IrMElm2

From Seshat Data Browser
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Rosalind Purcell; Agathe Dupeyron; Edward A L Turner ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Elam - Igihalkid Period ♥

♠ Alternative names ♣ Middle Elamite Kingdom; Kingdom of Susa and Anshan; Igihalkid Dynasty ♥ [1] "The period of the sukkalmahs was followed by the Middle Elamite period. ... Three phases have been distinguished, each marked by a different dynasty named after its founder or most significant early leader (thus the Kidinuids, Igihalkids and Shutrukids). This is the period when the title 'king of Susa and Anshan', as it is expressed in Akkadian texts, or 'king of Anshan and Susa'. according to the usage of the Elamite sources, is attested."[2]


♠ Peak Date ♣ 1300 BCE ♥ "The 'golden age' of the united federal Elam was toward the end of the second millennium B.C., when, after a period of decline, the empire enjoyed a renaissance of power and achievement in arts and architectures; one of the federated states, Kassite, conquered and ruled Babylonia for 567 years, and Elam expanded to almost all of Mesopotamia and Asia Minor"[3]

"At the same time as the rise of the Middle Assyrian state, the Middle Elamite state grew under Humban-nimena, Untash-Humban, Unpater-Humban and Kidin-Hutran. Internally, the most influential Elamite king was Untash-Humban, who founded the city of Dur-Untash (Choga Zanbil, south-east of Susa). Dur-Untash was a small city, but certainly an important religious centre, with a ziqqurat that could have been completed with the Babylonian ones and a rich set of temples and public buildings ... Therefore, Elam was clearly influenced by the tendencies of the time ... founding royal residences and artificial capitals ex novo."[4] -- c1350 BCE

reign date?

"the reign of Untash-Humban constituted the apogee of the Middle Elamite period."[5]


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 1399-1200 BCE ♥ Middle Elamite II (1400-1200 BCE)

Ike-Halke - founder of the new Elamite dynasty.[6]

1420 BCE - Knowledge of the beginning of the Middle Elamite Kingdom is limited. Names of probable kings are known from the fifteenth and fourteenth centuries but there is no defined point between the intermediate period and the start of the Middle Elamite Kingdom. 1420 CE is chosen as a representative starting point, rather than the date of a particular event. [7]

1100 BCE - The Middle Elamite Kingdom ended when the Babylonian army, led by Nebuchadnezzar, defeated the last Middle Elamite king, Hutelutush-Inshushinak and seized Susa. Nebuchadrnessar reported in a letter that Huteleutush-Inshushinak disappeared, but bricks bearing his name found at Tal-i Malyan give some credence to the suggestion that he retreated to Anshan after defeat. [8]

"In the mid-fourteenth century BC, Kurigalzu II defeated the Elamite king Hurba-tilla. However, the latter does not appear in the Elamite dynastic sequences. Therefore, it is possible to assume that he was a king of Susiana with a Hurrian name, and that this defeat and Kurigalzu's expedition to Susa did not threaten the stability of the Elamite confederation."[9]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ unitary state ♥ It is known that kings appointed regional governors. The title King of Anshan and Susa infers greater centralised control of Elam than in previous and later periods, but it is likely that there were periods when there was greater regional power. [10]

"Without exaggeration, the Elamite federated system of government can be considered as perhaps the earliest formal federalism on a large scale in history." [11]


♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ alliance ♥

Period characterised by inter-marriage with Kassite Dynaste of Babylonia.[12]

alliance "Babylonia and Elam against Assyria"[13] -- which period?

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Elam - Kidinuid Period ♥
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ elite migration ♥ The Middle Elamite kingdom defeated the Kassite Dynasty and set their own king on the throne. This kingship did not last for long and it is unlikely there was substantial migration of people towards Babylonia. [14]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Neo-Assyrian Empire ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ Mesopotamia; Iran ♥ Elam was in Iran on the borderland of Mesopotamia. In this period it became embroiled in Mesopotamian politics and became part of the supraculture of Mesopotamia. At the same time Elamite kings held the title of king of Anshan and Susa. Anshan was the highland area to the east and much of this population was Iranian. [15]
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ Anshan; Al Untash Napirisha ♥ "Shortly after [mid-14th BCE], when Middle Elamite sources reappear, we find a completely different situation from the period of the sukkal-mah. Susa ceased to be the political centre of Elam. The seat of power moved further inland, beyond the mountains, in Anshan (modern Fars). Consequently, Middle Elamite kings began to use the title of 'king of Anshan and Susa.'"[16] Which period does this quote refer to?: "The kings used two capitals: one in the lowland city of present Dizful and the other in Susa"[17]

"Reacting against Mesopotamian cultural influence, an Elamite dynasty of the fourteenth century restored Anshan (henceforth called Anzan in inscriptions) to a kind of theoretical preeminence. Around 1340, with a view to assuring the cohesion of his empire, Untash-Napirisha, the fifth king of the dynasty, founded a new royal center that later bore his name, Al Untash-Napirisha (modern Chogha Zanbil), twenty-five miles southeast of Susa ... This new foundation ... was built around a great national temple complex called the siyan-kuk, or 'holy place.' Originally the complex, dedicated solely to the patron god of Susa, Inshushinak, consisted essentially of a building resembling a secular caravanserai, with an open court surrounded by rooms, and containing two small sanctuaries. Cult ceremonies probably took place in the courtyard in the open air, as had been the custom in the high places of the mountain peoples outside the great urban centers."[18]


♠ Language ♣ Elamite; Akkadian ♥ [19] After mid-14th BCE: "The official language (also for royal inscriptions) was once again Elamite, and not Babylonian, as it had been before the dark age."[20] "The Elamite written language was used as the official language in the bureaucracy for a long time, rivaling the Sumerian and Akkadian languages even over a thousand years later, during the Old Persian Empire of the Achaemenids."[21]

General Description

The Middle Elamite kingdom, about 250,000 square kilometers, was located in what is now Southwestern Iran. [22] The kingdom is commonly split into three phases: the first before 1400 BCE; the second, 1400-1200 BCE, which was characterised by intermarriage with the Kassites; and the third, 1200-1100 BCE, characterised by war with the Kassites.
The First Period lacks the evidence of the later periods, but can be seen to be a substantial state, where the kings held the title of king of Anshan and Susa, even if it is not clear how much control they exerted over Anshan. The kings of the First Period had local governors and diplomats, craft and cult organisation, and could wage war against the Babylonians. [23]
The Second Period has a comparative wealth of evidence, mostly royal inscriptions from building or dedicatory texts. During this period, the empire expanded and many building works were undertaken, including the construction of the new city al-Untash Napirisha. This period also saw the Elamites becoming increasingly involved in Mesopotamian politics. There were many marriages between Elamite princes (the Igihalkids) and Kassite princesses. [24] The "Berlin letter", an important text, names four marriages between Elamite princes and Kassite princesses. [25]
The Third Period involved military battles with Babylon, which had been annexed by Assyria. in 1158 BCE, the Elamite king Shutruk-Nahhunte invaded Babylonia and overthrew the Kassite king Zababa-shuma-iddina, probably giving the throne to his son Kutir-Nahhunte. The Middle Elamite Kingdom ended when the Babylonian army, led by Nebuchadnezzar, defeated the last Middle Elamite king, Hutelutush-Inshushinak and seized Susa in revenge for taking their god and invading their kingdom. [26]

Population and political organization

Kings of this period were commonly referred to by the title 'king of Susa and Anshan' in Akkadian and 'king of Anshan and Susa' in Elamite. It is a period characterised by this unity between the highlands, Anshan, and the lowlands, Susa. [27] A powerful bureaucracy had religious and secular influence in the government. [28]
The population for the entire empire is unknown, but the largest settlement is estimated at between 1,500-6,000 people during the early period, 2,750-11,000 people in 1300 BCE, and 5,000-20,000 in 1200 BCE.

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Rosalind Purcell; Agathe Dupeyron; Edward A L Turner ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ [290,000-330,000] ♥ in squared kilometers

4 maps showing Elam p.279 1600 BCE, 1450 BCE, 1350 BCE, 1220 BCE. very little change over period.[29]

310124.72 km2. Estimated from Google Area calculator using the 1350 BC and 1220 BC maps in Liverani 2014 [30]

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

"Before the Islamic conquest, major concentration of settlement were always localized in the following three major regions: the central Zagros, the lowland steppe, and Marv Dasht. These probably correspond, respectively, with Shimashki, Susa, and Anshan, the three most important historical entities in southwest Iran (Vallat 1980:6). Each major concentration of settlement contained at least one large urban area."[31]

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [2,750-11,000]: 1300 BCE; [5000-20,000]: 1200 BCE ♥ Inhabitants. Seshat standard 50-200 persons per hectare. Choga Zanbil 100 ha 1300 BCE, Susa 55 ha 1300 BCE.

Choga Zanbil

Untash Napirisha ordered the construction of a brand new city named Al Untash Napirisha, at Chogha Zanbil, enclosing about 100 ha. [32]
"Middle Elamite II (1300-1000 B.C.) ... The construction of the huge site of Chogha Zanbil on an unoccupied ridge near the geographical center of the Susiana Plain illustrates the ambition of Elam at this time."[33]

Susa

"Middle Elamite I (ca. 1475-1300 B.C.) ... Susa (55 hectares), with one associated village (KS-23), was a central place for the following sites: (1) Haft Tepe (30 hectares ...), which was a central place for ... - sites of 1 to 6.5 hectares; (2) Chogha Pahn (20 hecatres ...), a central place for ... - 3.5, 2.5, 3.5, 10.7 hectares, respectively; (3) Tepe Senjar (13 hectares ... 1.64), - a central place for ... - sites of 5 hectares each; (4) Tepe Galeh Bangoon/KS-37 (10.7 hectares ...)."[34]


Haft Tepe (not the largest settlement) has an area of at least 30ha at the time of Tepti-ahar (c.1375 BCE). [35]


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ 4 ♥ levels.

1. Large City - Susa - numerous buildings dated to Middle Elamite period including the "Ville Royale" [36]

2. City - Haft Tepe - excavations of a burial complex found halls, royal tombs and a kiln. Based on acquired knowledge, it probably also contained a scribal school (many inscribed tablets have been recovered) and craft industries. [37] Also Choga Zanbil, with ziggurat, palace and city wall [38]
3. Towns
4. Villages

"Middle Elamite I (ca. 1475-1300 B.C.) ... Susa (55 hectares), with one associated village (KS-23), was a central place for the following sites: (1) Haft Tepe (30 hectares ...), which was a central place for ... - sites of 1 to 6.5 hectares; (2) Chogha Pahn (20 hecatres ...), a central place for ... - 3.5, 2.5, 3.5, 10.7 hectares, respectively; (3) Tepe Senjar (13 hectares ... 1.64), - a central place for ... - sites of 5 hectares each; (4) Tepe Galeh Bangoon/KS-37 (10.7 hectares ...)."[39]

♠ Administrative levels ♣ [4-5] ♥ levels.

King, viceroy, governor, + scribes and other workers.

"The federal structure of the Elamite empire was organized into three administrative layers of governance, and the various provinces were ruled over by: (1) the governors' (Halmenik), who were under the control of (2) a 'viceroy' (Sakanakkun), who was subject to (3) the great king of Elam (Zunkir)."[40] -- does not specify which period

"Shortly after [mid-14th BCE], when Middle Elamite sources reappear, we find a completely different situation from the period of the sukkal-mah. Susa ceased to be the political centre of Elam. The seat of power moved further inland, beyond the mountains, in Anshan (modern Fars). Consequently, Middle Elamite kings began to use the title of 'king of Anshan and Susa.'"[41]

After mid-14th BCE: "Finally, the succession was by now patrilineal, a predictable result of that evolution of Elamite society that began in the seventeenth and sixteenth centuries."[42]

Middle Elamite kingdom had more of a "local character" compared to the sukkal-mah. "At the time of the sukkal-mah, the choice of Susa as capital showed a clear intention of becoming a constitutive part of the Mesopotamian political system and of Babylonian culture. Now, however, following a tendency that has been attested in Hatti and Mitanni, Elam strived to maintain its uniqueness, while presenting itself as one of the protagonists in this decidedly polycentric Late Bronze Age Near East."[43]

Neo-Elamite period saw a "rival of ancient royal names and of the Middle Elamite royal titulature."[44] In Neo-Elamite period this included: "the ancient titles of 'king (sunkik) of Anshan and Susa', 'master (katri) of Elam', governor (hal-menik, translated as sakkanakku in Akkadian) of Elam', and the title of 'magnifier of the realm'. The latter emphasises the revival of Elamite expansion."[45]

"Public administration flourished under the 2500 years of the strong federated state of Elam, which made significant contributions to Iranian and world civilizations. The organization of the federated state of Elam was based on two pillars, the military and civil administrations, and there was a generally respected separation of these two functions. The civil administration was headed by a coordinating body of appointed functionaries who discharged the administrative responsibilities of the 'federal state' at Susa. The administrative body handled the financial, regulatory, and other civil affairs, and coordinated the intergovernmental relations with the member states in the system. Thus its experience in federalism and intergovernmental relations administration was perhaps the oldest in recorded history".[46]
"Among the major administrative achievements of the Elamite Iran were the development and management of a gigantic system of underground irrigation, qanats, an earlier Iranian invention turning an unworked country into an agricultural land; the invention and development of the written language of Elamite and its extensive use in the administration of the federated state; and the construction and maintenance of numerous public enterprises like roads, bridges, cities and towns, communication centers, and economic trade centers with the neighboring states. Elamite Iran was relatively prosperous because of its rich minerals and precious metals, as well as other industries and arts."[47]
"The earliest experiences of state tradition and administrative functions on a massive scale began around 6000 B.C. in Susa. As one of the oldest sites of ancient civilization, Susa began political and administrative life first as a city-state contemporary and rival to Sumer in the Mesopotamia, then as the capital of one of the oldest empires of antiquity, Elam. Established in the late fourth millennium B.C., the Elamite Empire was the first Iranian experience in empire building and state tradition. ... the federated state of Elam practiced public administration ... The federal system of Elam was composed of several major kingdoms (the Kassite, the Guti, the Lullubi, Susiana, and Elamite), all being of the same racial group of the pre-Aryan people. The Elamite over-lordship in Susa was the main power of the federated states, the heads of which frequently assembled for political and military purposes. Decision making wa based on equality, and cooperation was key to the coordinated system of government in a federal structure."[48]

♠ Religious levels ♣ [2-4] ♥ levels.

Estimate. Sounds quite extensive religious organization so slightly higher top end of range than earlier periods.

1. Chief Priest

there was a priestess of Susa[49]
2. Assistant Priest
3.
4

Temples like the ziggurat of Choga Zanbil[50] attest to the religious complexity in this period.

"During the third millennium B.C.E., the most important deity in Elam was the goddess Pinikir, 'the great mother of the gods to the Elamites' and the great mistress of heaven. Later, another goddess, Kirrisha, surpassed her, but many goddesses were gradually demoted and replaced in rank by male gods. Yet Kirrisha never lost her title as the main goddess of Elam, and it is significant for later developments that she married two of her brothers who were major gods. Kings often built temples to honor her and appear to her for protection. Despite being demoted, Elamite goddesses retained a higher status than goddesses in Mesopotamia."[51]

♠ Military levels ♣ [3-6] ♥ levels.

No data. Given the administrative complexity a range of [3-6] should cover most possibilities.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ ♥ Full-time specialists

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ inferred present ♥ "Religion strongly flourished in ancient Elam, where the female Great Goddess was considered to be very powerful and equivalent to the male God. In addition, certain kings of Elam were also elevated to the level of 'Messenger of God,' 'regent,' and ruler on earth. It also appears that Elamites had some conceptions of an 'after-life, in which various burial gifts would be of use.' Administration of Elam was developed and reflected both secular and religious aspects of law, politics and government."[52] -- period not specified. could be general reference to whole period.

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred present ♥ "The main instrument of public administration and governance under the long history of the federal state of Elam was the bureaucracy, which also played a powerful role under the Median and the Persian empires."[53]

♠ Examination system ♣ ♥

♠ Merit promotion ♣ ♥

♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred present ♥ "The main instrument of public administration and governance under the long history of the federal state of Elam was the bureaucracy, which also played a powerful role under the Median and the Persian empires."[54]


Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred present ♥ "Other major administrative achievements of the Elamites included ... the development and use of an advanced legal system - Elamite Penal Law, Civil Law, and Administrative Law. In addition, Elamites were the first to introduce the role of witnesses in the elaborate judicial proceedings with and 'ordeal trial'." [55]

♠ Judges ♣ ♥

♠ Courts ♣ ♥

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ ♥

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ markets ♣ inferred present ♥ "Other major administrative achievements of the Elamites included ... the construction and maintenance of numerous public works and enterprises, such as roads, bridges, cities and towns, communication centers, and economic and commercial centers"[56]
♠ food storage sites ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred present ♥ "Other major administrative achievements of the Elamites included ... the construction and maintenance of numerous public works and enterprises, such as roads, bridges, cities and towns, communication centers, and economic and commercial centers"[57]
♠ Bridges ♣ inferred present ♥ "Other major administrative achievements of the Elamites included ... the construction and maintenance of numerous public works and enterprises, such as roads, bridges, cities and towns, communication centers, and economic and commercial centers"[58]
♠ Canals ♣ ♥
♠ Ports ♣ ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ inferred present ♥ Bronze artefacts found at Susa, such as Napir Asu's statue. [59]

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ inferred present ♥ In neighbouring Mesopotamia c2200 BCE: "The Akkadians invented the abacus as a tool for counting"[60]
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ present ♥ "Middle Elamite phase seals and sealings from Susa show banquets, hunting scenes, mythical beasts, and geometric patterns. Similar examples have been found at Chogha Zanbil, but none has been published from Haft Tepe. These seals were commonly made of faience or glazed frit, and the major scene was often framed by a ladderlike band at either end of the cylinder." [61]
♠ Written records ♣ present ♥ [62]
♠ Script ♣ present ♥ Elamites developed their own script[63] "the proto-Elamite script - the designation applied to the earliest pictographic stage in contrast with the later Elamite linear script."[64]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ ♥
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ ♥

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ present ♥ Administrative tablets found at Malyan record transfers of metals such as gold and silver as well as hides and food. [65]
♠ Calendar ♣ present ♥ [66]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ ♥
♠ Religious literature ♣ present ♥ Temple dedications to gods. [67] Mortuary prayers and invocations [68]
♠ Practical literature ♣ inferred present ♥ Lots of administrative activity.
♠ History ♣ ♥
♠ Philosophy ♣ ♥
♠ Scientific literature ♣ ♥
♠ Fiction ♣ ♥


Money

♠ Articles ♣ inferred present ♥ inferred continuity with earlier and later periods in this region
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ ♥
♠ Foreign coins ♣ absent ♥ "Coins turn up in the eastern Mediterranean in early sixth-century archaeological context and gradually begin circulating widely but are not archaeologically attested in Mesopotamia until well over two centuries later, at the end of the Achaemenid period." [69]
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ absent ♥ "Coins turn up in the eastern Mediterranean in early sixth-century archaeological context and gradually begin circulating widely but are not archaeologically attested in Mesopotamia until well over two centuries later, at the end of the Achaemenid period." [70]
♠ Paper currency ♣ absent ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ inferred present ♥ Present in the Ur III period [71] but not mentioned after then. Level of administrative complexity high enough to be inferred.
♠ Postal stations ♣ ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Rosalind Purcell; Thomas Cressy; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ present ♥ Copper has been found for a time frame in the region covering this polity:copper and bronze weapons found in graves. [72]
♠ Bronze ♣ present ♥ Bronze has been found for a time frame in the region covering this polity:copper and bronze weapons found in graves [73]
♠ Iron ♣ inferred absent ♥ ‘Sialk Cemetery A (Period V), Ghirshman excavated fifteen tombs containing a monochrome gray-to-black burnished ware, and in Tomb 4 he found two iron objects—a dagger and “punch”’ [74] although it is unclear the extent of the military use of iron in Susiana due to being widespread in the whole region only from the 9th century onward. What kind of iron is this? Meteoric or native iron does not count. Luristan borders Susiana region to the NW. Here Vanden Berghe divided the Iron Age into three periods 1000-800/750 BCE in which bronze and iron used together and 800/750-600 BCE when weapons were made from iron and ritual articles from bronze. At this early time we can only code present for bronze (and its constituent copper) with iron and steel both absent.[75]
♠ Steel ♣ ♥

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ inferred present ♥ "Unlike other areas of the world where the spear developed into a thrown weapon, in the Middle East it remained primarily a stabbing weapon."[76] The weapon may have had a secondary role. The last reference for the military use of the javelin in this region was Ur. The lament for Sumer and Ur mentions javelins in the battle for Ur c2000 BCE.[77]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ New World weapon.
♠ Slings ♣ present ♥ Slings had been present since the Chalcolithic.[78] Before the Archaemenid king Cyrus (c600 BCE), Persian light infantry carried only the bow and sling.[79]
♠ Self bow ♣ present ♥ Arrowheads found as grave goods in a tomb in the palace hypogeum in Choga Zanbil.[80] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[81] In his discussion of weapons used by the Achaemenid army Gabriel (2002) mentions the "noncomposite" simple bow directly for light cavalry and chariots and the 'bow' for light infantry and heavy infantry and notably does not mention use of the composite bow by Persian forces.[82] Earlier Gabriel mentions the composite bow was used from the late third millennium BCE but that it was difficult to manufacture and it was "very susceptible to moisture, which rendered it useless."[83] This suggests the simple bow was most likely the standard weapon. Hypothesis: nomads who were full-time warriors were able maintain their composite bows every day. Agricultural polities who did not wanted to store the weapons. This may have meant they probably relied most on their stocks of easy to preserve simple bows, even though arrows shot from them carried less range.
♠ Composite bow ♣ present ♥ "The effective range of the simple bow varied from 50 to 100 yards. And the arrow shot by a simple bow was unable to penetrate leather or bronze armour. The effective range of the composite bows varied between 250 and 300 yards."[84] However, the composite bow itself could not penetrate armour more than 2mm thick [all designs or just the early designs?] and was susceptible to rotting in high-moisture environments.[85] "The composite bow was a recurve bow made of wood, horn and tendons from oxen, carefully laminated together. These bows were probably invented by the nomads of the Eurasian steppe and brought into Sumer by the mercenary nomads."[86] "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE. The Scythian bow was different from the Mesopotamian one primarily in its overall dimensions - it was smaller so that it could be used from the horseback. At the same time, self bows were also in use, but because of their large size they were not suitable for use by horse riders."[87] In his discussion of weapons used by the Achaemenid army Gabriel (2002) mentions the "noncomposite" simple bow directly for light cavalry and chariots and the 'bow' for light infantry and heavy infantry and notably does not mention use of the composite bow by Persian forces.[88] Earlier Gabriel mentions the composite bow was used from the late third millennium BCE but that it was difficult to manufacture and it was "very susceptible to moisture, which rendered it useless."[89] This suggests the simple bow was most likely the standard weapon. Hypothesis: nomads who were full-time warriors were able maintain their composite bows every day. Agricultural polities who did not wanted to store the weapons. This may have meant they probably relied most on their stocks of easy to preserve simple bows, even though arrows shot from them carried less range.
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not present at this time: "the hand-held crossbow was invented by the Chinese, in the fifth century BC, and probably came into the Roman world in the first century AD, where it was used for hunting."[90] The crossbow also developed after the Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE.[91]
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ In Anatolia siege warfare was mentioned in Old Hittite records.[92] Presumably at this time the catapult was not used? In India, according to Jain texts, Ajatashatru, a 5th century BCE king of Magadha in North India, used a catapult "capable of hurling huge pieces of stone".[93] Marsden (1969) said archaeological records exist before the 4th century BCE.[94] The Achaemenids (c400 BCE?) are assumed to have had the catapult because the Macedonians did.[95] Pollard and Berry (2012) say torsion catapults first came into widespread use in the Hellenistic period 4th - 1st centuries BCE.[96] The Syracuse Greek Dionysios I invented a form of crossbow called the gastraphetes in 399 BCE which encouraged the development of large tension-powered weapons.[97] There is no direct evidence for catapults for this time/location. The aforementioned evidence we currently have covering the wider ancient world suggests they were probably not used at this time, perhaps because effective machines had not been invented yet.
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ The counter-weight trebuchet was first used by the Byzantines in 1165 CE.
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not invented at this time.
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not invented at this time.

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ inferred present ♥ The Elamite ruler, "Igi-halki is mentioned as Attar-kittah's father on two inscribed maceheads from Choga Zanbil."[98] Gabriel says the mace was the dominant weapon of war from 4000 BCE but had disappeared from Sumerian illustrations before 2500 BCE, a time when the helmet appears.[99] Almost certainly the technology was still present but the weapon may have been used less frequently. Coded present for Ur III and Akkad and could possibly be 'inferred present' at this time.
♠ Battle axes ♣ present ♥ Found at Choga Zanbil.[100] The war axe evolved after the development of body and head armour. Invented by the Sumerians, the socketed penetrating axe was "one of the most devastating close-combat weapons of the Bronze and Iron ages."[101]
♠ Daggers ♣ present ♥ Found at Choga Zanbil [102]
♠ Swords ♣ present ♥ In Sumer the first swords appeared about c3000 BCE but until c2000 BCE their use were restricted because the blade often became detached from the handle.[103] "All armies after the seventeenth century B.C.E. carried the sword, but in none was it a major weapon of close combat; rather, it was used when the soldier's primary weapons, the spear and axe, were lost or broken."[104] Found at Choga Zanbil.[105]
♠ Spears ♣ inferred present ♥ Spear-using phalanx first used in Sumer 2500 BCE. The phalanx was in use until the 1st century BCE.[106] "Unlike other areas of the world where the spear developed into a thrown weapon, in the Middle East it remained primarily a stabbing weapon."[107]
♠ Polearms ♣ ♥

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Donkeys ♣ inferred present ♥ The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass 'in more than one place' but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan.[108] Donkey herder was a profession in Akkadian (c2200 BCE) period Mesopotamia.[109] "During the Bronze Age the standard mechanism of transport was the donkey (Egypt) or the solid-wheeled cart drawn by the onager (Sumer)."[110] The Achaemenids used donkeys (e.g. Darius III) and camels (e.g. Cyrus I) in their baggage train.[111] Likely to have been used as donkeys appear to have been raised in the wider region at least since Akkadian times. It is possible they were not used frequently, however, as there were other options.
♠ Horses ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Camels ♣ suspected unknown ♥ The Achaemenids used donkeys (e.g. Darius III) and camels (e.g. Cyrus I) in their baggage train.[112]
♠ Elephants ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ inferred present ♥ Almost certainly could be coded present if there is evidence the polity used the shield. At this time it is unlikely the warriors went into battle completely unarmoured. The Archaemenids used cane: "From ancient times the peoples of Persia favoured a light, tough shield made of withies or cane. As remarked on at the beginning of this chapter, Herodotus describes the soldiers of Xerxes who carry targes of wicker. Large and deeply convex shields built up of concentric rings of cane or withies are carried by the Sacae (Scythian) guards in the reliefs from the great staircase of the Achaemenid, from the Palace of Persepolis, now in the Berlin Museum. All but the caps of these guards are in the Persian fashion. The large shields are not those of nomadic horsemen, but are a foot soldier’s defence."[113]
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ inferred present ♥ Almost certainly could be coded present if there is evidence the polity used the shield. At this time it is unlikely the warriors went into battle completely unarmoured.
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Last reference to shields present is during Ur III c2000 BCE.[114] Next reference for shields is the Archaemenids: "From ancient times the peoples of Persia favoured a light, tough shield made of withies or cane. As remarked on at the beginning of this chapter, Herodotus describes the soldiers of Xerxes who carry targes of wicker. Large and deeply convex shields built up of concentric rings of cane or withies are carried by the Sacae (Scythian) guards in the reliefs from the great staircase of the Achaemenid, from the Palace of Persepolis, now in the Berlin Museum. All but the caps of these guards are in the Persian fashion. The large shields are not those of nomadic horsemen, but are a foot soldier’s defence."[115] Likely to be inferred present but will leave this one for an expert to confirm.
♠ Helmets ♣ present ♥ Earliest known helmet dates to 2500 BCE in Sumer. After this time use of helmets became widespread.[116] Earliest known helmet dates to 2500 BCE in Sumer.[117] The example from Sumer was "a cap of hammered copper" fitted onto a leather cap.[118]
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Texts from Haft Tepe during the previous Kidinuid Period include "accounts of armour plates, belts, and other elements of armour in silver […]".[119] Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE text: "May Ninurta, Enlil's son, set the helmet Lion of Battle on your head, may the breastplate (?) that in the great mountains does not permit retreat be laid on your breast!"[120] In India, cuirasses or breastplates of copper, iron, silver and gold are referenced in the Vedic epic literature.[121] Breastplates are known to have been worn by early Romans[122] and the advanced Greek Cairan armour c600 BCE included the breastplate.[123] In Persia, the Archaemenids (c5th century CE?) are known to have used iron breastplates[124] - did the cavalry of the Medes (715-550 BCE), who preceded them, wear breastplates? Physical evidence for the breastplate does not appear to be common in the ancient world though there appears to be some text references. We also code present on the basis of fabric/textile breastplates which are least likely to survive in archaeological contexts. For that reason a code of suspected unknown may be best at least back to the late bronze age.
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Reference for Greece c1600 BCE: "Early Mycenaean and Minoan charioteers wore an arrangement of bronze armor that almost fully enclosed the soldier, the famous Dendra panoply."[125] Reference for Mesopotamia (the Assyrians) c800 BCE?: iron plates used for shin protection.[126] Reference for 'Etruscan Rome' (400 BCE?): "bronze greaves to protect the shins and forearms of the soldier were standard items of military equipment."[127]
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Iron chain mail not introduced until the third century BCE, probably by Celtic peoples.[128]
♠ Scaled armor ♣ suspected unknown ♥ "Of the Medes and Persians as a whole, only a few wore armour. Some had body armour of iron scales and wicker targes and only some of the cavalry wore helmets of bronze or iron. As both Greek mercenaries and Assyrians were amongst the best armed in this great force, one may assume that any armour worn by Persians was inspired by one or the other of these militant peoples."[129] Higher ranks in the Assyrian army (9th century CE?) wore scale armour.[130] "By 2100 BCE the victory stele of Naram Sin appears to show plate armor, and it is likely that plate armor had been in wide use for a few hundred years. Plate armor was constructed of thin bronze plates sewn to a leather shirt or jerkin."[131] Coding this as scale armor.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ "Of the Medes and Persians as a whole, only a few wore armour. Some had body armour of iron scales and wicker targes and only some of the cavalry wore helmets of bronze or iron. As both Greek mercenaries and Assyrians were amongst the best armed in this great force, one may assume that any armour worn by Persians was inspired by one or the other of these militant peoples."[132] No mentioned of laminar armour up to the Medes (715-550 BCE). Lamellar armour introduced by the Assyrians (9th century BCE?): "a shirt constructed of laminated layers of leather sewn or glued together. To the outer surface of this coat were attached fitted iron plates, each plate joined to the next at the edge with no overlap and held in place by stitching or gluing."[133]
♠ Plate armor ♣ inferred absent ♥ No mention of plate armour until the Archaemenids who used iron breastplates.[134] "By 2100 BCE the victory stele of Naram Sin appears to show plate armor, and it is likely that plate armor had been in wide use for a few hundred years. Plate armor was constructed of thin bronze plates sewn to a leather shirt or jerkin."[135] Coding this as scale armor.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ inferred present ♥ At the time of Ur III c2000 BCE Gu'abba was a seaport on the Persian Gulf that built ships and had a textile manufacturing sector. A trade route from Guabba ran east to the Karun River and beyond (the region of Susiana). The route was also used for the transport of troops.[136] The Karun River runs inland into Khuzestan which was the Elamite heartland. It would be logical for there to have been boats that sailed down this river to the Persian Gulf in all periods. The boats on the Karun could also have ferried troops.
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ suspected unknown ♥ At the time of Ur III c2000 BCE Gu'abba was a seaport on the Persian Gulf that built ships and had a textile manufacturing sector. A trade route from Guabba ran east to the Karun River and beyond (the region of Susiana). The route was also used for the transport of troops.[137] The Karun River runs inland into Khuzestan which was the Elamite heartland. It would be logical for there to have been boats that sailed down this river to the Persian Gulf. The boats on the Karun could also have ferried troops.
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ inferred absent ♥ At the time of Ur III c2000 BCE Gu'abba was a seaport on the Persian Gulf that built ships and had a textile manufacturing sector. A trade route from Guabba ran east to the Karun River and beyond (the region of Susiana). The route was also used for the transport of troops.[138] The Achaemenids (from c500 BCE?) possessed possibly the first large-scale militarised naval force[139] (one imagines largely based in the Mediterranean but presumably also some craft in the Persian Gulf) - the fleet consisted of over 600 tiremes that had 170 oarsmen and 30 fighters.[140] Have not found any earlier reference to naval operations occurring on the Persian Gulf that would require fighting ships. Did the Achaemenid fleet come out of nowhere or did it have some smaller-scale precedents in the Neo-Elamite civilization or Sumerian before that? Perhaps most unlikely before the Neo-Elamite Period.

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ inferred present ♥ Late Bronze, Early Iron Age: ‘Large fortresses occupied mountain spurs at strategic points, and smaller forts were built along important lines of communication’.[141] Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text: "the fortress is too high and cannot be reached".[142] If forts were positioned on hills were a feature of the fortified architectural landscape in c2000 BCE and in Elam in c1000 BCE it is likely they also were used between times, and possibly after.
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text: "My master: the Asag has constructed a wall of stakes on an earthen rampart".[143]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ inferred present ♥ Ur III (c2000 BCE) inscription mentions the construction of a moat and rampart in the region of Elam.[144] Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text: "My master: the Asag has constructed a wall of stakes on an earthen rampart".[145] The unfinished city of Chogha Zanbil began by Elamite king Untash-napirisha (1275-1240 BCE) had a section "designated as the royal city, covers an area of c. 85 ha, lying to the east of the temenos, and protected by a rampart."[146] Later, after c500 BCE?, the Achaemenids built a long rammed mud defensive wall (the Kam Pirak).[147] Earth ramparts are a known defensive fortification c2000 BCE and c500 BCE and there is also a reference to them being used during the Elamite period. They seem to be a consistent feature of the architectural landscape over the period.
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Irrigation ditches referred to frequently in late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian texts but I cannot find any in the context of a fortification.[148]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Ur III (c2000 BCE) inscription mentions the construction of a moat and rampart in the region of Elam.[149] The Achaemenids built a moat at Susa.[150] It is not much of a stretch to suggest that if moats were a feature of the fortified architectural landscape in c2000 BCE and c500 BCE they also were used between times. However, since I have not yet found a reference to a moat specific to the Elamite period I will leave an expert to make the decision on if/when to code inferred present.
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Elam in the Iron Age: stone wall technology used for burial chambers.[151] Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text (perhaps for the region of Mesopotamia rather than Elamite Susiana): "Its walls were built from stone."[152]
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Al Untash-Napirisha, a new city, was built with walls enclosing 100 hectares.[153] Were these walls of mud or stone? Elam in the Iron Age: stone wall technology used for burial chambers.[154] Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text (perhaps for the region of Mesopotamia rather than Elamite Susiana): "Its walls were built from stone."[155] Mortar existed at the time of Sumer because they also built with brick which would have required mortar. Late 3rd - early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian text: "Now Aratta's battlements are of green lapis lazuli, its walls and its towering brickwork are bright red, their brick clay is made of tinstone dug out in the mountains where the cypress grows."[156] During the Shutrukid Period new construction activity replaced mudbrick with glazed and baked brick (but no specific mention is made of defensive structures).[157]
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥ No reference.
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ inferred present ♥ In the north-west of Persia by c800 BCE: "Double and triple stone walls, with a thickness of 3.6 m and a height of 12 m, surrounded some cities"[158] - present north-west of Persia (where is that - SW of the Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan region?); however this is not a direct reference to the Elamite region. "The ruins of the holy city of the Kingdom of Elam, surrounded by three huge concentric walls, are found at Tchogha Zanbil. Founded c. 1250 B.C., the city remained unfinished after it was invaded by Ashurbanipal, as shown by the thousands of unused bricks left at the site."[159]
♠ Long walls ♣ 0 ♥ km. No reference to any long walls.
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ present ♥ Dynastic rule.

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni; Jenny Reddish ♥ EC coded these variables, making ample use of JR’s work on the Achaemenids.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ present ♥ “Another prerogative of the gods was to confer and protect kingship. Puzur-Insusinak spoke of “the year when Insusinak looked at him (and) gave to him the four regions” (Scheil, 1908, p. 9). It was also Insusinak who conferred kingship upon Humban-numena and the latter’s son Untas-Napirisa (König, nos. 4, no. 13), but it was Manzat who conferred it on Igi-halki (Steve, 1987, no. 2).” [160]

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ inferred absent ♥ According to Henkelman, there was very strong continuity between Elam and Achaemenid Persia, including in terms of ideology: “the Elamite state, both before and after the Assyrian wars, must have been a real Fundgrube for the emergent Persian society and culture in terms of literacy, art, craftsmanship, bureaucracy, royal ideology, military organization, trade networks, administrative mechanisms, and political structure. Persia may indeed be seen as “the heir of Elam” (not of “Media”), to quote Mario Liverani’s provocative comment on the matter (2003: 10; cf. Henkelman 2008a: 4; forthcoming a; forthcoming b).” [161] And '[t]he Achaemenid kings were no gods ... and they were not of divine origin.'[162]

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ inferred absent ♥ There is evidence that an important feast was celebrated annually at the open-air sanctuary of Kul-e Farah, the “feast of Aiapir”, at which the king, the aristocracy, and commoners all participated. Though this feast probably celebrated the community as a whole, iconographic evidence suggests that a certain emphasis was also placed on hierarchy: “Visible hierarchy was a key element. As De Waele (1972: 2-3; 1989: 34) notes, the Kul-e Farah reliefs are a panorama of an intricate social pyramid in which status is expressed by size, arrangement, closeness to the king, representation in frontal view or in profile, garments, hair-cut, and beard.” [163]

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ There is evidence that an important feast was celebrated annually at the open-air sanctuary of Kul-e Farah, the “feast of Aiapir”, at which the king, the aristocracy, and commoners all participated. Though this feast probably celebrated the community as a whole, iconographic evidence suggests that a certain emphasis was also placed on hierarchy: “Visible hierarchy was a key element. As De Waele (1972: 2-3; 1989: 34) notes, the Kul-e Farah reliefs are a panorama of an intricate social pyramid in which status is expressed by size, arrangement, closeness to the king, representation in frontal view or in profile, garments, hair-cut, and beard.” [164]
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ inferred absent ♥ There is evidence that an important feast was celebrated annually at the open-air sanctuary of Kul-e Farah, the “feast of Aiapir”, at which the king, the aristocracy, and commoners all participated. Though this feast probably celebrated the community as a whole, iconographic evidence suggests that a certain emphasis was also placed on hierarchy: “Visible hierarchy was a key element. As De Waele (1972: 2-3; 1989: 34) notes, the Kul-e Farah reliefs are a panorama of an intricate social pyramid in which status is expressed by size, arrangement, closeness to the king, representation in frontal view or in profile, garments, hair-cut, and beard.” [165]

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ inferred present ♥ There is evidence that an important feast was celebrated annually at the open-air sanctuary of Kul-e Farah, the “feast of Aiapir”, at which the king, the aristocracy, and commoners all participated. Ultimately, “[t]hat which is celebrated is the community that convenes and reconstitutes itself. Group identity, social hierarchy, and bonds of loyalty are reconfirmed in the sacrifice and the ensuing banquet.” [166]

♠ production of public goods ♣ inferred present ♥ There is evidence that an important feast was celebrated annually at the open-air sanctuary of Kul-e Farah, the “feast of Aiapir”, at which the king, the aristocracy, and commoners all participated. For commoners, “the banquets meant access to rare meat rations” [167].

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ absent ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ inferred present ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ present ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [168] [169] [170]

References

  1. Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.188
  2. (Potts 2016, 176) Potts, D T. 2016. The Archaeology of Elam Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  3. (Farazmand 2001, 535) Farazmand, Ali in Farazmand, Ali ed. 2001. Handbook of Comparative and Development Public Administration. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York.
  4. (Leverani 2014, 377) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  5. (Leverani 2014, 377) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  6. (Leverani 2014, 377) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  7. Carter, E. and Stolpher, M.W. 1984. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. London: University of California Publication. p.32
  8. Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.253
  9. (Leverani 2014, 376) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  10. Carter, E. and Stolpher, M.W. 1984. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. London: University of California Publication. p.59
  11. (Farazmand 2009, 21-22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.
  12. (Potts 2016, 176) Potts, D T. 2016. The Archaeology of Elam Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  13. (Leverani 2014, 389) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  14. Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.233
  15. Carter, E. and Stolpher, M.W. 1984. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. London: University of California Publication.
  16. (Leverani 2014, 376) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  17. (Farazmand 2009, 22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.
  18. (Amiet, Chevalier and Carter 1992, 9) Amiet, Pierre. Chevalier, Nicole. Carter, Elizabeth. in Harper, Prudence O. Aruz, Joan. Tallon, Francoise. eds. 1992. The Royal City of Susa: Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  19. Carter, E. and Stolpher, M.W. 1984. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. London: University of California Publication. p.37
  20. (Leverani 2014, 376) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  21. (Farazmand 2009, 22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.
  22. (Liverani, 2014. 279) Liverani, Mario. The ancient Near East: history, society and economy. London: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group, 2014
  23. Carter, E. and Stolper, M.W. 1984. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. London: University of California Publication. p. 32-34
  24. Carter, E. and Stolper, M.W. 1984. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. Near Eastern Studies. Volume 25. Berkeley: University of California Press. p.37-38
  25. Potts, D.T. 2012. The Elamites. In Daryaee, T. (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Iranian History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 37
  26. Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.232-253
  27. Potts, D. T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.188
  28. (Farazmand 2009, 21) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.
  29. (Leverani 2014, 279) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  30. (Liverani 2014, 279)
  31. (Schacht 1987, 173) Schacht, Robert. in Hole, Frank ed. 1987. The Archaeology of Western Iran. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, D.C.
  32. (Carter and Stopler 1984, 37)
  33. (Schacht 1987, 182) Schacht, Robert. in Hole, Frank ed. 1987. The Archaeology of Western Iran. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, D.C.
  34. (Schacht 1987, 180-181) Schacht, Robert. in Hole, Frank ed. 1987. The Archaeology of Western Iran. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, D.C.
  35. (Carter and Stopler 1984, 158)
  36. Potts, D. T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.194
  37. Potts, D. T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.196-201
  38. Potts, D. T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.222
  39. (Schacht 1987, 180-181) Schacht, Robert. in Hole, Frank ed. 1987. The Archaeology of Western Iran. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, D.C.
  40. (Farazmand 2009, 22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.
  41. (Leverani 2014, 376) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  42. (Leverani 2014, 376) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  43. (Leverani 2014, 376) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  44. (Leverani 2014, 528) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  45. (Leverani 2014, 529) Liverani, Mario. Tabatabai, Soraia trans. 2014. The Ancient Near East. History, society and economy. Routledge. London.
  46. (Farazmand 2001, 536) Farazmand, Ali in Farazmand, Ali ed. 2001. Handbook of Comparative and Development Public Administration. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York.
  47. (Farazmand 2001, 536) Farazmand, Ali in Farazmand, Ali ed. 2001. Handbook of Comparative and Development Public Administration. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York.
  48. (Farazmand 2001, 535) Farazmand, Ali in Farazmand, Ali ed. 2001. Handbook of Comparative and Development Public Administration. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York.
  49. (Potts 2016, 190) Potts, D T. 2016. The Archaeology of Elam Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  50. (Potts 2016, 216) Potts, D T. 2016. The Archaeology of Elam Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  51. (Nashat 2003, 14) Nashat, Guity. Women in Pre-Islamic and Early Islamic Iran. in Nashat, Guity. Beck, Lois. eds. 2003. Women in Iran: From The Rise Of Islam To 1800. University of Illinois Press. Urbana.
  52. (Farazmand 2009, 22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.
  53. (Farazmand 2009, 21) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.
  54. (Farazmand 2009, 21) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.
  55. (Farazmand 2009, 22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.
  56. (Farazmand 2009, 22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.
  57. (Farazmand 2009, 22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.
  58. (Farazmand 2009, 22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.
  59. (Potts 1999, 218)
  60. J J O'Connor, J J. Robertson, E F. December 2000. http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Babylonian_mathematics.html
  61. (Carter and Stolper 1984, 165-166)
  62. Carter, E. and Stolpher, M.W. 1984. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. Near Eastern Studies. Volume 25. Berkley: University of California Press. p.37
  63. (Farazmand 2009, 22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.
  64. (Farazmand 2009, 22) Farazmand, Ali. 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. CRC Press. Boca Raton.
  65. Carter, E. and Stolpher, M.W. 1984. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. Near Eastern Studies. Volume 25. Berkley: University of California Press. p.42
  66. Potts, D.T. 2012. The Elamites. In Daryaee, T. (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Iranian History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 47
  67. Carter, E. and Stolpher, M.W. 1984. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. Near Eastern Studies. Volume 25. Berkley: University of California Press. p.38
  68. Potts, D.T. 2012. The Elamites. In Daryaee, T. (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Iranian History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 48
  69. (Powell 1996, 225-226)
  70. (Powell 1996, 225-226)
  71. (Potts 1999, 137)
  72. Michael D. Danti, ‘The Late Bronze and Early Iron Age in Northwestern Iran’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, p. 347
  73. Michael D. Danti, ‘The Late Bronze and Early Iron Age in Northwestern Iran’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, p. 347
  74. Michael D. Danti, ‘The Late Bronze and Early Iron Age in Northwestern Iran’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, pp. 329-330
  75. (Kuz’mina 2007, 368) Elena E Kuz'mina. J P Mallory ed. 2007. The Origin of the Indo-Iranians. BRILL. Leiden.
  76. (Gabriel and Metz 1991, 59) Richard A Gabriel. Karen S Metz. 1991. The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. Greenwood Press. Westport.
  77. Hamblin, W. J. 2006. Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC. New York: Routledge.
  78. (Forouzan et al. 2012: 3534) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/ainsworth/items/itemKey/Q5RVEPUU.
  79. (Gabriel 2002, 162-163 Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  80. Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.227
  81. Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.
  82. (Gabriel 2002, 162-164) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  83. (Gabriel 2002, 28) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  84. (Roy 2015, 20) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.
  85. (Gabriel 2002, 28) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  86. (Roy 2015, 20) Kaushik Roy. 2015. Warfare in Pre-British India - 1500 BCE to 1740 CE. Routledge. London.
  87. Sergey A Nefedov, RAN Institute of History and Archaeology, Yekaterinburg, Russia. Personal Communication to Peter Turchin. January 2018.
  88. (Gabriel 2002, 162-164) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  89. (Gabriel 2002, 28) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  90. (Nicholson 2004, 99) Helen Nicholson. 2004. Medieval Warfare: Theory and Practice of War in Europe, 300-1500. PalgraveMacmillan. Basingstoke.
  91. (Keyser and Irby-Massie 2006, 260) Paul T Keyser. Georgia Irby-Massie. Science, Medicine, And Technology. Glenn R Bugh. ed. 2006. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  92. Siegelova I. and H. Tsumoto (2011) Metals and Metallurgy in Hittite Anatolia, pp. 278 [In:] H. Genz and D. P. Mielke (ed.) Insights Into Hittite History And Archaeology, Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven, Paris, Walpole MA: PEETERS, pp. 275-300
  93. (Singh 2008, 272) Upinder Singh. 2008. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Longman. Delhi.
  94. (Marsden 1969, 5, 16, 66.) Marsden, E. W. 1969. Greek and Roman Artillery: The Historical Development. Toronto: Oxford University Press.
  95. (Dandamaev 1989, 314) Dandamaev, M A. 1989. A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire. Brill.
  96. (Pollard and Berry 2012, 45) Pollard, N, Berry, J (2012) The Complete Roman Legions, Thames and Hudson, London Rives, J (2006) Religion in the Roman Empire, Wiley
  97. (Keyser and Irby-Massie 2006, 260) Paul T Keyser. Georgia Irby-Massie. Science, Medicine, And Technology. Glenn R Bugh. ed. 2006. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  98. (Potts1999: 207) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/WDUEEBGQ/q/Potts.
  99. (Gabriel 2002, 24) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  100. Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.227
  101. (Gabriel and Metz 1991, 61) Richard A Gabriel. Karen S Metz. 1991. The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. Greenwood Press. Westport.
  102. Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.227
  103. (Gabriel and Metz 1991, 63) Richard A Gabriel. Karen S Metz. 1991. The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. Greenwood Press. Westport.
  104. (Gabriel 2002, 26-27) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  105. Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.227
  106. (Gabriel 2002, 25) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  107. (Gabriel and Metz 1991, 59) Richard A Gabriel. Karen S Metz. 1991. The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. Greenwood Press. Westport.
  108. (Mitchell 2018, 39) Peter Mitchell 2018. The Donkey in Human History: An Archaeological Perspective. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  109. (Foster 2016, 73-74) Foster, Benjamin R. 2016. The Age of Agade. Inventing Empire In Ancient Mesopotamia. Routledge. London
  110. (Gabriel 2002, 7) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  111. (Mayor 2014, 289-290) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  112. (Mayor 2014, 289-290) Adrienne Mayor. Animals in Warfare. Gordon Lindsay Campbell. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Animals in Classical Thought and Life. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  113. (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.
  114. (Rutkowski 2007 24)Rutkowski, Ł. 2007. Problematyka militarna w Państwie Ur III. In: D. Szeląg (ed.), Historia i kultura państwa III dynastii z Ur. Warszawa: Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, 17-28.
  115. (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.
  116. (Gabriel 2002, 22) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  117. (Gabriel 2002, 22) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  118. (Gabriel 2002, 22) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  119. (Potts 1999: 203) Seshat URL: https://www.zotero.org/groups/1051264/seshat_databank/items/itemKey/WDUEEBGQ/q/Potts.
  120. Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL). etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk.
  121. Singh, Sarva Daman. Ancient Indian Warfare: With Special Reference to the Vedic Period. Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1989. p. 116
  122. (Cornell 1995, 179) Cornell, T.J. 1995. The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000-264 BC). London: Routledge.
  123. (J G Manning 2015, Personal Communication to Seshat Databanak)
  124. (Farrokh 2007, 76) Farrokh, K. 2007. Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War. Osprey Publishing.
  125. (Gabriel 2007, 78) Richard A Gabriel. 2007. Soldiers' Lives Through History: The Ancient World. Greenwood Press. Westport.
  126. (Gabriel and Metz 1991, 51) Richard A Gabriel. Karen S Metz. 1991. The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. Greenwood Press. Westport.
  127. (Gabriel and Metz 1991, 51) Richard A Gabriel. Karen S Metz. 1991. The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. Greenwood Press. Westport.
  128. (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  129. (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.
  130. (Chadwick 2005, 77) Chadwick, R (2005) First Civilizations: Ancient Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, 2nd Edition, Equinox, London.
  131. (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  132. (Robinson 1967) Robinson, H. Russell. 1967. Oriental Armour. Walker and Co. New York.
  133. (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  134. (Farrokh 2007, 76) Farrokh, K. 2007. Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War. Osprey Publishing.
  135. (Gabriel 2002, 21) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  136. (? 2018) Author?. Title?. Javier Alvarez-Mon. Gian Pietro Basello. Yasmina Wicks. ed. 2018. The Elamite World. Routledge. Abingdon.
  137. (? 2018) Author?. Title?. Javier Alvarez-Mon. Gian Pietro Basello. Yasmina Wicks. ed. 2018. The Elamite World. Routledge. Abingdon.
  138. (? 2018) Author?. Title?. Javier Alvarez-Mon. Gian Pietro Basello. Yasmina Wicks. ed. 2018. The Elamite World. Routledge. Abingdon.
  139. (Gabriel 2002, 8) Richard A Gabriel. 2002. The Great Armies of Antiquity. Praeger. Westport.
  140. (Shahbazi 2012, 129) Shahbazi, A Shapour. The Archaemenid Persian Empire (550-330 BCE) Daryaee, Touraj. ed. 2012. The Oxford Handbook of Iranian History. Oxford University Press.
  141. Michael D. Danti, ‘The Late Bronze and Early Iron Age in Northwestern Iran’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, p. 368
  142. Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL). etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk.
  143. Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL). etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk.
  144. (? 2018) Author?. Title?. Javier Alvarez-Mon. Gian Pietro Basello. Yasmina Wicks. ed. 2018. The Elamite World. Routledge. Abingdon.
  145. Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL). etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk.
  146. (Bryce 2009, 160-163). Trevor Bryce. The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia: The Near East from the Early Bronze Age to the Fall of the Persian Empire. Routledge. Abingdon.
  147. (Ball 2001, 315) Warwick Ball. 2001. Rome in the East: The Transformation of an Empire. Routledge. London.
  148. Ninurta's exploits: a šir-sud (?) to Ninurta: c.1.6.2. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL). etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk.
  149. (? 2018) Author?. Title?. Javier Alvarez-Mon. Gian Pietro Basello. Yasmina Wicks. ed. 2018. The Elamite World. Routledge. Abingdon.
  150. (Root 2015, 49) Margaret Cool Root. 2015. Achaemenid Imperial Architecture: Performative Porticoes of Persepolis. Sussan Babaie. Talinn Grigor. Persian Kingship and Architecture: Strategies of Power in Iran from the Achaemenids to the Pahlavis. I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd.
  151. Javier Alvarez-Mon, ‘Elam in the Iron Age’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, p. 468
  152. The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL). etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk.
  153. Carter, E. and Stolpher, M.W. 1984. Elam: Surveys of Political History and Archaeology. London: University of California Publication. p.37
  154. Javier Alvarez-Mon, ‘Elam in the Iron Age’, In Daniel T. Potts (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, 2013, p. 468
  155. The death of Gilgameš: c.1.8.1.3. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL). etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk.
  156. Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird: c.1.8.2.2. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL). etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk.
  157. (Bryce 2009, 676). Trevor Bryce. The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia: The Near East from the Early Bronze Age to the Fall of the Persian Empire. Routledge. Abingdon.
  158. (Hejazi and Saradj 2015, 6) Mehrdad Hejazi. Fatemeh Mehdizadeh Saradj. 2015. Persian Architectural Heritage: Architecture, Structure and Conservation. WITPress. Southampton.
  159. UNESCO. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/113/
  160. Vallat, F. 2011. ELAM VI. Elamite Religion. ‘’Encyclopedia Iranica’’, online edition, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/elam-vi (accessed 2 August 2016)
  161. Henkelman, W. 2011. Parnakka’s feast: sip in Parsa and Elam. In Alvarez, J. and M.B. Garrison (eds) ‘’Elam and Persia’’ pp. 89-166. Winona Lake, Eisenbrauns.
  162. (Schmitt 1983) R. Schmitt. 1983. 'Achaemenid Dynasty,' Encyclopædia Iranica, I/4, pp. 414-426; an updated version is available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/achaemenid-dynasty (accessed on 5 May 2016).
  163. Henkelman, W. 2011. Parnakka’s feast: sip in Parsa and Elam. In Alvarez, J. and M.B. Garrison (eds) ‘’Elam and Persia’’ pp. 89-166. Winona Lake, Eisenbrauns.
  164. Henkelman, W. 2011. Parnakka’s feast: sip in Parsa and Elam. In Alvarez, J. and M.B. Garrison (eds) ‘’Elam and Persia’’ pp. 89-166. Winona Lake, Eisenbrauns.
  165. Henkelman, W. 2011. Parnakka’s feast: sip in Parsa and Elam. In Alvarez, J. and M.B. Garrison (eds) ‘’Elam and Persia’’ pp. 89-166. Winona Lake, Eisenbrauns.
  166. Henkelman, W. 2011. Parnakka’s feast: sip in Parsa and Elam. In Alvarez, J. and M.B. Garrison (eds) ‘’Elam and Persia’’ pp. 89-166. Winona Lake, Eisenbrauns.
  167. Henkelman, W. 2011. Parnakka’s feast: sip in Parsa and Elam. In Alvarez, J. and M.B. Garrison (eds) ‘’Elam and Persia’’ pp. 89-166. Winona Lake, Eisenbrauns.
  168. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-acknowledgements.html
  169. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-narratives.html
  170. http://seshatdatabank.info/databrowser/moralizing-supernatural-punishment-nga_tables.html

Henkelman, W.F.M. 2011. Parnakka’s Feast: sip in Parsa and Elam. In Alvarez-Mon, J. and M.B. Garrison (eds) Elam and Persia pp. 89-167. Hinz, W. 1972. The Lost World of Elam: Re-creation of a Vanishe Civilization. London: Sidgwick & Jackson. Potts, D.T. 1999. The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Powell, M. A. 1996. Money in Mesopotamia. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 224-242.