at all the other metropolitan centers."[58]

1. Capital

2. Metropolitan centre
the decentralized nature of Seljuq rule meant that many cities and urban life flourished, includings Hamadān, Nišāpur (Nishapur), Ray, Shiraz, Yazd, Tabriz and Šervān. [59]
3. Town
4. Village
e.g. the villages outside Isfahan [60]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 5 ♥ levels.

--- 1037-1045 CE

"Beyond a few cities which served as Seljuk bases, such as Rayy and Hamadhan, Tughril made little effort to assert direct rule. For many city dwellers, little changed immediately, and not just the descendants of Seljuk but also local princes continued fighting among each other, sometimes recruiting aid from various Turks, ranging from Tughril himself to Ibrahim Yinal to the 'Iraqiyya."[61] "for most of Seljuk history there was no one central bureaucracy. Multiple Seljuk courts required multiple bureaucracies, and multiple viziers. Indeed, the whole system of administration was characterised by its extreme fluidity and decentralisation."[62] "As well as overseeing the functioning of other departments, the vizier and the diwan-i a'la were tasked with making appointments in the name of the sultan to offices which were in his gift, such as the positions of qadi, muhtasib and shihna."[63]

--- 1045-1118 CE

1. Caliph de jure

"The Seljuq leader, Alp Arslan (1063-1072), behaved with more courtesy toward the caliph and provided him with greater financial and political leniency, but it was clear that the latter figure was still mainly a de jure ruler. Real power remained in the hands of Alp Arslan, who was granted the title of sultan, which up to that time had generally meant 'rule' or 'authority' but henceforth could be understood to mean the de facto ruler, ostensibly appointed by the caliph to rule in his name."[64]

1. Sultan de facto

The sultan was the head of secular power [65] his court, the dargah[66]
2. nadims (boon companions)
according to Nizam al-Mulk "everything connected with pleasure and entertainment, parties of drinking and companionship, hunting, polo and gambling." However, Peacock (2015) reports he says that "nadims should not be consulted on matters of high politics - a stricture which suggests that in fact they frequently were."[67]
2. hajib (chamberlain)
2. wakildar (messenger)
2. Treasury
2. wakil (steward)
3. Kitchen
3. sharabkhana (winehouse)
3. Stables
3. Palaces of the elites (khass)
4.
5. Slaves and servants
According to Nizam al-Mulk's Book of Government "Slaves and servants should stand at attention while on duty."[68]

_Central government_ (nb: Anne Lambton is a specialist on Seljuk administration).

"for most of Seljuk history there was no one central bureaucracy. Multiple Seljuk courts required multiple bureaucracies, and multiple viziers. Indeed, the whole system of administration was characterised by its extreme fluidity and decentralisation."[69]

2. vizier of the diwan-i a'la (main government department with overall responsibility)[70]
"As well as overseeing the functioning of other departments, the vizier and the diwan-i a'la were tasked with making appointments in the name of the sultan to offices which were in his gift, such as the positions of qadi, muhtasib and shihna."[71]
3. mustawfi of the diwan-i istifa (revenue)
4. sub-head in divan for taxation?
5?. ra'is (central government representative located in the regions)
The ra'is "was essentially the link between the government and the taxpayers ... cases involving taxation were referred to his dīvān."[72]
4. Clerks
3. mushrif of the diwan-i ishraf (accountancy)[73]
3. tughra'i or munshi of the diwan-i tughra wa insha (chancery) [74]
3. diwan-i 'ard (military pay)[75]
3. diwan-i awqaf (religious endowments)[76]
3. diwan-i istifa headed by the mustawfi
department for revenue

_Provinces_

"in the provinces an incredible variety of individuals were vested with authority in the name of the sultan(s)."[77] "the east ... has connotations of seniority in Turkic culture: with both the Gok turks and the Qarakhanids, the rulers of the eastern divisions of the empire, considering it to be superior."[78]

2. malik (prince) and atabeg (supervisor). wali (governor). amir.
Seljuk princes assigned to provinces as iqta as nominal governor (maliks). Atabegs usually an amir. They looked after the princes.[79] "de facto independent atabegates"[80] amir: "(1) a military commander; (2) a prince, a ruler's title; (3) a Turkmen chief (in this sense equivalent to beg)"[81]
3. Vizier
"The bureaucracy of each court was probably quite small. ... Most probably, each department probably consisted of little more than its head - the vizier, mustawfi, tughrai and so on - and a handful of clerks."[82]
4. diwan-i iyalat (or diwan-i wilayat or diwan-i riyasat)
department in the provinces concerned with taxation.[83]
5. Clerks
2. (provincal) 5. (central) ra'is
"the head of the community known as the ra'is might be charged with functions ranging from the collection of taxes to cooperating with the shihna in the maintenance of security."[84]
4?. Prefects of police[85]
5.
2. Amir/muqta (Iqta holder)
"Some provinces, like Ganja, were assigned to maliks and their atabegs, while others, towns like Mosul, were allotted as iqta to an ever-changing succession of amirs."[86]
"... in lieu of salary an amir would be granted the right to collect the taxes of a given area. An iqta could thus vary in size from a whole province to much smaller subdivision, to a single town or village. ... The system was greatly expanded under the Seljuks, and itqa's were now used to pay senior bureaucrats as well as amirs and were also granted to members of the Seljuk dynasty. However, iqta holders became much more than tax collectors, and often functioned effectively as the local ruler (particularly amirs: bureaucrats seem to have become less entrenched in their iqta's, perhaps because their duties required their presence at court)."[87]


2. Ulama
"Some cities, such as Bayhaq, Nishapur and Bukhara, were controlled by religious elites - Bukhara, for instance, was subject to a dynasty of Hanafi 'ulama who bore the title of sadr (themselves, of course, subject to the Seljuks' Qarakhanid vassals."[88]


2. Shihna
"Baghdad had several types of overlapping administration: most prominent were the sultan's shihna, and the caliphal diwan"[89]


_Vassals_

2. Vassal ruler
"Vassals could often rule their territories in their traditional ways provided they recognised the Seljuk sultans' suzerainty, remitted tribute and performed obligations of military service."[90]
"Other branches of the Seljuk family also controlled territories on the peripheries of the empire": "Kirman in southern Iran (and Oman too)" between 1048-1186 CE, Seljuks of Syria 1076-1117 CE, and the Anatolian Seljuks 1081-1308 CE.[91]
"Bedouin Arab chiefs in Iraq": Mazyadids and 'Uqaylids.[92]
"Bawandids on the Caspian coast"[93]
Ismaili state in Quhistan did not recognise Seljuk suzerainty[94]


--- 1118-1157 CE

1118 CE: "Seljuk sultans of Iraq recognised the suzerainty of the Great Seljuk ruler Sanjar, based in Khurasan, who was known by the title of al-sultan al- a'zam, 'the Greatest Sultan'. The sultans of Iraq are sometimes referred to as the 'Lesser Seljuks'.[95]


♠ Religious levels ♣ [3-4] ♥ levels.

George Makdisi is a specialist on Seljuk religion.


It is important to bear in mind that “a new stratification of power emerged, in which legitimacy and prestige belonged to the Abbasid caliph, but political power belonged to sultans or other synonymously titled rulers who acquired power by conquest and claimed legitimacy from him.” [96] This was called the amir-a’yan system, with the “the caliph theoretically at the top, then the various sultans or other autonomous rulers supposedly acting as his agents, then the commander (amir) of their military forces, then the notables (a’yan) from the indigenous populace who mediated between conquerors and conquered, and lastly the populace.” [97] The caliph was not at the head of administration but did theoretically head the religious and military hierarchies.

Sultan Malik-Shah (r. 1073-92) introduced a new definition of caliphal authority and a separation of powers. From then on "the (Abbasid) caliph functioned as the religious head of Sunnism, while the (Seljuk) sultan, as its secular authority, enforced public order." [98]

1. Caliph

2. Sultan. The title 'sultan', "carried with it the notion of defender of the faith". [99]
3. Jurists. The central concern of the madrasa was the study of law in this period. [100]
3. Imams


♠ Military levels ♣ 6 ♥ levels.

1. Caliph.

Malik-Shah waited for "for news for the caliphs endorsement" before attacking the Karakhanids and Ghaznavids.[101]
2. Sultan. Examples of sultans deferring to Caliph's authority, but they appointed the amirs.
3. Commander (amir) of military forces.
“It was said to have been divided into twenty-four military zones, each under a regional commander. These commanders had to raise, train and equip a specified number of troops every year, who would muster at a pre-arranged spot to spend the summer either training or on campaign.” [102]
4. Tribal leaders
- they continued to owe allegiances to the sultan in times of war and provided troops.
5. Professional soldiers
- "these professionals comprised heavily armed and armoured cavalrymen and infantrymen with swords and spears. For them a system of land grants grew up, on whose revenues the warriors, their mounts and weapons could be supported." [103]
6. Soldiers
- the ordinary mamluk soldiers equipped by those holding land grants. [104]

"The armies of the first Seljuks bore little relation to the famed Turkish military of the classical Abbasid era."[105] “It was said to have been divided into twenty-four military zones, each under a regional commander. These commanders had to raise, train and equip a specified number of troops every year, who would muster at a pre-arranged spot to spend the summer either training or on campaign.”[106] "There was a cursus honorum through which the mamluks rose, lasting seven years. A freshly recruited mamluk would start at the rank of foot-groom, and could rise by the age of thirty-five to become a fully-fledged amir."[107]

Three armies: Turkmen, mamluks (standing army), and the sultan's personal guard.[108] Mamluk forces did not have the same "ecological limitations" as the nomadic Turkmen.[109]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent: 1037-1054 CE; present: 1055-1157 CE ♥ Mid-11th century (after conquest of Baghdad?) "the Turkmen began to be supplemented, but never wholly supplanted, as a military force by mamluks."[110]

The Saljuqs adopted the system of distributing land grants to pay for the army. Iqtas (land tax allotments) were given to military commanders in exchange for military service. They were also given to higher functionaries. [111]

There were full time officers within the Sultan's retinue and military commanders; there were full time soldiers in the mamluk contingent of slave soldiers.[112]

Iqta holder, who was a military officer, "was to support himself and his household, including his own retinue of troops, which meant their purchase, training, and upkeep. Unlike fuedalism this system did not usually entail administration of the territory in question."[113]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred absent: 1037-1054 CE; present: 1055-1157 CE ♥ Mid-11th century (after conquest of Baghdad?) "the Turkmen began to be supplemented, but never wholly supplanted, as a military force by mamluks."[114]

According to 'Imad al-Din al-Isfahani: "The custom was that taxes were collected from the land and spent on the army; previously no one had held a land-grant [iqta]. Nizam al-Mulk realised that taxes were no being collected from the land owing to its poor condition, nor was revenue being realised for the same reason. He distributed land grants [iqta's] to the soldiers and made them a source of income and revenue for them." However, al-Isfahani was wrong in saying that Nizam al-Mulk was the first to introduce the Iqta as they were used during the Buyid period.[115]

"Under the Seljuqs there were large and small iqtas that were granted to members of the dynasty, to various members of the military and official class and to ordinary soldiers."[116]

The first armies "were not 'professional armies' in the sense of the Abbasid or Samanid mamluk corps, but warfare was a way of life for most adult male Turkmen; only women and children were exempted from fighting."[117]

Mamluks were "a standing army paid both in cash and by iqta's"[118]


♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Imans in the mosques.

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ e.g secretary in royal household. [119]

The Sultans recruited Iranian bureaucrats. [120]

There were permanent officials in the royal household, for example. Higher officials were paid through the iqta system of land grants. Appointments were made by the sultan, although some of the iqtas became hereditary. [121]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ The Iqtas were granted by the sultan and later, many became hereditary. It was not a meritocratic system of appointments. [122]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥ The Iqtas were granted by the sultan and later, many became hereditary. It was not a meritocratic system of appointments. [123]

According to Nizam al-Mulk "women must be strictly excluded from matters of state."[124]

According to Nizam al-Mulk "Today there are men, utterly incapable, who hold ten posts, and if another appointment were to turn up they would apply for it, giving bribes if necessary, and get it."[125]


♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥ Mints coined gold dinars at Nishapur and Merv.[126]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ Sharia law.

Differences between Islamic and royal justice, influenced by steppe custom, needed to be reconciled.[127]


♠ Judges ♣ present ♥ "the ulama were a third pillar of Seljuk administration, providing qadis, whose appointments were ratified by the sultan."[128]

a faqih was a jurist "one who specialises in fiqh" (Islamic jurisprudence).[129]

The "mazalim court" was a "potent symbol of sovereignty. Seljuk sultans sat in mazalim in person and conferred decision-making powers on subordinates. Qadis and viziers also consulted with the mazalim court and sometimes presided over it in the sultan's name. Governors and military officers, besides holding their own courts, also enforced the judgements of the shariah courts, fulfilling their responsibility to preserve order, punish criminals, and keep the roads safe."[130]

♠ Courts ♣ present ♥ Sharia courts. Mazalim court. Courts of governors and military officers.

The "mazalim court" was a "potent symbol of sovereignty. Seljuk sultans sat in mazalim in person and conferred decision-making powers on subordinates. Qadis and viziers also consulted with the mazalim court and sometimes presided over it in the sultan's name. Governors and military officers, besides holding their own courts, also enforced the judgements of the shariah courts, fulfilling their responsibility to preserve order, punish criminals, and keep the roads safe."[131]


♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred present ♥ Highly literate and scholarly society.

"While the Seljuks themselves belonged to the Hanafi school of law, they, through their famous vizier Nizam al-Mulk, established a wide network of madrasahs (colleges) and mosques which promoted Sunnism, mainly in the form of the Shafii school of law and Asharite theology." [132]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Present in Central Asia from about 800 BCE - 1200 CE: "the major Central Asian hydraulic systems appear to have been maintained with few serious interruptions for over two millenniums, extending down to the Mongol invasion in the thirteenth century."[133] Nishapur: "The agricultural basis of the region was the qanat system of irrigation through underground canals." [134] Merv (for which the cotton industry was "essential to the town's prosperity"): "The city's survival relied on a complex irrigation system, both to bring water of the Murghab River to the city and to allow cultivation of the surrounding oasis. In the tenth century, the only mediaeval period for which we have information, maintenance of the irrigation works required a workforce of 10,000 men." [135] Merv (for which the cotton industry was "essential to the town's prosperity"): "The city's survival relied on a complex irrigation system, both to bring water of the Murghab River to the city and to allow cultivation of the surrounding oasis. In the tenth century, the only mediaeval period for which we have information, maintenance of the irrigation works required a workforce of 10,000 men." [136] "rulers and elites financed dams, canals, and irrigation works". [137]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ Seljuks built aqueducts.[138] There were cisterns beneath caravanserai.[139] Mountain top castles "created problems of water supply, which was solved through complex systems of canals and reservoirs."[140]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ muhtasib: "market inspector; city official responsible for upholding public morals"[141] Toghrïl Beg “built a new quarter at Baghdad … which included ... bazaars”. [142] Seljuks built markets.[143] General reference for Seljuk? - Safavid? time period: "The bāzār was usually, though not always, divided into a number of sūqs (markets) in which different crafts and occupations had separate quarters. At night, after members of the crafts and shopkeepers had shut their premises and retired to their homes, the gates of the bāzārs were locked and barred."[144] Grand Bazaar of Isfahan first built in the Seljuk period.
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ General reference for Seljuk? - Safavid? time period: "Caravansaries, where goods were unloaded on arrival and where merchants could take rooms, were to be found both in or close to the bāzārs and on the outskirts of the city."[145]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ "historic road networks that were traversed by scholars, pilgrims and merchants."[146]
♠ Bridges ♣ present ♥ Malan bridge near Herat. [147] Pul-e Malan, near Herat, is a 22-arched bridge constructed by Seljuks 12th CE.[148]"Nizam al-Mulk was particularly concerned with the construction and maintenance of trade routes, caravanserais, and bridges".[149]
♠ Canals ♣ inferred present ♥ inferred that they maintained existing canal networks. "rulers and elites financed dams, canals, and irrigation works". [150]
♠ Ports ♣ inferred present ♥ Seljuk Empire was involved in trade.

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ The administration produced written documents and correspondence, in Persian. [151]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ e.g. Persian, the language of administration and court letter writing. [152]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ present ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ e.g. the Loḡat-e Fors , the first monolingual dictionary of Persian; manuals detailing the techniques of composing verse. [153] "Secretarial manuals describe the compilation of census and property registers that decided land rights and set just taxation levels."[154]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ "Biruni’s research on calendar systems, which he undertook in the early years of the eleventh century, took as its point of departure the Khwarazian calendar." [155] e.g. the solar calendar introduced by Sultan Malik Shah.[156]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ The Qu'ran.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali (1058-1111 CE): A Sufist who "integrated his views on faith into the mainstream of Islam, eventually influencing Christianity as well."[157] Ḥasan Ghaznavi wrote theology in Arabic and Persian. [158]" Nasir Khusraw (1004-1088) epitomized the challenge that the Ismailis presented to Sunni orthodoxy in the Seljuk period."[159][160]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ In the 11th century and after "the genre of writing treatises on statecraft in Persian develops, such treatises usually containing advice on the organizing of armies and on the art of war."[161] the Siār al-moluk or Siyāsat-nāma, a treatise on statecraft [162]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ There are many prose histories from this period. [163]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ Nizam al-Mulk wrote Siyasatnama (Book of Government). In tradition of the "Mirrors for princes"[164] writings of Persian authors giving advice to kings. Mirrors for Princes "do not venture upon systematic treatment of the problems of government and of state and society. Such treatment was indeed attempted by Abu Yusuf (d. 182/798), Mawardi, and other lawyers, whose approach is strictly rational within the limits of their doctrinal postulates, and by Farabi (d. 339/950) and subsequent philosophers, who attempted to reconcile Platonic theories with Islamic concepts. Authors of 'Mirrors', however, keep clear of both constitutional law and political theory, and simply take for granted the existence of an Islamic state in whatever form they themselves knew it."[165] Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali (1058-1111 CE): "Theologian and philosopher from Tus in what is now Iranian Khurasan, and author of The Incoherence of the Philosophers, which threw down the gauntlet to rationalism." [166] Ḥasan Ghaznavi wrote philosophy in Arabic and Persian. [167] Nizam al-Mulk (1018-1092 CE) (or Abu Ali al-Hasan ibn Ali) a "powerful Seljuk vizier from Tus who railed against the Ismailis in his Book of Government" [168] Ghazali (1058-1111 CE). [169]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ Farid al-Din Attar (1145-1221 CE): "Pharmacist and Sufi poet from Nishapur."[170] Zayn al-Din Jurjani (1040-1136 CE): "Author in Gurganj of a massive compendium of medical knowledge, the Khwarazm Shah’s Treasure, which focused on the needs of the practicing doctor."[171] Omar Khayyam (1048-1131 CE): Mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, engineer, and poet from Nishapur"[172] Abu al-Rahman al-Khazini (d. c.1130 CE): "Astronomer and polymath whose Book of the Balance of Wisdom, written in Merv, has been called 'the most comprehensive work on [weighing] in the Middle Ages, from any cultural area.'"[173] e.g. The Aḡrāż al-ṭebb, "one of the first medical treatises in Persian literature" [174] Science and mathematics genius Omar Khayyam (1048-1131 CE) who was also a poet.[175]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Awhad al-Din Anvari (1126-1189 CE): "Poet and boon companion of Sultan Sanjar at Merv."[176] Ahmad Yasawi (1093-1166 CE): "Sufi mystic and poet from Isfijab, now Sayram, in southern Kazakhstan. His Turkic quatrains carried a message of private prayer and contemplation of God to large numbers of heretofore unconverted Turkic nomads."[177] There are many prose stories from this period. [178] The Saljuqs adopted the model of court patronage of their predecessors. "By so doing, they played a significant role in the diffusion of the Persian literary language and of the culture expressed by it, and this in turn led to a reappraisal and partial rejection of the dominance of Arabic as the lingua franca of educated society in the Middle East." [179] Omar Khayyam (1048-1131 CE) author of the Rubaiyat.[180]

Money

♠ Articles ♣ present ♥ Used in barter between merchants and nomads. [181]
♠ Tokens ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ present ♥ Silver and gold. [182]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ present ♥ "The Seljuks were not interested in enforcing conformity to the practices or ideals of an imperial centre. The empire did not even have a uniform currency ..."[183] e.g. coins acquired through booty and tribute. [184]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ "...individual areas used whatever type of coinage precedent, convenience and local circumstances dictated: Byzantine coins in Syria, Fatimid ones in Baghdad, the old Nishapuri dinar in Khurasan, and so on."[185] "The gold dinars issued at Nishapur, Merv, and other Central Asian mints became standard instruments of trade across Eurasia, staving off for a time the rising inflation that was later to be reflected in the issuance of degraded silver coinage."[186] Silver coins minted, "of a fineness superior to other Muslim coinages in the Levant". [187] “In the earliest period following the establishment of the Turks the only money was what the occupiers found, which must have been fairly abundant, being on the one hand accumulated by them as tribute or booty, or on the other hidden when possible by the indigenous people... “The first mintings appear only under the Danismendid Gumustekin Gazi and probably a little later under the Seljukid Sultan Masud I. Until the middle of the century at least they are solely of copper, that is to say, intended only for local trade. Silver was to appear under Kilic Arslan II, gold only in the thirteenth century.” [188]
♠ Paper currency ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not mentioned in sources so far consulted.

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ present ♥ A wakildar "brought messages between the sultan and the vizier." [189] a 'hamami' was a "despatcher of carrier pigeons and letters from one town to another" in Iraq, Egypt and Syria: 9th, 10th 11th CE. [190]
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred present ♥ Inferred that postal stations were kept and used by chosen emissaries and it was just the bureaucracy behind it which involved an intelligence service that was abolished. "Despite Nizam al-Mulk's urging, Alp Arslan was steadfast in rejecting the introduction of the barid. ... One reason may have been the Ghaznavid barid reports were encrypted (mu'amma), meaning that only a trained bureaucrat could interpret them. The Seljuks may not have wished to place such confidence in their kuttab."[191] Nizam al-Mulk mentions postal stations in his "Book of Government". "Little is known about the postal service in Persia under the Saljuqs, but Sultan Alp Arslan (455-65/465-1072) abolished at least the intelligence-gathering aspects of the courier service, preferring to rely on personally chosen emissaries".[192]
♠ General postal service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ a 'hamami' was a "despatcher of carrier pigeons and letters from one town to another" in Iraq, Egypt and Syria: 9th, 10th 11th CE. [193] Expert input needed on whether this was accessible to private individuals

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ William Farrell; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥ Used for the chainmail. [194]
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ "archaeologists have discovered at Merv one of the first known furnaces for the production of crucible steel."[195]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ present ♥ Ghulams or mamluks had javelins. [196]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Weapon of the Americas.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Used by archers. [197]
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ Used by mounted archers. Range of over 300m. [198]
♠ Crossbow ♣ inferred present ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[199] "In the seventh century the Arab Caliphate overran the Sāssānian Empire and, as far as we can tell, no great changes took place in the Persian equipment then or for a long time afterwards." [200]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ inferred present ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[201]
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ inferred absent ♥ "A fragment of a wall painting depicting the use of a traction trebuchet at the siege of Penjikent (700-725) in modern Tajikistan. This unique painting is contemporary with Tang China, displaying how the traction trebuchet was used along the Silk Road."[202] First known use of the counter-weight trebuchet was in 1165 CE by the Byzantines at the siege of Zevgminon.[203]
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ Ghulams or mamluks had maces. [204]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Saljuq art shows soldiers equipped with axes. [205]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Saljuq art shows soldiers equipped with daggers. [206]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Ghulams or mamluks had swords. [207]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ Saljuq art shows cavalryman equipped with 'short spear'. [208]
♠ Polearms ♣ unknown ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[209]

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ absent ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Cavalry was important part of the Seljuk armies. [210] Like many armies in the Middle East mounted archers were central to the Seljuk forces. The tribal forces would have been lightly armoured and not highly organised. The introduction of ghulams or mamluks introduced better organised and better equipped soldiers (cavalry and infantry). They were heavily armoured, including horse-armour, and had lances, javelins, swords, bows, maces, lasso, hauberk [mail shirt] and helmets. [211] Citadels and walls around cities are known to have been built by the Seljuks. [212]
♠ Camels ♣ inferred present ♥ May have been used as pack animals as camels were present for postal duty during Buyid and Samanid times: "A network of camel stations was established under the Abbasids and continued under the Buyid and Samanid successor regimes."[213] "The camel was the favorite mount of the Turkish founders of the Seljuk..."[214]
♠ Elephants ♣ inferred absent ♥ Certainly the Arabs of Sind, the Saffarids, and the later Buyids made almost no use of them at all."[215]

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Their archers “wore little if any armor”. [216] "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[217] "... a fragment of a leather-covered circular wooden shield has survived, bearing a painting of a mounted warrior. This was found in the ruins of the castle of Mug, east of Samarkand, and with it were many documents dating the destruction of the place to the eighth century - when the Persian prince who held it rebelled against the local Arab ruler." [218]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[219] "... a fragment of a leather-covered circular wooden shield has survived, bearing a painting of a mounted warrior. This was found in the ruins of the castle of Mug, east of Samarkand, and with it were many documents dating the destruction of the place to the eighth century - when the Persian prince who held it rebelled against the local Arab ruler." [220] "Many of the early Persian miniatures, particularly those under Mongol influence of the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, seldom illustrate shields. When they do the shields would seem to be of stout hide - small, circular, and convex, with applied metal bosses."[221]
♠ Shields ♣ present ♥ Shields. [222] [223] "Many of the early Persian miniatures, particularly those under Mongol influence of the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, seldom illustrate shields. When they do the shields would seem to be of stout hide - small, circular, and convex, with applied metal bosses."[224]
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Saljuq art shows soldiers wearing dommed helmets, some with neck coverings.. [225]
♠ Breastplates ♣ inferred present ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[226] The nomadic Turkman archer had the equipment of Turkic, rather than Persian, military culture. However, that the Sassanid cavarlyman wore breastplate[227] might suggest the Seljuk mamluk forces, which came from Islamic tradition, if not the Turkman forces themselves, may have worn breastplates.
♠ Limb protection ♣ present ♥ Saljuq art shows soldiers wearing chain mail leg armour. [228]
♠ Chainmail ♣ present ♥ Saljuq art shows soldiers wearing mail shirts and mail leg armour. [229]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ present ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[230] The picture of the Central Asian warrior appears to show scaled armour. The Sassanid Persians had scale armour. [231]
♠ Laminar armor ♣ present ♥ Saljug art shows a lamellar cuirass [torso armour] worn over a mail shirt. [232]
♠ Plate armor ♣ unknown ♥ "The dearth of illustrative material for the greater part of six centuries is largely due to the wanton destruction caused by two savage invasions from the east and only such finds as the stucco figures from Kara-shar [Central Asian warrior, eighth to tenth century] tell us that in all this period there had been little change."[233]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ "Central Asia’s traders ... moved their goods by large, solidly built boats on the region’s three main rivers."[234]
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ present ♥ In the Anatolian Seljuk state (a different polity) "the Seljuk state never possessed very large naval forces". [235] Could infer that this was also true for the Great Seljuk Empire.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ Cities were generally “enclosed by a fortified wall, within which there was frequently a citadel”. [236] "Castles tended to occupy the summits of mountains, with the citadel at the uppermost point, as is best exemplified by Ismaili castles, but can also be found in Seljuk fortifications like Shahdiz."[237]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ In Syria?
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ In Syria?
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ Present for the walls at Isfahan. At Merv there was a mud-brick wall.[238]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ inferred present ♥ "The Seljuks tended to use fortresses and citadels more as temporary bases in terms of emergency than as permanent bases, and were more likely to base their camps outside rather than at the heart of cities."[239]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ {present; absent} ♥ All descriptions are of a single wall with towers around the city, with a citadel at the centre in some cases. [240] "Some Seljuk towns were strongly defended. Isfahan had an impressive enceinte built by the Kakuyidsm, for Nasir-i Khusraw notes the strength of its walls and their battlements. ... However we should not assume that such solid stone work was the rule, for many fortifications were rather flimsy, designed only to deter casual raids and localised hostilities, not properly organised armies."[241]
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km. "Unlike Chinese cities, Central Asian cities had several rings of walls, the outermost to keep out invading nomads and the encroaching sand. At the Merv oasis the outermost rampart ran for more than 155 miles, three times the length of Hadrian’s Wall separating England from Scotland."[242]
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Not developed until later in history.

Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ present ♥ Turkish sultan who was constrained by a Persian bureaucracy. "Iran would undergo considerable Turkification with the arrival of the Seljuks, and the uneasy relationship between the Turkic military, tribal elite (arbab-i saif, or 'men of the sword') and the Persian administrative/religious classes (arbab-i qalam, or 'men of the pen') would often turn rancorous."[243]
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ absent ♥ "Iran would undergo considerable Turkification with the arrival of the Seljuks, and the uneasy relationship between the Turkic military, tribal elite (arbab-i saif, or 'men of the sword') and the Persian administrative/religious classes (arbab-i qalam, or 'men of the pen') would often turn rancorous."[244] "The united Seljuq Empire was only to last until the 1090s. Subsequently, Seljuq power retreated to Iran, although a cadet branch of the Seljuq family was to rule Anatolia until 1243 (and thereafter as Mongol vassals until the early fourteenth century)."[245]
♠ Impeachment ♣ absent ♥ (CC: citation and justification needed)

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥There were permanent officials in the royal household, for example. Higher officials were paid through the iqta system of land grants. Appointments were made by the sultan, although some of the iqtas became hereditary. [246] The Iqtas were granted by the sultan and later, many became hereditary. It was not a meritocratic system of appointments. [247] The Iqta was not hereditary it belonged to the state and returned to it upon the death of the holder.[248]"Khurasani familes gained prominent positions in society in the wake of the Seljuks conquests."[249] Administration hereditary; military not hereditary.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “In a departure from the principle of tawhid and thus from the belief that God governs the entire world, all spheres of life in the Islamic state are expected to be organized in accordance with Islamic revelation. In other words, political authority in Islam has always to be grounded in divine legitimacy.” [250]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [251]

In his Counsel for Kings, Al-Ghazali wrote "You should understand, O King, that you are a creature and that you have a Creator who is the Creator of the entire universe."[252]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[253]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[254]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[255]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [256] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [257]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are alsoawqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [258]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [259] [260] [261]

References

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Starr, S. Frederick. 2013. Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia's Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane. Princeton University Press. Princeton.