IrKhzEM

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Phase I Variables (polity-based)

General variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

♠ Original name ♣ Susiana B ♥ "Table 3.2 Chronology of the Neolithic period in the Ancient Near East." Khuzistan: Muhammad Jaffar 7000-6300 BCE; Susiana A 6300-5800 BCE; Tepe Sabz 5800-5400 BCE; Kazineh / Susiana B (not sure if two terms for same period or earlier/later) 5400-5000 BCE.[1]

♠ Alternative names ♣ Tepe Sabz; Khazineh; Susiana B ♥ Hajji Muhammad culture spread to Khuzistan settlements of the Khazineh phase.[2]

"Table 3.2 Chronology of the Neolithic period in the Ancient Near East." Khuzistan: Muhammad Jaffar 7000-6300 BCE; Susiana A 6300-5800 BCE; Tepe Sabz 5800-5400 BCE; Kazineh / Susiana B (not sure if two terms for same period or earlier/later) 5400-5000 BCE.[3]


♠ Peak Date ♣ ♥


Temporal bounds

♠ Duration ♣ 5700-5100 BCE ♥

"Table 3.2 Chronology of the Neolithic period in the Ancient Near East." Khuzistan: Muhammad Jaffar 7000-6300 BCE; Susiana A 6300-5800 BCE; Tepe Sabz 5800-5400 BCE; Kazineh / Susiana B (not sure if two terms for same period or earlier/later) 5400-5000 BCE.[4]

"Ubaid culture lasted a long period of time, from 5100 to 4500 BC in its early phase, and 4500 to 4000 BC in its late phase. Initially, it remained confined to the same area as Eridu and Hajji Muhammad, displaying a marked continuity in terms of settlement and pottery types. This led to the alternative periodisation of the Eridu, Hajji Muhammad, Early Ubaid, and Late Ubaid phases as Ubaid 1, 2, 3, and 4."[5]

Crawford (2006)

Hajji Muhammad pottery "is not confined to a single chronological phase and has no independent chronological existence."[6]
"the admittedly flawed evidence from the three stratified sites discussed above illustrates convincingly the overlap between Hajji Muhammad and Eridu/Ubaid 1 wares on the one hand, and between Hajji Muhammad and Ubaid 3 pottery on the other."[7]
Joan Oates showed pottery of Southern Mesopotamia known as Eridu, Hajji Muhammad, Ubaid 1 and Ubaid 2 related in linear evolution and re-named Ubaid 1-4. Late, an earlier phase Ubaid 0 was proposed for Tell el-'Oueili and a Terminal Ubaid or Ubaid 5 between the end of Ubaid 4 and the beginning of Uruk. Additionally, Ubaid 3 is often subdivided into phases a and b. "The whole sequence is now thought to cover the mid-sixth to mid-fifth millennia."[8]
"The stratigraphic evidence we have quoted from South Mesopotamia, the Hamrin, southwest

Iran, and the Gulf is far from satisfactory, but there is now enough of it to be able to raise serious doubts about the status of Hajji Muhammad ware as the marker of a separate chronological period. Instead, we should probably now see it as defining the later part of the Ubaid 1 period and the early stages of the Ubaid 3 period. There is, as yet, no instance in which it is the only pottery style found in a stratigraphic context."[9]

"if our pottery has no independent chronological existence, it must mean that Ubaid 1 on the one hand, and Ubaid 3 on the other, had a longer life than previously thought and that the rate of change was therefore slower than is currently accepted."[10]

♠ Degree of centralization ♣ quasi-polity ♥

Hajji Muhammad ware: "The proposed usage for formal eating and drinking made them a desirable item for display purposes in a society that was, perhaps, beginning to see the emergence of a social hierarchy."[11]


♠ Supra-polity relations ♣ ♥

Supra-cultural relations

♠ preceding (quasi)polity ♣ Susiana A ♥ "the admittedly flawed evidence from the three stratified sites discussed above illustrates convincingly the overlap between Hajji Muhammad and Eridu/Ubaid 1 wares on the one hand, and between Hajji Muhammad and Ubaid 3 pottery on the other."[12]
♠ relationship to preceding (quasi)polity ♣ continuity ♥ "it is evident that 'Ubaid developed out of Hajji Muhammad just as the latter is derived from Eridu. This continuity of cultural evolution has led certain scholars to simplify the sequence into ' Ubaid 1-4, Eridu being ' Ubaid I, Hajji Muhammad 'Ubaid 2, etc., against the better judgement of the excavators. As it tends to obscure the links of these two early cultures with Susiana and favours the theory of autochthonous development (which can no longer be maintained, in view of the recent discoveries at Ali-Kush and Tepe Sabz), the alternative system may have to be rejected."[13]
♠ succeeding (quasi)polity ♣ Susiana - Early Ubaid ♥
♠ Supracultural entity ♣ ♥
♠ scale of supra-cultural interaction ♣ ♥ km squared.

♠ Capital ♣ ♥


♠ Language ♣ ♥

General Description

Susiana in sixth-fifth millennium: "In all respects, Susiana was large and rich enough to sustain a vigorous indigenous culture in parallel with, and separate from, that of Mesopotamia."[14]

Hajji Muhammad culture ca. 5800-5100 BCE - lower Mesopotamia and at least part of Susiana. Region "facilitated the irrigated cultivation of grains and cattle farming ... This was the initial phase of Ubaid culture, through which lower Mesopotamia would eventually take the lead in terms of technological and organisational development in the Near East. ... In terms of periodisation, the rise of Ubaid culture marks the end of the Neolithic and the beginning of the Chalcolithic period."[15]

"Architecture and organization of space within a typical village is difficult to reconstruct. Most sites have been explored through limited exposures, and have not yielded coherent architectural plans (see Hole 1987a: 40). The only exception to this is the site of Jaffarabad located on the Susiana plane approximately 7 km north of Susa. During the Early Chalcolithic, this site consisted of an agglomeration of domestic mud brick structures made up of large long halls flanked by smaller rooms (Dollfus 1975: 18 and figures 6-7). One hall had an area of 11.5 x 3.15 m. Some of the domestic complexes had buttressed walls. Almost no open space existed between these structures. The artifacts recovered from the domestic complexes reflect normal domestic activities. The presence of kilns and wasters are the only evidence for craft production at the site (Dollfus 1975)." [16]

Social Complexity variables

♠ RA ♣ Edward A L Turner; Agathe Dupeyron ♥

Social Scale

♠ Polity territory ♣ ♥ in squared kilometers

♠ Polity Population ♣ ♥ People.

♠ Population of the largest settlement ♣ [175-700] ♥

"Chogha Mish was already a sizable settlement by the Early Chalcolithic period (Early Susiana or Susiana a), covering an area of more than 3.5 ha (Delougaz and Kantor 1996: 280). Most other villages rarely exceeded 1 ha." [17] Early Chalcolithic: 5500-4800 BCE. Using the Seshat estimated range of [50-200] inhabitants per hectare, this would give us an estimate of 175-700 inhabitants.

"Settlement throughout Khuzistan was sparse during the Early Cha1colithic (Hole 1987a). These early settlements consisted of small undifferentiated villages located near streams in regions where dry farming was possible. Most sites did not exceed I ha in area. Some may have contained up to 400 persons (Hole 1968: 254)." [18] AD: perhaps we cannot use this information if we code the Hajji Muhammad area stricto sensu (where Susa was situated) and not the Khuzistan region.


Hierarchical Complexity

♠ Settlement hierarchy ♣ [1-2] ♥ levels.

1. Large village

2. Small village

"Chogha Mish was already a sizable settlement by the Early Chalcolithic period (Early Susiana or Susiana a), covering an area of more than 3.5 ha (Delougaz and Kantor 1996: 280). Most other villages rarely exceeded 1 ha." [19] Early Chalcolithic: 5500-4800 BCE. Using the Seshat estimated range of [50-200] inhabitants per hectare, this would give us an estimate of 175-700 inhabitants.


♠ Administrative levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

Administrative conventions developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE so this period very low administrative complexity.[20]

Hajji Muhammad ware: "The proposed usage for formal eating and drinking made them a desirable item for display purposes in a society that was, perhaps, beginning to see the emergence of a social hierarchy."[21]


♠ Religious levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

In the later Uruk phase "Urban Revolution" c3800-3000 BCE that the following quote refers to religious ideology became more complex, so can infer still low level religious complexity in this period: "Early state formation therefore featured both the rise of a ruling class, making decisions and benefiting from a privilaged position, and the development of a political and religious ideology. The latter was able to ensure stability and cohesion in this pyramid of inequality."[22]

♠ Military levels ♣ 1 ♥ levels.

Professions

♠ Professional military officers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not present for earlier periods and read nothing to suggest major change, such as warrior burials (although that alone would not mean professionalism).. In 7000-6000 BCE period a general reference was: "The social structure of these communities was thus characterised by few heads of households (elders), marked gender, age and provenance barriers, but few socio-political differences. Consequently, burials do not display any significant diffferences in status."[23]

♠ Professional soldiers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not present for earlier periods and read nothing to suggest major change, such as warrior burials (although that alone would not mean professionalism). In 7000-6000 BCE period a general reference was: "The social structure of these communities was thus characterised by few heads of households (elders), marked gender, age and provenance barriers, but few socio-political differences. Consequently, burials do not display any significant diffferences in status."[24]

♠ Professional priesthood ♣ [absent; present] ♥ levels.

In the later Uruk phase "Urban Revolution" c3800-3000 BCE that the following quote refers to religious ideology became more complex, so can infer low level religious complexity in this period: "Early state formation therefore featured both the rise of a ruling class, making decisions and benefiting from a privilaged position, and the development of a political and religious ideology. The latter was able to ensure stability and cohesion in this pyramid of inequality."[25] Liverani says "possible existence of specilised priests" in reference to nearby Ubaid culture 5100-4000 BCE temples.[26] This suggests that certainly before 5100 BCE highly unlikely to be specialised priests in Susiana or the wider region.

However the existence of temples in the wider region of this period might appear to contradict this logic so coding [absent; present] due to time uncertaintly.

Bureaucracy characteristics

♠ Full-time bureaucrats ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE so this period very low administrative complexity.[27]

♠ Examination system ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[28]

♠ Merit promotion ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[29]


♠ Specialized government buildings ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE so this period very low administrative complexity.[30]

Law

♠ Formal legal code ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[31]

♠ Judges ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[32]

♠ Courts ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[33]

♠ Professional Lawyers ♣ inferred absent ♥ Administrative conventions and writing, for example, developed in Uruk period c3800-3100 BCE.[34]

Specialized Buildings: polity owned

♠ irrigation systems ♣ present ♥ Hajji Muhammad culture ca. 5800-5100 BCE "facilitated the irrigated cultivation of grains and cattle farming"[35] "If the earliest inhabitants of Eridu were Sumerians ... then it must be accepted that they made their homes in the plain only after having mastered irrigation techniques in their former abodes at the foot of the Zagros mountains, probably in Khuzistan."[36] "Although irrigation is implied beginning in the Early Village Period in some regions and possibly only in the Middle Village Period, if at all in others, it is obvious that not all sites are located with primary concern for surface water." According to periodization table Early Village period is 6000 BCE, Middle Village Period c4600 BCE.[37]
♠ drinking water supply systems ♣ ♥
♠ markets ♣ ♥
♠ food storage sites ♣ inferred present ♥ Reference to the first silos from c7000 BCE so presumably existed at this time? [38]


Transport infrastructure

♠ Roads ♣ inferred absent ♥ Not until later. Uruk phase c3800-3000 BCE: "bureaucracy sent orders to specialised workmen, planned and constructed key infrastructures (such as canals, temples, or walls), and engaged in long-distance trade."[39]
♠ Bridges ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Canals ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ports ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Special purpose sites

♠ Mines or quarries ♣ ♥

Information

Writing System

♠ Mnemonic devices ♣ ♥
♠ Nonwritten records ♣ ♥
♠ Written records ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[40]
♠ Script ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[41]
♠ Non-phonetic writing ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[42]
♠ Phonetic alphabetic writing ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[43]

Kinds of Written Documents

♠ Lists, tables, and classifications ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[44]
♠ Calendar ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[45]
♠ Sacred Texts ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[46]
♠ Religious literature ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[47]
♠ Practical literature ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[48]
♠ History ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[49]
♠ Philosophy ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[50]
♠ Scientific literature ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[51]
♠ Fiction ♣ absent ♥ "The great organisations of the first phase of urbanisation rose to prominence without writing. The latter developed relatively quickly as a response to these institutions' needs."[52]


Money

♠ Articles ♣ [absent; present] ♥ "There were two main units of value in Mesopotamia: barley and silver (and sometimes copper). Barley was readily available, of low value, and thus often present in exchanges. On the contrary, silver was a precious and rare metal, but also non-perishable (since it could not be consumed), allowing its accumulation. These were two very different materials, to be used as units on different occasions with different goods, and thus complementing each other."[53]
♠ Tokens ♣ ♥
♠ Precious metals ♣ [absent; present] ♥ "There were two main units of value in Mesopotamia: barley and silver (and sometimes copper). Barley was readily available, of low value, and thus often present in exchanges. On the contrary, silver was a precious and rare metal, but also non-perishable (since it could not be consumed), allowing its accumulation."[54]
♠ Foreign coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Indigenous coins ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Paper currency ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Postal System

♠ Couriers ♣ ♥
♠ Postal stations ♣ inferred absent ♥
♠ General postal service ♣ inferred absent ♥

Warfare variables

♠ RA ♣ Thomas Cressy; Edward A L Turner ♥

Military Technologies

Military use of Metals

♠ Copper ♣ inferred present ♥ Siyalk II-III in Iran, evidence of copper smelting but unclear if in use for military means [55]
♠ Bronze ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Iron ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Steel ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later

Projectiles

♠ Javelins ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Bone harpoons found for this time, but it is unclear if used for warfare or hunting. There is no reason to believe that other humans couldn't be the target for these.[56]
♠ Atlatl ♣ absent ♥ Not mentioned in evidence and extremely unlikely being a weapon of the Americas
♠ Slings ♣ inferred present ♥ "Round and ovoid sling pellets have been dug up in early Sumer and Turkestan. Ovoid sling pellets have been unearthed at the neolithic sites on the Iranian tableland. In later times, the sling was used in Palestine and Syria. It was introduced in Egypt at a still later date."[57]
♠ Self bow ♣ inferred present ♥ Stone arrowheads found for this time, but it is unclear if used for warfare or hunting. There is no reason to believe that other humans couldn't be the target for these arrows.[58] They had become more sophisticated here but still not yet specialized for warfare.[59]
♠ Composite bow ♣ absent ♥ Arrowheads have been found, but is unlikely to be a more sophisticated bow at this time. "Composite bows are known from both Mesopotamia and the Great Steppe from the III millennium BCE."[60]
♠ Crossbow ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Tension siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Sling siege engines ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Gunpowder siege artillery ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet
♠ Handheld firearms ♣ absent ♥ Not invented yet

Handheld weapons

♠ War clubs ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Battle axes ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Daggers ♣ inferred present ♥ Bone needles/knives were present by 7200 BC, but no hard evidence for use in warfare [61] Stone blades had been in production in Iraq/Iran since the Paleolithic: 'The Baradostian lithic industry is dominated by blade production. Characteristic tools include slender points, backed blades and bladelets, twisted bladelets with various kinds of light retouch, end scrapers, discoidal scrapers, side scrapers, and burins.' [62] Obsidian blades have also been found for this period [63] Knife blades became longer during this time but this was for butchery rather than warfare[64]
♠ Swords ♣ inferred absent ♥ no mention of this technology in sources
♠ Spears ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Polearms ♣ absent ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later

Animals used in warfare

♠ Dogs ♣ present ♥ Dogs were used to defend villages against attacking humans/animals[65]
♠ Donkeys ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Evidence for use as Pack Animals appears by around 7000 BC onward [66] The donkey was probably domesticated from the African wild ass 'in more than one place' but for the Nubian subspecies 5500-4500 BCE in the Sudan.[67]
♠ Horses ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Camels ♣ absent ♥ Not used for military purposes until much later
♠ Elephants ♣ absent ♥ Not used for military purposes until much later

Armor

♠ Wood, bark, etc ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Technology not found in archaeological evidence until much later
♠ Leather, cloth ♣ suspected unknown ♥ There is evidence for loincloths being used, but it would hardly count as armor and there is no evidence for warfare at this time:‘The early periods at Tepe Sialk (I-IV) were a time of important technological innovation. A carved bone knife handle representing a man wearing a cap and a loincloth found in a Sialk I context is one of the earliest known anthropomorphic representations from Iran’[68]
♠ Shields ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Helmets ♣ inferred absent ♥ no mention of this technology in sources
♠ Breastplates ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources.
♠ Limb protection ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned by sources.
♠ Chainmail ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available.
♠ Scaled armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available.
♠ Laminar armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available.
♠ Plate armor ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available.

Naval technology

♠ Small vessels (canoes, etc) ♣ suspected unknown ♥ Not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Merchant ships pressed into service ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Specialized military vessels ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available

Fortifications

♠ Settlements in a defensive position ♣ present ♥ Base camps with fortified walls are present, defending against animal or human attackers [69]
♠ Wooden palisades ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [70]
♠ Earth ramparts ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [71]
♠ Ditch ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [72]
♠ Moat ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [73]
♠ Stone walls (non-mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Stone walls (mortared) ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Fortified camps ♣ suspected unknown ♥ ‘early Neolithic settlements have proven difficult to document even in intensively surveyed regions.’ There is only evidence for mudbrick architecture [74]
♠ Complex fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available
♠ Long walls ♣ suspected unknown ♥ km. Not mentioned in the archaeological evidence
♠ Modern fortifications ♣ absent ♥ Technology not yet available


Phase II Variables (polity-based)

Institutional Variables

♠ RA ♣ ♥

Limits on Power of the Chief Executive

Power distributed

♠ Constraint on executive by government ♣ ♥
♠ Constraint on executive by non-government ♣ ♥
♠ Impeachment ♣ ♥

Social Mobility

Status

Elite status

♠ elite status is hereditary ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Religion and Normative Ideology

♠ RA ♣ Enrico Cioni ♥ The name of the research assistant or associate who coded the data. If more than one RA made a substantial contribution, list all.

Deification of Rulers

♠ Rulers are legitimated by gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Rulers are gods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Normative Ideological Aspects of Equity and Prosociality

♠ Ideological reinforcement of equality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideological thought equates rulers and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥
♠ Ideological thought equates elites and commoners ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ Ideology reinforces prosociality ♣ suspected unknown ♥

♠ production of public goods ♣ suspected unknown ♥

Moralizing Supernatural Powers

♠ Moral concern is primary ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is certain ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing norms are broad ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is targeted ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement of rulers ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by elites ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing religion adopted by commoners ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in afterlife ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement in this life ♣ unknown ♥
♠ Moralizing enforcement is agentic ♣ unknown ♥

These data were reviewed by expert advisors and consultants. For a detailed description of these data, refer to the relevant Analytic Narratives, reference tables, and acknowledgements page. [75] [76] [77]

References

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  6. (Crawford 2006, 163) Crawford, Harriet in Carter, Robert A. Philip, Graham. eds. 2006. Beyond The Ubaid. Transformation and integration in the late prehistoric societies of the Middle East. The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. Illinois.
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