IrQajar

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Qajar Dynasty ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ ♥

♠ Peak Date ♣ 1900 CE ♥

Once civil and government reforms had begun but before the civil disorder?

Tehran: "A recent study has supplied more reliable numbers: 106,482 in 1883; 160,000 in 1891; 210,000 in 1922; and 310,000 in 1932."[1]

Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1794-1925 CE ♥

"The Qajar dynasty ruled Iran from the end of the eighteenth century to the twentieth century."[2]

"When Nader Shah Afshar died in 1747 with no living heirs, the Qajar tribal leaders were among the contenders for the throne. From the ensuing 50 year struggle one Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar (c.1742-c.1797) emerged the undisputed rule in 1794. He was crowned in 1796 and founded the dynasty."[3]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Zandiyeh ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ elite migration ♥ "From a Turkic tribe in north-east Iran, the great body of them had settled at Astarabad (present day Gorgan) near the south-eastern corner of the Caspian Sea. When Nader Shah Afshar died in 1747 with no living heirs, the Qajar tribal leaders were among the contenders for the throne."[4]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Tehran ♥

Tehran became the capital in 1786 CE.[5]

♠ Language ♣ Persian ♥

General Description

The Qajar Dynasty was in place in Iran from 1794-1925 CE following a 50-year struggle between Qajar tribal leaders for the throne from 1747. Eventually Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar (c.1742-c.1797) was crowned in 1796 and founded this dynasty. [6]

By 1900 CE this polity had assumed what is now modern Iranian borders, and the territory had decreased from approximately 2 million km2 in 1800 to 1.6million km2 in 1900. The population however had increased from approximately 6 million to 10 million people by 1900 [7], with the largest settlement, Tehran, holding about 210,000 inhabitants. Settlement hierarchies were similar to previous polities, and included the capital city, other large regional cities, towns and villages. Although there was some centralisation of power, communication and bureaucratic reach was limited, and the Shah relied on the cooperation of many groups to keep administration running and by 1903 there was a movement calling for political reform. [8] [9]

In 1851 the first institution of higher education, the polytechnic institute Dar ul-Funun which offered studies in medicine, engineering, geology, and military sciences, was founded by Prime Minister Amir Kabir. [10]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ 2,000,000: 1800 CE; 1,600,000: 1900 CE ♥ in squared kilometers

By 1900 CE polity had assumed modern Iranian borders i.e. about 1,600,000 km2. I'd estimate using an area calculator that the polity had lost about 137,979 km2 on its north western border and 201,813 km2 on its north eastern border since 1800 CE.

♠ Polity Population ♣ [6,000,000-10,000,000]: 1800-1900 CE ♥ People.

The population of Iran was between six and ten million during the nineteenth century. It was composed mainly of peasants, but between a quarter and a third of the people were tribal, and roughly 10-20 per cent lived in cities."[11]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [70,000-110,000]: 1850 CE; [160,000-210,000]: 1900 CE ♥ Inhabitants.

Tehran in 1796 CE probably had a population under 15,000, and included 3,000 soldiers - so probably not the largest city at this time.[12]

By 1808 CE Tehran's wintertime population reached 50,000.[13]

In 1861 CE Tehran's population was 80,000 in summer and 120,000 in winter.[14]

Tehran: "A recent study has supplied more reliable numbers: 106,482 in 1883; 160,000 in 1891; 210,000 in 1922; and 310,000 in 1932."[15]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 5 ♥ levels.

1. Capital

2. Other large cities
3. Towns
4. Villages
5.

♠ Administrative levels ♣ 4 ♥ levels.


1. Shah

_Central government_

2. First Minister

_Town/City government_

2. Kalantar (mayor)
3. Darugha (police official)
4.
3. Headman of city quarter
2. Provincial Governor


"In a country where communications were weak, and bureaucracy minimal, power was also devolved, and the shah depended on the cooperation of many tribal, ethnic, religious, local, bureaucratic and commercial figures and groups. In particular, power was devolved to the provincial governors, appointed from outside the province but usually with some local connections and knowledge. More often than not, as the century progressed, the governors were also members of the Qajar ruling family. Like the shah their preoccupation was with law and order, in addition to which they raised taxes, both for the centre and for local needs. ... Another attribute of the local governors was that they had their own militia, with which they were supposed to crush opposition and lawlessness in the provinces. ... the shah had only a small military force, as little as a few thousand ... this force was also irregularly clothed, paid and armed."[16]

"the Shahs of Iran were able to get away with arbitrary power over life and death because there was no well-defined aristocracy in Iran comparable in composition and function to that of Europe. This lack of hereditary aristocracy allowed for no other power bases, vesting totally unrestrained power in the Shah. The land-owning elite often changed when the king changed. The property of no-one was secure and could be taken away at the Shah's pleasure. Ministers and government officials were the personal servants of the Shah, the populace his serfs."[17]

The government had a First Minister.[18]

"By 1903 there was a full-grown movement asking for political reform. What had started in Europe with the French Revolution ... had finally come to the East. In 1905 the Czar had been forced to grant sweeping concessions and a Consultative Assembly had been established. .... By late 1904 the demand for a House of Justice had grown to a demand for a proper parliament modeled on the British House of Commons. In 1906 there were mass demonstrations. The Shah, who up to then had resorted to repressive measures, had to give in. On his birthday, 5 August 1906, he granted a form of constitution and permitted the convention of a constituent assembly which promptly met to draft an electoral law. In October 1906 the assembly had drafted and passed a constitution which was ratified by the Shah. The supplement, i.e. an Iranian version of a Bill of Rights, was enacted later in October 1907."[19]

Gendamerie created in 1911 CE. Organized by Swedish government. 200 officers and 7000 men by 1914 CE.[20]


"Each town or city had a mayor (kalantar) who was a local man of standing selected by the state in a process of consultation with leading members of the community, whose acquiescence was vital if he was to succeed in his duties."[21]

The city/town mayor (kalantar) "also supervised the management of the city quarters under local headmen (kadkhudas) whom he appointed. One of this principal duties was the allocation of taxes amongst city quarters".[22]

The city/town mayor (kalantar) was responsible for law enforcement through his police official (darugha).[23]

♠ Religious levels ♣ ♥ levels.


♠ Military levels ♣ 4 ♥ levels.

1. Shah

2.
3.

2. Local governor

3.
4.


"Iran had not had a national military force since the days of Naser al Din Shah. In 1878, on his second trip abroad, Naser al Din Shah had seen a parade by Cossack soldiers in Russia. Greatly impressed, he asked the Czar whether a similar force could be established in Iran. in 1879 under a 40-year agreement the Russians established a Cossack Brigaded manned by Iranians and commanded by Russian officiers. The brigade thereafter was always a tool of Russian imperialist designs and Persian autocracy, serving primarily as a bodyguard for the Shah."[24]

Another attribute of the local governors was that they had their own militia, with which they were supposed to crush opposition and lawlessness in the provinces. ... the shah had only a small military force, as little as a few thousand ... this force was also irregularly clothed, paid and armed."[25]

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred present ♥

"Aqa Mohammad Khan was assassinated by one of his military commanders in 1797".[26]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ present ♥ Paid soldiers.[27]

"Iran had not had a national military force since the days of Naser al Din Shah. In 1878, on his second trip abroad, Naser al Din Shah had seen a parade by Cossack soldiers in Russia. Greatly impressed, he asked the Czar whether a similar force could be established in Iran. in 1879 under a 40-year agreement the Russians established a Cossack Brigaded manned by Iranians and commanded by Russian officiers. The brigade thereafter was always a tool of Russian imperialist designs and Persian autocracy, serving primarily as a bodyguard for the Shah."[28]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ present ♥ Clergy.[29]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ present ♥ The government had a First Minister.[30] "Amir Kabir was probably the ablest Iranian public servant of the nineteenth century."[31]

♠ Examination system ♣ absent ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ absent ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ present ♥

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ present ♥ Sharia law.

♠ Judges ♣ inferred present ♥ Qadi.

♠ Courts ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥

"When discussing Iranian legal education, one should bear in mind that teaching law in so-called 'secular' schools has not been in place for very long. In the post-Islamic period, traditional religious schools, or madrasa, were the main institutions to teach Sharia, or Islamic law. During the Safavids dynasty (1500-1722), many Islamic schools were funded to teach religious law as a higher education discipline. Schools had their own campuses with libraries and student residences. The Advanced Law School ... was established in 1919."[32]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ present ♥ "in the 19th century Shamiran also provided Tehran's water supply (and supplies much of it today), by means of subterranean channels (qanats, kariz)."[33]
♠ markets ♣ present ♥ "The commercial centre, the bazaar, provided facilities for financial exchange and for the storage in caravanserais of trading commodites, as well as quarters for the storage in caravanserais of trading commodities, as well as quarters for the handicraft industries carried out by the guilds."[34]
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ "As Abrahamian has observed, the bazaar was the granary, workshop, market-place, bank and religious and educational nucleus of society. .. It consisted of a unified, self-contained complex of shops, passageways and caravanserais interspersed with squares, religious buildings and bathhouses and other public institutions."[35]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ present ♥ Few passable roadways (suggesting there were some).[36] In Tehran: "the initiatives taken under the Qajar government in respect of urbanisation, traffic management and public hygiene, laid the foundations of an urban infrastructure worthy of a modern city."[37]
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥ Few passable roadways (suggesting there were some).[38]
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ inferred present ♥ inferred continuity with earlier and later periods
♠ Script ♣ present ♥
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ "In 1851, the first modern institution of higher education was founded. Dar ul-Funun, a polytechic institute, was founded by Amir Kabir, the Prime Minister from 1848 to 1851, better known as Iran's first reformer, to educate students in medicine, engineering, geology, and military sciences."[39]
♠ Calendar ♣ inferred present ♥ inferred continuity with earlier and later periods
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ present ♥ Quran.
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ "During the Safavids dynasty (1500-1722), many Islamic schools were funded to teach religious law as a higher education discipline. Schools had their own campuses with libraries and student residences. The Advanced Law School ... was established in 1919."[40]
♠ Practical literature ♣ present ♥ "In 1851, the first modern institution of higher education was founded. Dar ul-Funun, a polytechic institute, was founded by Amir Kabir, the Prime Minister from 1848 to 1851, better known as Iran's first reformer, to educate students in medicine, engineering, geology, and military sciences."[41]
♠ History ♣ present ♥ "In 1851, the first modern institution of higher education was founded. Dar ul-Funun, a polytechic institute, was founded by Amir Kabir, the Prime Minister from 1848 to 1851, better known as Iran's first reformer, to educate students in medicine, engineering, geology, and military sciences."[42]
♠ Philosophy ♣ present ♥ "In 1851, the first modern institution of higher education was founded. Dar ul-Funun, a polytechic institute, was founded by Amir Kabir, the Prime Minister from 1848 to 1851, better known as Iran's first reformer, to educate students in medicine, engineering, geology, and military sciences."[43]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ present ♥ "In 1851, the first modern institution of higher education was founded. Dar ul-Funun, a polytechic institute, was founded by Amir Kabir, the Prime Minister from 1848 to 1851, better known as Iran's first reformer, to educate students in medicine, engineering, geology, and military sciences."[44]
♠ Fiction ♣ present ♥ Poets. Literature flourished mostly in cities other than Tehran.[45]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ present ♥ Present.[46]
♠ Paper currency ♣ ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ present ♥ "By way of comparison, the average speed achieved by the postal system in Qajar Iran was 120-60 kilometres a day".[47]

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Bronze ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Cannon?
♠ Iron ♣ present ♥
♠ Steel ♣ present ♥ "Cuirass (char-a'ina). Iran, Qajar period, early 19th century. Steel, gold, and textile."[48]

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ' The Safavids had 'combat spears' which were designed to be thrown in battle.[49] Were they still in use?
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Self bow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Composite bow ♣ inferred present ♥ The bow was still used by some tribal cavalry.[50]
♠ Crossbow ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ suspected unknown: 1800 CE; present: 1900 CE ♥ Not as advanced in comparison to other large states of the period.[51] At the beginning of the period they had "no functional heavy artillery".[52] Qajars used the zanburak[53] (a gun mounted on a camel). The French "helped to establish a cannon foundry and arsenal at Esfahan."[54]
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ present ♥ Not as advanced in comparison to other large states of the period.[55] Muskets were used by tribal cavalry.[56] Abbas Mirza (who was a prince/commander not the ruler) established factories for cannon and muskets.[57]

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ present ♥ Mace.[58] In the region of modern Sudan during this period: "The Mahdist army used different types of weapons during their revolt. They used also weapons such as swords, axes and maces which resembled Persian weapons of the same period in terms of shape and decoration."[59]
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ In the region of modern Sudan during this period: "The Mahdist army used different types of weapons during their revolt. They used also weapons such as swords, axes and maces which resembled Persian weapons of the same period in terms of shape and decoration."[60]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Damascus steel daggers.[61]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ Sword.[62] Steel swords were used by tribal cavalry.[63]
♠ Spears ♣ present ♥ The lance was used by some tribal cavalry.[64]
♠ Polearms ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ present ♥ Mules, horses and camels used for transportation.[65]
♠ Horses ♣ present ♥ Cavalrymen.[66] "The tribal levies were expert horsemen and superior marksmen, capable of firing their muskets over their shoulders while galloping away from a foe. Many still used the lance and bow, and all carried sabers of high-quality steel..."[67]
♠ Camels ♣ present ♥ Mules, horses and camels used for transportation.[68] Qajars used the zanburak[69] (a gun mounted on a camel).
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ present ♥ "Cuirass (char-a'ina). Iran, Qajar period, early 19th century. Steel, gold, and textile."[70]
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Damascus steel helmet.[71]
♠ Breastplates ♣ present ♥ "Cuirass (char-a'ina). Iran, Qajar period, early 19th century. Steel, gold, and textile."[72]
♠ Limb protection ♣ inferred present ♥ Present for Safavids and the Qajar still used cavalry.
♠ Chainmail ♣ inferred present ♥ "Dean's collection later came to include several mail shirts with Persian- or Arabic-inscribed rings".[73]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Laminar armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Plate armor ♣ present ♥ "Cuirass (char-a'ina). Iran, Qajar period, early 19th century. Steel, gold, and textile."[74]

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent: 1800 CE; present: 1900 CE ♥ "... despite the obvious importance of the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf to Iran's security and commerce, the Qajars refused to spend enough to develop a naval force. Within a few years following Nader Shah's death, his fleet ceased to exist. The Qajars did not start to think about creating a small naval establishment until 1850..."[75]

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "With Tehran established as the capital in 1786, the urban fabric was further developed by the expansion of the bazaar ..., palaces, and military fortifications.” [76]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ditch ♣ present ♥ In the early 19th century Tehran was surrounded by a wall and ditch.[77]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ present ♥ "With Tehran established as the capital in 1786, the urban fabric was further developed by the expansion of the bazaar ..., palaces, and military fortifications.” [78] Tehran: "In addition to the construction of palaces which served both as royal residences and administrative centres, bazaars and thoroughfares all within a ring of defensive walls, it was also necessary to cater for religious needs and to demonstrate, publicly, piety and charity through sponsorship of mosques and madrasas, and repairs and additions to important Shi'i sanctuaries."[79] In the early 19th century Tehran was surrounded by a wall and ditch.[80]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred present ♥ Qasr-i-Qajar (Castle of the Qajars)[81]? “By the 1870s the khans had settled down and built castles in the lush valleys of the summer pasture to the east of Isfahan.”[82]
♠ Long walls ♣ ♥ km.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ present ♥ "After arriving in Tabriz, the French began drilling Abbas Mirza's battalions and erecting modern fortifications."[83]


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Qajar dynasty.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ inferred present ♥ "It has been argued that according to nineteenth-century ithna' 'ashari Shi'ism, no ruler was considered to be 'truly' legitimate except for the Twelfth Imam, who was believed to be living in occultation. Nevertheless, the 'ulama' did not always challenge the temporal authority of the Qajar rulers. While the 'ulama' did not necessarily endorse the legitimacy of these rulers, they generally accepted their rule as a practical necessity. Furthermore, the 'ulama' often tacitly endorsed the religious mandate of the Qajars. Said Amir Arjomand paraphrases an eminent nineteenth-century mutjahid (a religious scholar whose religious rulings are given the highest degree of authority), Mirza Abu al-Qasim Qummi (d. 1817/1818), who described the inherent congruence between political and religious authority in the following way: 'God has made the king His Lieutenant (janishin) on earth (not the janishin of the Hidden Imam, as the Safavids had claimed to be)... The king's rule is a trial; he is not absolved from performing his ethical duties by virtue of being king, and will be punished by God for all evil doing... [Qummi] stresses the interdendence of kingship and religion... Kings were needed for the preservation of order, the 'ulama' for the protection of religion.'" [84] "Assessments vary as to whether or not Twelver Shi'i belief inevitably leads to a rejection of the religious legitimacy of any state in anticipation of the return of the hidden Imam. Different sources (biography, jurisprudence, political theory, chronicles, etc.) offer differing indications. Some religious scholars (the 'ulama) co-operated with the Qajar state, while others avoided any contact with it. Some wrote works in praise of the Shah, dedicating their endeavours to him, while others described his rule as simply a 'loan' from the Imam." [85]

The assassin of Naser al Din Shah "ridiculed the attribution of God-like qualities to the king".[86]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ absent ♥ Islam is monotheistic [87]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[88] "Said Amir Arjomand paraphrases an eminent nineteenth-century mutjahid (a religious scholar whose religious rulings are given the highest degree of authority), Mirza Abu al-Qasim Qummi (d. 1817/1818), who described the inherent congruence between political and religious authority in the following way: 'God has made the king His Lieutenant (janishin) on earth (not the janishin of the Hidden Imam, as the Safavids had claimed to be)... The king's rule is a trial; he is not absolved from performing his ethical duties by virtue of being king, and will be punished by God for all evil doing [...].'" [89]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[90] "Said Amir Arjomand paraphrases an eminent nineteenth-century mutjahid (a religious scholar whose religious rulings are given the highest degree of authority), Mirza Abu al-Qasim Qummi (d. 1817/1818), who described the inherent congruence between political and religious authority in the following way: 'God has made the king His Lieutenant (janishin) on earth (not the janishin of the Hidden Imam, as the Safavids had claimed to be)... The king's rule is a trial; he is not absolved from performing his ethical duties by virtue of being king, and will be punished by God for all evil doing [...].'" [91]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ present ♥ “In Islam all men are equal, whatever their colour, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth.”[92]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ present ♥ “The third pillar is almsgiving, obligatory charity or welfare money for the poor (zakat). For most purposes, this involves the payment each year of two and a half per cent of one’s capital or accumulated wealth and assets, excluding such items as primary residence, car and professional tools. Only certain people are qualified to receive obligatory charity. There are, of course, other forms of charity over and above the obligatory zakat, which can be donated to such recipients as seem appropriate.//Islam stands for brotherhood and social justice and it asserts that the poor and the needy have rights to the wealth of the rich. Payment of almsgiving represents the duty to care for the community’s social welfare. It is a great sin not to share one’s wealth with the needy and to let them suffer from hunger and disease. Zakat is a duty enjoined by God and undertaken by Muslims in the interest of society as a whole. However, it is also of humanitarian and socio-political value as well as being motivated by spiritual and moral concerns. It is an effective instrument for cultivating the spirit of social responsibility on the part of the contributor and the feeling of security and belonging on the part of the recipient. The Qur’an says ‘Those who spend their wealth by night and day, in private and public shall be rewarded by their Lord. No fear shall come upon them, neither shall they grieve’ (2:274).” [93] “Charity does not consist merely of offering help to the needy; rather it includes anything one does which is of good to others. A hadith of the Prophet mentions that charity includes removing thorns from the road and smiling at one’s brother. And open-handedness in spending and giving are to be practised not only towards the poor but also towards one’s family, relatives, friends, neighbours, guests and even strangers. Generosity and hospitality are thus highly valued qualities among Muslims in every part of the world. Allah’s command to help each other in goodness is not only limited to Muslims, but it covers the whole of mankind in matters that bring virtue to all human beings.” [94]

♠ production of public goods ♣ present ♥ “The Arabic word waqf (pl. awqaf) means “the holding and preservation of a certain property for the confined benefit of a philanthropy with prohibiting any use or disposition of the property outside that specific purpose.” The definition indicates the perpetual nature of waqf as it broadly relates to land and buildings, although there is waqf of books, agricultural machinery, cattle, shares and stocks, and cash. [...] In the history of Islam, the first religious waqf was the mosque of Quba' in Medina. It was built upon the arrival of the Prophet Muhammad in 622. Six months later it was followed by the Mosque of the Prophet in the center of Medina. Mosques, as well as real estate that provides revenues for mosque maintenance and expenses, are in the category of religious waqf.//Philanthropic waqf aims at supporting the poor segments of society and the public interest of the community by funding such institutions as hospitals, orphanages, nursing homes, libraries, scientific research, education, public services, and care of animals and the environment. There are also awqaf for interest-free loans to small businesses and for maintenance of parks, roads, bridges, and dams. This started during the time of the Prophet Muhammad. On advice from the Prophet, 'Uthman, a well-to-do Companion, bought the Well of Rumah and made it into waqf, to provide everybody with free drinking water. This was followed by the waqf of 'Umar. When he asked the Prophet what to do with a palm orchard he acquired in the city of Khaybar, the Prophet said, “If you like, you may hold the property as waqf and give its fruits as charity.” [95]

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [96] [97] [98]

References

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  5. (Bosworth ed. 2007, 506) ???. Tehran. C Edmund Bosworth. ed. 2007. Historic Cities of the Islamic World. BRILL. Leiden.
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  7. (Martin 2005, 15) Vanessa Martin. 2005. The Qajar Pact: Bargaining, Protest and the State in Nineteenth-Century Persia. I. B. Tauris. London.
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  9. (Ghani 2000, 7) Cyrus Ghani. 2000. Iran and the Rise of Reza Shah. From Qajar Collapse to Pahlavi Power. I B Tauris. London.
  10. (Maranlou 2016, 144-145) Sahar Maranlou. Modernization Prospects For Legal Education In Iran. Mutaz M Qafisheh. Stephen A Rosenbaum. eds. 2016. Experimental Legal Education in a Globalized World: The Middle East and Beyond. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Newcastle upon Tyne.
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