IrPrCer

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Pre-Ceramic Period ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Bus Mordeh ♥ Bus Mordeh period 7500-6500 BCE.[1]

♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 7800-7200 BCE ♥ "Radiocarbon dates reported from the sites just discussed and similar sites in the highland put all the early Neolithic aceramic sites in western Iran within the 8000-7000 B.C. range. However, considering the problems with radiocarbon dates, these dates alone are not sufficient to be used as definite criteria to establish chronological priority of any of these early sites, even though some (Tappeh Asiab and Ganj Darreh) yielded morphologically wild species of the plants and animals that at Tappeh Ali Kosh and Chogha Bonut are considered morphologically domesticated and presumably later." [2]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥

♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ none ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ ♥
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Formative Period ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥


♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

"The chronological position of the Chogha Bonut Aceramic period vis-a-vis the Buz Murdeh phase in Deh Luran has theoretical implications in terms of the occupation of the lowland on the eve of domestication. However, the paucity of excavated materials dating to the initial phases of the Neolithic prevents us from proposing a chronological framework without the use of radiocarbon dating. Nevertheless, comparative analyses of the pottery sequences from the early villages in Susiana and Deh Luran indicate that, at least in southwestern Iran, pottery manufacture began earlier in Susiana than it did in Deh Luran and continued to influence Deh Luran for several millennia. Moreover, the culture-specific T-shaped figurines, so characteristic of the early Neolithic sites in western southwestern Iran (Sarab, Chogha Bonut, Chogha Mish, Tappeh Ali Kosh) and northeastern Iraq (Jarmo), occur from the beginning of the occupation at Chogha Bonut but appear later in the Mohammad Jaffar phase at Tappeh Ali Kosh. Admittedly, such a conclusion is based on uncertain grounds. It is perfectly possible that Chogha Bonut and Tappeh Ali Kosh are contemporary, but given the present evidence from Chogha Bonut, it seems highly unlikely that Tappeh Ali Kosh, or any other early Neolithic sites in Iran (with the possible exception of Tappeh Asiab) would be earlier. The implication is that during the eighth millennium B.C., the environmental conditions were favorable in Iran (if not the whole Near East) to allow the establishment of early villages in a number of environmental niches suitable for the transition from collecting and hunting food to producing it." [3]

"The Aceramic Phase: Initial Colonization of Lowland Susiana. The earliest, basal levels at Čoḡā Bonut that did not produce any ceramic vessels comprise the initial Aceramic phase. In this phase, the early settlers of the Susiana plain chose to settle on top of a low natural hill surrounded by shallow marshes at an elevation where dry farming was possible. Even today, when the region is much drier than it was in early Neolithic times, dry agriculture is still practiced as supplement. The early farmers of lowland Susiana cultivated wheat, barley, and lentils and had domesticated sheep, goats, pigs, and dogs. Hunting and gathering supplemented this mixed subsistence economy. During this initial phase, the chipped stone industry and manufacture of stone vessels were highly developed. In the limited exposure of the 1996 excavations, no traces of solid architecture were found, but fragmentary pieces of straw-tempered mud bricks suggest the existence of solid architecture. Most probably, the early inhabitants of this site came from the highlands, for there is a great similarity between the chipped stone industry, clay and stone figurines, and tokens of Coga Bonut, on the one side, and those found at the early sites in the piedmonts of the Zagros Mountains, on the other." [4]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

According to Mortensen early villages may have clustered together, "each group widely separated from the next." Examples in Susiana: Chogha Bonut, Boneh Favili, and Chogha Mish. Why? "it would have been difficult for the inhabitants of a village of one hundred or so persons to supply marriable pairs continually; thus marriage partners must have been supplied from outside. Among people today who live at low density, the figure of five hundred comes up as the minimum size necessary to maintain a viable social system. (Birdsell 1973:337-38; Wobst 1974)."[5]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [250-500] ♥ Inhabitants.

8,000-7,000 BCE Neolithic, includes site of Ali Kosh in Khuzistan. "Sedentary village communities began to have between 250 and 500 inhabitants, regular mud-brick houses, and an economy based on agriculture and the farming of sheep, goats and pigs (and cattle by the end of the period)."[6]

Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

1. Villages

"The implication is that during the eighth millennium B.C., the environmental conditions were favorable in Iran (if not the whole Near East) to allow the establishment of early villages in a number of environmental niches suitable for the transition from collecting and hunting food to producing it." [7]

Incipient food production in Khuzistan, Bus Mordeh period 7500-6500 BCE.[8]

According to Mortensen early villages may have clustered together, "each group widely separated from the next." Examples in Susiana: Chogha Bonut, Boneh Favili, and Chogha Mish."[9]


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[10]

♠ Religious levels ♣ 0 ♥ levels.

In the 7000-6000 BCE period we get first reference that: "Communities were united and motivated by common religious beliefs, visible from the various cultic artefacts and objects found ... This religiosity had two main complementary aspect: a funerary aspect, linked, through ancestral cults, to the patriarchal structure of these communities (an aspect that was already visible in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B); and a fertility aspect (human, animal and agrarian), brought to the fore by the development of food production techniques."[11]


♠ Military levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ absent ♥ Not in this period since for the 7000-6000 BCE period our reference is: "While there were shared warehouses, certain fundamental expressions of communal life were still lacking, such as temples or other cultic buildings."[12]

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[13]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[14]

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[15]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[16]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[17]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[18]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[19]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ inferred absent ♥ " In this phase, the early settlers of the Susiana plain chose to settle on top of a low natural hill surrounded by shallow marshes at an elevation where dry farming was possible. Even today, when the region is much drier than it was in early Neolithic times, dry agriculture is still practiced as supplement." [20]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ markets ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ present ♥ "The appearance of the first silos for the conservation of food and seeds from one year to the next indicates how these communities had by now overcome the daily dimension of nutrition."[21] In Khuzestan this refers to the Bus Mordeh period 7500-6500 BCE.[22]

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not until later. Uruk phase c3800-3000 BCE: "bureaucracy sent orders to specialised workmen, planned and constructed key infrastructures (such as canals, temples, or walls), and engaged in long-distance trade."[23]
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[24] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[25]
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[26] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[27]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[28] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[29]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[30] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[31]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[32] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[33]
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[34] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[35]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[36] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[37]
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[38] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[39]
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[40] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[41]
♠ History ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[42] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[43]
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[44] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[45]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[46] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[47]
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[48] Liverani says the so-called "urban revolution" of the Uruk phase occurred 3800-3000 BCE.[49]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Thomas Cressy; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Bone harpoons found for this time, but it is unclear if used for warfare or hunting. There is no reason to believe that other humans couldn't be the target for these.[50]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in evidence and extremely unlikely being a weapon of the Americas
♠ Slings ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Round and ovoid sling pellets have been dug up in early Sumer and Turkestan. Ovoid sling pellets have been unearthed at the neolithic sites on the Iranian tableland. In later times, the sling was used in Palestine and Syria. It was introduced in Egypt at a still later date."[51]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Stone arrowheads found for this time, but it is unclear if used for warfare or hunting. There is no reason to believe that other humans couldn't be the target for these arrows though [52] "The bow was probably between 6,000 and 10,000 years old by the dawn of the Bronze Age".[53]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ Arrowheads have been found, but is unlikely to be a more sophisticated bow at this time. "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE."[54]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ Bone needles/knives were present by 7200 BC, but no hard evidence for use in warfare [55] Stone blades had been in production in Iraq/Iran since the Paleolithic: 'The Baradostian lithic industry is dominated by blade production. Characteristic tools include slender points, backed blades and bladelets, twisted bladelets with various kinds of light retouch, end scrapers, discoidal scrapers, side scrapers, and burins.' [56] Obsidian blades have also been found for this period [57]
♠ Swords ♣ absent ♥ In Sumer the first swords appeared about c3000 BCE.[58]
♠ Spears ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Dogs had been domesticated by this time but no evidence for use in warfare [59] although there is evidence they were used for hunting and guarding purposes. [60]
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Evidence for use as Pack Animals appears by around 7000 BC onward [61] The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass 'in more than one place' but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan.[62]
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Not used for military purposes until much later
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Not used for military purposes until much later

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There is evidence for loincloths being used, but it would hardly count as armor and there is no evidence for warfare at this time:‘The early periods at Tepe Sialk (I-IV) were a time of important technological innovation. A carved bone knife handle representing a man wearing a cap and a loincloth found in a Sialk I context is one of the earliest known anthropomorphic representations from Iran’[63]
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Helmets ♣ absent ♥ Earliest known helmet dates to 2500 BCE in Sumer.[64]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources.
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources.
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples.[65]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available.
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [66]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [67]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [68]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [69]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [70]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [71]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km. Not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [72] [73] [74]

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